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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Camilla Ludwig   21 February [1863 or later]


Asks her to translate passage of letter about treatment.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Camilla Frederike Antonie (Camilla) Ludwig; Camilla Frederike Antonie (Camilla) Pattrick
Date:  21 Feb [1863 or later]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.620)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13825

To George Henry Turnbull   [16? February 1863]


Thanks for letting Horwood superintend erection of hothouse.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Henry Turnbull
Date:  [16? Feb 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 261.11: 5 (EH 88206057)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3893

To T. H. Huxley   [before 25 February 1863]


Two criticisms (one by Henrietta Darwin) of THH’s Lectures [to working men].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  [before 25 Feb 1863]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 181)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3896

To [Williams and Norgate]   [before 13 February? 1863]


Wishes to order Botanische Zeitung for 2 and 9 January 1863.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Williams & Norgate
Date:  [before 13 Feb 1863?]
Classmark:  Washington State University Libraries, Manuscripts, Archives and Special Collections (Paul Philemon Kies Autograph Collection, 1533–1970: 1 Autograph letters, 1533–1970 box 1, folder 55)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3897F

To John Lubbock   23 [February 1863]


CD’s comments on JL’s paper [first part of "On the development of Chloëon dimidiatum", Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 24 (1863): 61–78].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  23 [Feb 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 263: 59
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3939

From Henry Holland   [10 February 1863]


Cites [C. F.?] Burdach as the source of a note on atavism in alternate generations.

Wants to talk to CD about inheritance.

Author:  Henry Holland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [10 Feb 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 166: 243
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3959

From F. T. Buckland   [before 1 February 1863]


Invites CD to visit offices of the Field; editor wishes CD to place natural history inquiries there.

Author:  Francis Trevelyan (Frank) Buckland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 1 Feb 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 160: 356
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3960

To F. T. Buckland   1 February [1863]


CD sends thanks for information; will write about the fins.

His health is weak and he is "almost smothered" with facts and inquiries, so is trying to restrict the scope of his present work, on variation under domestication.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Francis Trevelyan (Frank) Buckland
Date:  1 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3961

To Thomas Rivers   1 February [1863]


Answers TR’s query about stomata.

CD will use "weeping trees" as an example of how inexplicable the laws of inheritance are, and asks for facts on character of seedlings.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Rivers
Date:  1 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (23–4 July 1987)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3962

To John Joseph Briggs   2 February [1863]


Asks JJB for date of his article in the Field dealing with the regeneration of fishes’ fins; additional questions about the fish.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Joseph Briggs
Date:  2 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.286)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3963

To Isaac Anderson-Henry   2 February [1863]


Suggests collecting seeds at different heights from British Columbia.

Describes experiment on seeds from short anthers.

C. V. Naudin writes he has discovered cause of hybrid sterility.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Isaac (Henry, Isaac Anderson) Anderson-Henry
Date:  2 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 145: 2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3964

From Thomas Rivers   [3 February 1863]



His observations of "selection" in growth of seedling trees.

Author:  Thomas Rivers
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [3 Feb 1863]
Classmark:  DAR 46.1: 95
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3965

To Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener   [before 3 February 1863]


Answers D. Beaton’s criticism of Gärtner’s work, defending his results in crossing experiments and vindicating the memory of "one of the most laborious lovers of truth who ever lived".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Journal of Horticulture
Date:  [before 3 Feb 1863]
Classmark:  Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener n.s. 4 (1863): 93
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3966

From William Henry Harvey   3 February 1863


Is pleased that CD has [Roland] Trimen to collect specimens of Cape orchids. Suggests directions for securing dry specimens of what he draws.

Identifies Disa barbata and D. Cornuta of the Ophridiae.

Author:  William Henry Harvey
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  3 Feb 1863
Classmark:  Royal Entomological Society (Trimen papers, box 21: 78)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3966F

To Charles Lyell   4 [February 1863]


Thanks CL for "the great book" [Antiquity of man (1863)].

Richard Owen "ought to be ostracised by every Naturalist in England".

CL’s book will "give the whole subject of change of species an enormous advance".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  4 [Feb 1863]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.287)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3967

From Bartholomew James Sulivan   4 February [1863]


Thinks he may be appointed Commodore commanding the Squadron on the west coast of S. America. Wishes to leave England for his health’s sake.

Author:  Bartholomew James Sulivan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 280
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3968

From J. D. Dana   5 February 1863


Hopes CD has received a copy of his [Manual of] Geology [1862]; justifies his assertion that geology provides no evidence to support the view that life has evolved through a method of development from species to species.

Author:  James Dwight Dana
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 Feb 1863
Classmark:  Yale University Library: Manuscripts and Archives (Dana Family Papers (MS 164) Series 1, Box 2, folder 44)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3969

From William Darwin Fox   6 February [1863]


Hopes they might meet as WDF has to come to town.

Author:  William Darwin Fox
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Feb [1863]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 176
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3970

From James Paget   7 February 1863


Forwards a book [Horace Dobell, Lectures on the germs and vestiges of disease (1861)] and a genealogical table at the author’s request.

Author:  James Paget, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Feb 1863
Classmark:  DAR 174: 4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3971

To Charles Victor Naudin   7 February 1863


Thanks for informative letter of 2 February. CD is glad to have CVN’s opinion on the crossing of varieties of melons,

has made use of his memoir on the Cucurbitaceae ["Cucurbitacées cultivées au Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle en 1862", Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) 18 (1863): 159–208]

and anticipates with great interest his work on hybridisation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Victor Naudin
Date:  7 Feb 1863
Classmark:  Progressus rei botanicæ 4 (1913): 94
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3972
Document type
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16 (9)
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18 (3)
19 (2)
20 (5)
21 (2)
22 (1)
23 (4)
24 (1)
25 (3)
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in keywords
179 Items
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List of correspondents


Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Émile (8) Alice (2) Alison, R. E. …
  • … (1) Allen, Thomas (2) Allman, G. J. …
  • … (1) Appleton, C. E. C. B. (2) Appleton, T. G. …
  • … (5) Austin, A. D. (2) Austin, C. F. …
  • … (7) Axon, W. E. A. (2) Aylmer, I. E. …
  • … (3) Baldwin, J. D. (2) Balfour, F. M. …
  • … (1) Baranoff, W. (2) Barber, M. E. …
  • … (1) Barnard, Anne (2) Barnes, K. S. …
  • … (1) Barrois, J. H. (2) Bartlett, A. D. …
  • … (1) Batalin, A. F. (2) Bate, C. S. …
  • … (1) Bates, Frederick (2) Bates, H. W. …
  • … (1) Baumhauer, E. H. von (2) Baxter, E. B. …
  • … (3) Beale, L. S. (2) Beall, T. B. (1 …
  • … B. (1) Beck, John (2) Becker, L. E. …
  • … (3) Beger, Karl (2) Behrens, Frederick …
  • … (1) Bell, Robert (b) (2) Bell, Thomas …

Darwin The Collector


Look at nature more closely and create and record your own natural collections.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Activities provide an introduction to Charles Darwin, how and why he collected so many specimens …

Detecting Darwin


Who was Charles Darwin? What is he famous for? Why is he still important?

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Pupils act as Darwin detectives, exploring clues about Darwin’s life and work. No prior knowledge …

Darwin’s reading notebooks


In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Stoke’s Library 1 Cambridge. Library 2 Royal Coll of Surgeons [DAR *119 …
  • … de l’Homme,” by Dr. Pierquin, published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4   …
  • … 1829]; read Letter to M. Therry [Broughton 1832]— a 2 d  Edit preparing in 1841.— Lesson …
  • … of habits of birds. Temminck Manuel D’ornithologie. 2 d  Edit: Introduction on migration of …
  • … Ker Porter’s Travels in Caucasus [R. K. Porter 1821–2] praised by Silliman poor Cyclop. of …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions


For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … edition published, 1872   1 st to 2 nd editions I have …
  • … the voids caused by the action of His laws.” ( Origin 2d ed, p. 481).   2 nd …
  • … to a letter to Asa Gray he had yet to start it on 28 January, but on 2 February 1860 he told …
  • … “Origin” for the first time, for I am correcting for a 2 nd . French Edition; & upon my life, …

Dates of composition of Darwin's manuscript on species


Many of the dates of letters in 1856 and 1857 were based on or confirmed by reference to Darwin’s manuscript on species (DAR 8--15.1, inclusive; transcribed and published as Natural selection). This manuscript, begun in May 1856, was nearly completed by…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … nor was it recorded in Darwin's ‘Journal’. Chapter 2 is not extant but was recorded in Darwin& …
  • … [1] (not extant) 2 13 October 1856 …

Language: Interview with Gregory Radick


Darwin made a famous comment about parallels between changes in language and species change. Gregory Radick, Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Leeds University, talks about the importance of the development of language to Darwin, what…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to Darwin, how did language begin? 2. Was this an important topic for Darwin? And …
  • … sense, a more developed moral sense, and so forth. 2. Was this an important topic for Darwin? …

Darwin And Evolution


What is evolution? What did Darwin discover and how did he come to his conclusions?

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Activities give an introduction to Charles Darwin and his theories of evolution. Specimens brought …

Darwin's Fantastical Voyage


Learn about Darwin's adventures on his epic journey.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … These activities explore Darwin’s life changing voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Using letters home, …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots


Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … his wife sent birthday greetings and a photograph of their 2-year-old son named Darwin, who, they …
  • … materialism”’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 2 June 1879 ]). As one of Darwin’s most ardent …
  • … other than Darwin’s sister Caroline (who was around 2 years old at the time of Erasmus’s death). …
  • … that plants were ‘mere machines’, reminding Francis on 2 June that he had long thought that …
  • … for certain movements’ ( second letter to Francis Darwin, 2 July [1879] ). Sachs guarded …
  • … for” &c are incessant’, Darwin joked on 2 July (first letter) . Much of the time, however, …
  • … their ‘tremendous journey’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [2 August 1879] ). The journey proved more …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments


The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … to me. So the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] ). However, Hooker, at the …
  • … idle when I can do anything’ ( letter to John Murray, 2 June [1865] ). It was not until 25 …
  • … abstract of the paper was read before the Linnean Society on 2 February, and in April Darwin wrote …
  • … 1867), and Darwin summarised them in  Variation  2: 106–7, concluding, ‘it follows from Mr. Scott …
  • … and professional seniority ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, [2 June 1865] ); but Darwin’s feelings …
  • … in healing this ugly breach’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [2 June 1865] ), Darwin seems to have …
  • … of weather-forecasting ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 May 1865 and nn. 2 and 5), and he may …

Home learning: 7-11 years


Do try this at home! Support your children’s learning by downloading our free and fun activities for those aged between 7-11 and 11-14 years, using Darwin’s letters.  

Matches: 1 hits

  • … More Detecting Darwin activities 2 Learn about Darwin and the Beagle …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep


In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … in plants , pp. 112–13). He explained to Francis on 2 July : ‘I go on maundering about the …
  • … tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘& work by myself will be …
  • … [before 17 July 1878] ), ‘a strong horizontal axis about 2 feet long which goes round by clockwork …
  • … animal instinct and intelligence. ‘Frank’s son, nearly 2 years old (& we think much of his …
  • … more expertly. ‘I conclude that a child—just under 2 years is inferior in intellect to a monkey.’ …
  • … & a baby in your house!’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 2 September [1878] ). More …
  • … seems to me quite ridiculous’ ( letter to John Price, 2 April [1878] ). When a wealthy businessman …
  • … was ‘deeply gratified’, remarking to Skertchly on 2 March : ‘It is the greatest possible …
  • … that such checks had been in action during the last 2 or 3 centuries, or even for a shorter time in …

Interview with Randal Keynes


Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … which came to my mind as I read his book. 2. Darwin's influences …

Interview with Emily Ballou


Emily Ballou is a writer of novels and screenplays, and a prize-winning poet. Her book The Darwin Poems, which explores aspects of Darwin’s life and thoughts through the medium of poetry, was recently published by the University of Western Australia Press.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … some of these poems today, and? 2. The idea of writing about Darwin …

Interview with Tim Lewens


Dr Tim Lewens is a Lecturer in the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge. He is the author of Organisms and artifacts (2004), which examines the language and arguments for design in biology and philosophy, and of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … you for the flattering introduction. 2. The unusual role Darwin plays today …

Interview with Pietro Corsi


Pietro Corsi is Professor of the History of Science at the University of Oxford. His book Evolution Before Darwin is due to be published in 2010 by Oxford University Press. Date of interview: 17 July 2009 Transcription 1: Introduction …

Matches: 1 hits

  • … surrounding evolutionary theories. 2. The situation in France …

Interview with John Hedley Brooke


John Hedley Brooke is President of the Science and Religion Forum as well as the author of the influential Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 1991). He has had a long career in the history of science and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Paul. It’s a very great pleasure. 2. Victorian spiritualism and the …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions


Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Language: key letters


How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 3054: Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] If the descent of languages was …
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