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Emma Darwin

Summary

Emma Darwin, Charles Darwin's wife and first cousin, was born Emma Wedgwood, the eighth and youngest child of Josiah Wedgwood II and Bessy Allen. Her father was the eldest son of the famous pottery manufacturer, Josiah Wedgwood I. Her mother was one…

Matches: 9 hits

  • Emma Darwin, Charles Darwin's wife and first cousin, was born Emma Wedgwood, the eighth and …
  • … found Maer at times more cheerful than his own home. It was Emma's father he turned to for …
  • … bought Down House in the village of Down, Kent, where he and Emma were to spend the rest of their …
  • … by fields. Eight more children were born (Mary, Henrietta Emma, George Howard, Elizabeth, Francis, …
  • … Charles Waring), and Anne died at the age of 10. Charles and Emma also cared for their grandson …
  • … London to stay with relatives two or three times a year, and Emma also managed to organise holidays …
  • … on the American Civil War). After Charles's death, Emma divided her time between Down …
  • … Horace also lived in Cambridge. Despite the fact that Emma and Charles were rarely separated …
  • … is partly because on the rare occasions they were apart, Emma and Charles wrote to each other almost …

Julia Wedgwood

Summary

Charles Darwin’s readership largely consisted of other well-educated Victorian men, nonetheless, some women did read, review, and respond to Darwin’s work. One of these women was Darwin’s own niece, Julia Wedgwood, known in the family as “Snow”. In July…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … theological modernism. At the zenith of her reputation Julia Wedgwood was a considered one of the …
  • … ailing elderly relatives. Towards the end of her life Julia Wedgwood regretted that she had not had …
  • … the defender of Darwinism “Philalethes.” Importantly, Wedgwood’s review suggests that natural …
  • … Darwinism and Christianity, it is unsurprising that Wedgwood structured her review of Origin as …
  • … Darwinism “Philalethes” (lover of truth). Importantly, Wedgwood’s review suggests that natural …
  • … means by which God’s creatures reach His ultimate goal. As Wedgwood wrote: The …
  • … the question, Whence do they originally spring? Wedgwood’s review was well-received by …
  • … a large family circle. As a result of her familial position, Wedgwood spent much of her adult life …
  • … of the women encountered in Charles Darwin’s letters, Snow Wedgwood was one of our priority figures …

Engagement to Emma Wedgwood

Summary

Darwin proposes to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and is accepted

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin proposes to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and is accepted …

Hensleigh Wedgwood

Summary

Hensleigh Wedgwood, Emma Darwin’s brother and Charles’s cousin, was a philologist, barrister and original member of the Philological Society, which had been created in 1842. In 1857, while Wedgwood was preparing a dictionary of English etymology, he wrote…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in various other Indo-European languages. Hensleigh Wedgwood, Emma Darwin’s brother and …
  • … Society, which had been created in 1842. In 1857, while Wedgwood was preparing a dictionary of …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 …
  • … Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin …
  • … E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • … E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • … is a great critic”, thought the article worth reprinting, Emma was less convinced. Letter …

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … In addition to sharing a tender relationship with his wife Emma, Darwin played an active role in the …
  • … traveling on horseback while ill. Letter 465 —Emma Wedgwood (Emma Darwin) to Charles …
  • … agreeable” for her sake. Letter 3626 —Emma Darwin to T. G. Appleton, 28 June [1862] …
  • … on the difficulties of finding a suitable cook. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [4 …
  • … among other things, for Darwin’s complaints. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [14 April …
  • … who was travelling in the south of France at the time, Emma describes typical nineteenth-century …
  • … Scottish medium, Daniel Dunglass Home, with Galton. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [4 …
  • … taste of Darwin's life at Down House, recreate recipes from Emma Darwin's cookbook and …
  • … food that Darwin ate, using authentic recipes from his wife Emma Darwin’s cookbook. Our menu …
  • … were particularly intrigued by this letter written from Emma to Charles before they were married …

Darwin and women: a selection of letters

Summary

A shorter version of this film is available on the Cambridge University Press video stream.   Darwin and Women focusses on Darwin's correspondence with women and on the lives of the women he knew and wrote to. It includes a large number of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … from the book's editor, Samantha Evans, in her blogs on ' Emma Darwin and women's …

Earthworms

Summary

As with many of Darwin’s research topics, his interest in worms spanned nearly his entire working life. Some of his earliest correspondence about earthworms was written and received in the 1830s, shortly after his return from his Beagle voyage, and his…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Questions | Experiment Earthworms and Wedgwood cousins As with many of …
  • … of his own family, in particular his nieces, Lucy and Sophy Wedgwood, the daughters of Emma Darwin& …
  • … these two young women, even going so far as to submit Lucy Wedgwood's observations for …
  • … Earthworms Letter 385 - Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood & Josiah Wedgwood to Darwin …

The "wicked book": Origin at 157

Summary

Origin is 157 years old.  (Probably) the most famous book in science was published on 24 November 1859.  To celebrate we have uploaded hundreds of new images of letters, bringing the total number you can look at here to over 9000 representing more than…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … and friends, including letters between Charles and his wife Emma, and several of their children: …
  • … of Down in Kent, and a lifelong friend of both Charles and Emma, sent information on pigeons …

What did Darwin believe?

Summary

What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of his theory of evolution for religious faith? These questions were asked again and again in the years following the publication of Origin of species (1859). They are…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … into such territory in this letter to a stranger. Emma Darwin In what is …
  • … matters many years earlier with his cousin and fiancée, Emma Wedgewood. In their correspondence, …
  • … but we gain a sense of what the couple discussed from Emma’s words to him: My reason …
  • … It is clear from other correspondence that one of Emma’s most cherished beliefs was in an afterlife. …
  • … she means so in eternity. There is a marked tension in Emma’s letter between reason and feeling, and …
  • … to himself, and allowed his differences of belief with Emma to remain for the most part submerged. …
  • … members of the Darwin family, offer a fuller perspective on Emma’s religious beliefs. The documents …
  • … over Scriptural or doctrinal authority, as a foundation for Emma’s views. They also show that Emma’s …
  • … was another important religious tradition in the Darwin and Wedgwood families. Josiah Wedgwood, who …
  • … Unitarian school in Shrewsbury. The circle with whom he and Emma socialised when in London included …
  • … were regular guests of Darwin’s brother Erasmus, and of Emma’s brother, Hensleigh Wedgwood and his …
  • … liturgy. But we know, from Francis Darwin’s comments, that Emma used to make the family turn round …
  • … to recite the creed, with its Trinitarian formula. Emma’s copy of the New Testament, …
  • … to have been inauthentic, or added by later authors. Emma’s Bible also contains some …
  • … as practical’. Some of the Biblical commentary that Emma and Charles read in this period …
  • … written to Charles several months after their marriage, Emma suggests an appreciation for earnest …
  • … nature and to revelation, like the openness that Charles and Emma so valued between each other–this …
  • … through his early discussions on religion and science with Emma, to his publications on evolution, …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms featured in the news announcement in May 2014 that a citizen science project had been launched to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … had been inspired by observations made by his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood of the uniform structure of the …
  • … at, but also to Francis Darwin playing the bassoon, and to Emma Darwin’s piano playing. From 1872, …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and Animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … an aspect of Darwin’s character clearly perceived by Emma during their engagement: ‘You will be …
  • … period but in far less detail. By September 1844, Henrietta Emma was one year old, and there are a …
  • … 1850; and Horace, born 18 May 1851. It appears to have been Emma who resumed the observations on the …
  • … the notebook and, with the exception of two brief entries by Emma, made all the notes until July …
  • … certainly during first fortnight at sudden sounds. & at Emma’s moving 3 [11]  When …
  • … & inwards as in sleep.[14] Six weeks old & 3 days, Emma saw him smile—not only with …
  • … his eyes becoming fixed & the movements of his arms ceasing. Emma argues that his smiles were …
  • … made in the little noises he was uttering that he recognized Emma by sight when she came close to …
  • … been caused by the novelty of the situation producing fear. Emma thinks that when he was vaccinated …
  • … whole expression appearing pleased.— Recognizes Emma Anne & myself perfectly— does not find …
  • … Lady” were repeated.— 26 th . Cried, when Emma left off playing the pianoforte.— Did this …
  • … Anny says Papa pretty clearly—[40] A few days ago Emma gave her doll, but she sensibly shuddered, …
  • … to play with in farther part of room, she immediately led Emma by the hand towards the tea-chest. I …
  • … on quite suddenly.—[43] On the 13 th . of March Emma positively ascertained that what the …
  • … things & when choleric he will hurl books or sticks at Emma. About a month since; he was running …
  • … “oh kind Doddy” “kind Doddy”— April 2 d . Emma had left her handkerchief on the other side …
  • … th ——42. Willy’s observation on dress very curious: Emma put on a pair of boots, which she had not …
  • … the first day I put on a new dull-coloured trowsers. Emma one morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet …
  • … & then gave him a kiss.— Nov. /54/ Whenever Emma or I came home from a journey, Lenny has …
  • … 131–2. [6]  Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . …
  • … and comments section. [10] William Erasmus was Emma and CD’s first child. [11] The …
  • … [15] ‘Annie . . . fortnight’ was written by Emma Darwin on the verso of page 3 and opposite the …
  • … later; Anne Elizabeth was born in 1841 and Henrietta Emma in 1843. Mrs Locke was probably the …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … made up of meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to …
  • … microscopical spherical bodies found on flowers which Emma had gathered and brought into the house …

The death of Anne Elizabeth Darwin

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at the age of ten in 1851.   Emma was heavily pregnant with their fifth son, Horace, at the time and could not go with Charles when he took Annie to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully.…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … We have lost the joy of the Household Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, …
  • … recorded her own reactions in a poignant set of notes, which Emma Darwin kept. Links to a …
  • … over any story at all melancholy; or on parting with Emma even for the shortest interval. Once when …
  • … this showed itself in never being easy without touching Emma, when in bed with her, & quite …
  • … dressed herself up in a silk gown, cap, shawl & gloves of Emma, appearing in figure like a …
  • … over  ‘y. 4 An interlineation in pencil in Emma Darwin’s hand reads: ‘Mamma: what shall …
  • … death To W. D. Fox, [ 27 March 1851 ] To Emma Darwin,  [17 April 1851] …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … home, Leith Hill Place in Surrey, and CD’s niece Lucy Wedgwood collected and weighed the dried …
  • … & sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin, [5 November 1871] ). Her …

Expression

Summary

Darwin's interest in emotional expression can be traced as far back as the Beagle voyage. He was fascinated by the different sounds and gestures among the peoples of Tierra del Fuego, and on his return from the voyage he started recording observations…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … his marriage, he shared his interest in expression with Emma (then his fiancée), and asked her to …
  • … and their communications were often addressed either to Emma or her eldest daughter . 'I am …
  • … extended to caged creatures. Darwin requested his niece Lucy Wedgwood to ' think of any fact …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … members of his own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov …
  • … conscientious doubts”. Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … satisfaction. Assisted in the wording by his wife, Emma, and daughter Henrietta, he finally wrote a …
  • … a comfortable cabin ( see letter from Leonard Darwin to Emma Darwin, [after 26 June -- 28 September …
  • … to become Darwin’s secretary. They rented Down Lodge and Emma Darwin wrote, ‘They have . . . made …
  • … the average in prettiness & snugness’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October …
  • … letter to Down School Board, [after 29 November 1873] ). Emma saw a ‘great blessing’ in the rumour …
  • … dead uncle’s position of vicar of Deptford ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … In these notes, written shortly before his courtship with Emma, Darwin weighed the pros and cons of …
  • … of physiology at Bedford College for girls. Appealing to Emma’s “feminine sympathies”, Cresy is keen …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood. The letters they …
  • … by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood II, during one of Darwin’s visits to …
  • … (Simpson 1961, p. 53). Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His …
  • … ( Correspondence vol. 2, Appendix III). The letters that Emma and Darwin subsequently exchanged …
  • … correspondence is that Darwin had evidently communicated to Emma that he had doubts about religion, …
  • … as she was, from marrying him. Just after their marriage, Emma states that she has the impression …
  • … were no doubts as to how one ought to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). …
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