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6248A_20488

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 11 hits

  • From Fritz Müller f1    17 June 1868 Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil, …
  • Sie, dass ich, werther Herr, aufrichtigst der Ihrige bin | Fritz Müller
  • letter, see Correspondence vol16, Appendix IAll Fritz Müllers letters to CD were written in
  • Darwin to Möller, who translated them into German for his Fritz Müller: Werke, Briefe und Leben
  • translation, have been used. f2 See letter from Fritz Müller, 22 April 1868. Müller refers
  • a footnote in WSDallas trans1869, pp11921. Müller refers to Origin 4th ed., pp530: …
  • From Fritz Müller f1    17 June 1868 Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil, …
  • believe me, I am dear Sir, very respectfully yours | Fritz Müller
  • source, and for the enclosure, see part I: 5848. All Fritz Müllers letters to CD were written in
  • Darwin to Möller, who translated them into German for his Fritz Müller: Werke, Briefe und Leben
  • translation, have been used. f2 See letter from Fritz Müller, 22 April 1868. Müller refers

6248A_20488A

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 11 hits

  • From Fritz Müller f1    17 June 1868 Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil, …
  • Sie, dass ich, werther Herr, aufrichtigst der Ihrige bin | Fritz Müller
  • letter, see Correspondence vol16, Appendix IAll Fritz Müllers letters to CD were written in
  • Darwin to Möller, who translated them into German for his Fritz Müller: Werke, Briefe und Leben
  • translation, have been used. f2 See letter from Fritz Müller, 22 April 1868. Müller refers
  • a footnote in WSDallas trans1869, pp11921. Müller refers to Origin 4th ed., pp530: …
  • From Fritz Müller f1    17 June 1868 Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil, …
  • believe me, I am dear Sir, very respectfully yours | Fritz Müller
  • source, and for the enclosure, see part I: 5848. All Fritz Müllers letters to CD were written in
  • Darwin to Möller, who translated them into German for his Fritz Müller: Werke, Briefe und Leben
  • translation, have been used. f2 See letter from Fritz Müller, 22 April 1868. Müller refers

Fritz Müller

Summary

Fritz Müller, a German who spent most of his life in political exile in Brazil, described Darwin as his second father, and Darwin's son, Francis, wrote that, although they never met 'the correspondence with Müller, which continued to the close of…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin, in Life and letters of Charles Darwin , wrote of Fritz Müller They never met, …
  • to him. My impression is that of all his unseen friends Fritz Müller was the one for whom he had the
  • say, I considered him to be a second father.” Fritz (Johann Friedrich Theodor) Müller was
  • his studies and where, under the supervision of Johannes Müller, he received his PhD in 1844. Müller
  • After four years of living a frontier existence, Müller left the mainland and got a job in Destêrro  …
  • It was in large part through his contact with Schultze that Müllers own original research was given
  • eventually came to Darwins attention. Earlier in 1861, Müller had discovered a new group of
  • Darwin), appeared in 1864, and Darwin received a copy from Müller. Darwin found the German too
  • Linnean Society  ( Botany ).  Having now read Müllers book, Darwin initiated a
  • was already collegial; he was clearly impressed both with Müllers technical skill as well as his
  • him that he had sent a copy ofClimbing plants’, hoping Müller would have received it. …
  • supplementary material on many areas of research from Müller, and encouraged him to publish his own
  • pursuits altogetherThanks to a change in government, Müller was appointed to the position of
  • society of London in 1879 on Darwins suggestion . Müller continued to produce a range of

Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 17 hits

  • Three important new correspondents in 1867 were Hermann Müller and Anton Dohrn in Germany, and
  • old In a letter of 22 February [1867] to Fritz Müller in Brazil, in which he asked
  • sexual differences in mammals and birds. In his letter to Fritz Müller of 22 February [1867] , …
  • in males and females. In his reply of 1 April 1867 , Müller supplied Darwin with information
  • he gained a valuable new correspondent in this area, Hermann Müller. Darwin had already benefited
  • with a view to supporting Darwins theory (letter from Fritz to Hermann Müller, 11 February 1867, in
  • are fertilised by insects ( Orchids ). In October, Müller wrote to thank Darwin for his
  • an observation that he thought might be of some interest. Müller had observed the special adaptation
  • suck nectar from flowers they visited ( letter from Hermann Müller, 23 October 1867 ). The letter
  • the first known depiction of this singular adaptation. Müllers work not only confirmed many of
  • Darwin continued to receive a wealth of information from Fritz Müller in Brazil. As well as
  • than any two or three botanists put together’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, 7 February [1867] ). …
  • effect when applied to its own stigma ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1867 ). Darwin replied
  • the decay might beparasitic cryptogams’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, 22 February [1867] ). Müller
  • once seen a parasitic cryptogam on the plant ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 April 1867 ). Darwin
  • the material to the proof-sheets ofVariation ( letter to Fritz Müller, 31 July [1867] ). …
  • keeps it a secret in his trade of nurseryman’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, 26 May [1867] ). Darwin

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 13 hits

  • Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the
  • beetle; it was the subject of his first scientific paper (Müller 1856). In the autumn of 1855
  • from her first marriage; the couple had three more children. Müller had become a full teacher by
  • in the whole province. As a scientific researcher, Müller did not need to look further than
  • his brother became a supporter of Darwins theory. Just as Fritz had chosen to focus on Crustacea in
  • In early spring 1867, Darwin initiated a correspondence with Müller, but that letter has not been
  • …  replied encouragingly  and in the summer of 1867, Müller began working on fertilisation of orchids
  • unwanted visitors from gaining access. In October 1867, Müller sent Darwin a letter describing
  • research along these lines led to the publication in 1873 of Müllers seminal work on co-adaptation, …
  • Darwin could not wait to finish the book before sending Müller his reaction, noting that he had
  • was the introduction he wrote to the English edition of Müllers book, published in 1883. …
  • … (known as ultramontanists by their opponents). Throughout, Müller received the support of the
  • resulted in a limiting of the kind of teaching that Müller advocated. Müller fought against this

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller, 22 February [1867] ). The …
  • … astonishment Muller, Fritz 22 Feb [1867] …
  • … Expression, p. 137 Muller, Fritz 30 Jan …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … , and, arising from this, the editing of excerpts from Fritz Müllers letters on climbing plants to
  • of the people two whom Darwin sent a copy of the paper was Fritz Müller, in Destêrro (now
  • in difficult German, he had it translated, and wrote to Müller in August 1865 that he had just
  • in October to the Linnean Society for publication in Müllers name ( see letter from Fritz Müller, …
  • 20 October [1865] ). Darwin was particularly interested in Müllers observations of tendrils formed
  • to the second edition of  Climbing plants  reflecting Müllers findings. Although he wrote to
  • make observations for him in India (John Scott) and Brazil (Fritz Müller). Although not well enough

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 0 hits

Beauty and the seed

Summary

One of the real pleasures afforded in reading Charles Darwin’s correspondence is the discovery of areas of research on which he never published, but which interested him deeply. We can gain many insights about Darwin’s research methods by following these …

Matches: 9 hits

  • the end of September 1866 Darwin received a letter from Fritz Müller, a German naturalist who had
  • composite of letter from Müller to Darwin, 2 Aug 1866, in Darwins experimental notebook",&quot
  • pulp andalways disseminated by being first devoured’. Müller had noted that seeds that fell to the
  • white and visible at a great distance.— Fritz Müller to Charles Darwin, 2 Aug 1866. …
  • to me rather a striking one. Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 25 Sept [1866] …
  • … ) By this time Darwin had already sent some of the seeds Müller had enclosed with his October letter
  • some idea of the difficulties. Darwin picked up on Müllers suggestion and tried the
  • birds, and even used guans (the bird species suggested by Fritz Müller) and toucans, but was also
  • listed dozen of species (many of them cited by Darwin and Müller), as mimetic fruits are found in

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 6 hits

  • theory of phytophagic varieties and species of insects, Fritz Müllers research on crustacean
  • on human races. Darwin replied with a modified list, adding Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin , and a
  • … , letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1866] ). Fritz Müller Fritz Müller, the
  • same subjects that have lately interested me’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, 25 September [1866] ). Not
  • competitor in the struggle for existence ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 December 1866 ). By the
  • you for that I hardly know how to begin’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, [before 10 December 1866] ). …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Hocken, T. M. (1) Hoddick, Fritz (1) …
  • … Müller, Albert (4) Müller, Fritz (111) …
  • … Eduard (4) Schultze, Fritz (2) …

Sexual selection

Summary

Although natural selection could explain the differences between species, Darwin realised that (other than in the reproductive organs themselves) it could not explain the often marked differences between the males and females of the same species.  So what…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … kingdom sexual selection operated. Typical is his query to Fritz Müller in  February 1867 : …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • was the German naturalist and émigré to Brazil, Fritz Müller. Their letters often discussed the
  • Letter 4895Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 20 Sept [1865] Darwin thanks Müller for
  • with pollen of other species. Letter 5480Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr

Photograph album of German and Austrian scientists

Summary

The album was sent to Darwin to mark his birthday on 12 February 1877 by the civil servant Emil Rade, and contained 165 portraits of German and Austrian scientists. The work was lavishly produced and bound in blue velvet with metal embossing. Its ornate…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … , Ludwig Jeitteles , Oskar Schmidt , and Fritz Schultze had all sent Darwin their works. …
  • … the picture of the German schoolteacher and botanist Hermann Müller in the album. He had encouraged …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … correspondents such as Daniel Oliver, Friedrich Hildebrand, Fritz Müller, and John Scott who had …
  • … plants. He resumed experiments in the spring, writing to Fritz Müller on 14 May , ‘I have made …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 5 hits

  • 9 February 1879 ). The botanist and schoolteacher Hermann Müller wrote on 12 February to wish
  • day , in which he expressed his distress at hearing that Müller had been treated shamefully by the
  • party in the German house of representatives had accused Müller of corrupting his students by
  • … ‘In the beginning was carbon’ ( letter from Hermann Müller, 14 February 1879 ). Carus
  • thought or working for the public good. Darwin promoted Fritz Müllers discoveries in Brazil by

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … work he admired. He was so interested in a letter from Fritz Müller in Brazil describing the …
  • … facts to myself ’, Darwin later told Muller ( letter to Fritz Müller, [9 February 1876] ). …
  • … of the sick body to the natural laws’ ( letter from Fritz Hoddick, 23 November 1876 ). In late May …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … L. H., 29 Mar [1867] Darwin learns that German botanist Fritz Müller is Hermann Müller’s …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • paid for himself: William Sweetland Dallass edition of Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. …
  • offering my book to English readers.—’ ( letter from Fritz Müller, 15 June 1869 ). …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … a German waltz and was much admired for it by other birds. Fritz Müller sent information on the …
  • … subjects were a favourite topic in his correspondence with Fritz Müller, who was one of the few …
  • … and the comparative fertility of different flower forms. Müller offered observations of orchids, …
  • … facts which you have communicated to me’ ( letter to Fritz Müller, 3 June 1868 ). it is …
  • … in the second printing of the book in February. Hermann Müller remarked in a letter dated [after …
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