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Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwin’s time for the rest of the year was devoted …
  • … manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwin’s evolutionary account of the ‘higher’ faculties …
  • … brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwin’s eldest daughter Henrietta was married in …
  • … human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwin’s aim of  showing kinship with animals at …
  • … Hooker suggested one of the reasons behind the book’s popularity: ‘I hear that Ladies think it …
  • … Correspondence vol. 19, Appendix IV). Four of Darwin’s five sons received a copy, and his daughter …
  • … in ‘lucid vigorous style’, as well as for the book’s ‘arrangment, not to mention still more …
  • … & menstruation coming out of the primary fact that one’s n th . ancestor lived between tide …
  • … A number of correspondents took issue with Darwin’s evolutionary explanation of the ‘higher’ …
  • … and beetles to  Descent , could not extend Darwin’s evolutionary theory beyond man’s ‘bodily frame …
  • … regarding human ancestry was expressed by Darwin’s old friend, the former vicar of Down John Brodie …
  • … On religion and morality Others objected to Darwin’s theory on purely religious grounds. The …
  • … 1871] ). Yet some continued to find Darwin’s theories consistent with religious belief, …
  • … (see Appendix V). Not surprisingly, it was Darwin’s naturalistic theory of the evolution of morals  …
  • … Frances Power Cobbe, who praised the charm of Darwin’s book, but found highly objectionable his …
  • … Wedgwood, [3–9 March 1871] .) Some of Darwin’s correspondence on evolution and ethics was …
  • … William offered his assessment of John Stuart Mill’s theory of utilitarianism to assist his father …
  • … see I am a traitor in the camp’. Because Darwin’s scientific work was situated in the home, …
  • … An expert on primates and a former protegé of Huxley’s, Mivart had written several articles the …
  • … explain various animal structures and homologies. Mivart’s views were published in expanded form in  …
  • … to St G. J. Mivart, 23 January [1871] ). Darwin’s letter to Mivart was part of a long …
  • … respect for the elder naturalist, inquired after Darwin’s health, and expressed his desire to meet …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to …
  • … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … to remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin …
  • … your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  s ., and recommended to Murray that Dallas …
  • … Generally favourable accounts appeared in some of London’s leading weeklies such as the  Saturday …
  • … Gazette , was by George Henry Lewes, well-known in London’s literary circles and an author of …
  • … Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote …
  • … by Owen’. John Edward Gray, a colleague of Richard Owen’s in the British Museum, agreed about the …
  • … Science, Robertson published a rejoinder, arousing Darwin’s ire still further: ‘he is a scamp & …
  • … of details and untoward examples even from Darwin’s inner circle of expert naturalists. The Swiss …
  • … provided by  Variation  for expanding Darwin’s network of informers proved very fruitful. On 1 …
  • … from George Cupples, who was encouraged to write by Darwin’s ‘frequent references to facts …
  • … the breed ‘was no authority whatever’. Darwin’s reply opened the door to a long-running …
  • … cause of science.’ Darwin began to make an index of Weir’s correspondence in April, and by the end …
  • … of London, to raise the question at one of the society’s meetings. A lively debate ensued about the …
  • … other entomologists who had been present at the society’s meeting. Darwin circulated his query about …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Sciences (1) Anderson, G. S. (1) …
  • … T. G. (6) Arnold, F. S. (2) Arnold, …
  • … Barnard, Anne (2) Barnes, K. S. (1) …
  • … Edward (6) Bartlett, R. S. (1) …
  • … Batalin, A. F. (2) Bate, C. S. (21) …
  • … Baynes, H. M. (1) Baynes, T. S. (1) …
  • … H. F. (1) Billings, J. S. (2) …
  • … Jacques (1) Boulger, G. E. S. (1) …
  • … Henry (1) Brady, G. S. (1) Brady, H. …
  • … E. J. A. (1) Bristowe, J. S. (2) …
  • … B. C., Sr (1) Brodrick, W. S. J. (1) …

Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 19 hits

  • …   Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work,  The …
  • … A global reputation The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly …
  • … replies from different corners of the world. Darwin’s work was now guaranteed to arouse …
  • … Fleeming Jenkin, challenged different aspects of Darwin’s theory of transmutation as elucidated in  …
  • … Thomas Henry Huxley sent Darwin the New Year’s greeting, ‘may you be eupeptic through 1867 & …
  • … under Domestication’. Having just received the printer’s estimate of the size of the two-volume work …
  • … completed book: a paragraph throwing doubt on Asa Gray’s doctrine that each variation had been …
  • … the year progressed, the book continued to consume Darwin’s time. The first proof-sheets arrived on …
  • … recommended by Carl Vogt and had translated Vogt’s own  Vorlesungen über den Menschen  (Lectures …
  • … was made by a young naturalist equally devoted to Darwin’s work, Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky. …
  • … Darwin heavily annotated his copy of Alexander’s paper on the embryology of ascidians (A. O. …
  • … volume by November 1867, and, apparently alerted to Vogt’s approach, warning him that Vogt was not …
  • … ). Although he did not succeed in duplicating Trail’s results, Darwin claimed in  Variation  1: …
  • … ( letter to Charles Lyell, 22 August [1867] ). Darwin’s insecurity persisted, however, and in …
  • … was further delayed by the time it took William Sweetland Dallas to prepare the index. John Murray …
  • … I fear you will find it endless labour to give all author’s names in notes. So use your own …
  • … & I cannot get on so quickly as I could wish’ (letter from W. S. Dallas, 20 November 1867). …
  • … the two men seems to have been uneasy, at least until Dallas finished the index. Although many of …
  • … on 10 December , informing him of errors discovered by Dallas and asking him to make the changes if …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of letters on …
  • … May 1859] Darwin expresses anxiety over Hooker’s suggestion that his writing style might …
  • … H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s editorial help with chapters three and …
  • … got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership Letter …
  • … with which to work. She has transcribed parts of Darwin’s papers, including diagrams, to share with …
  • … "epistolary acquaintance" of his, Sara Hennell . Hennell's writings show a " …
  • … range of evidence in order to raise questions about Darwin’s conclusions, in particular his …
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslow’s daughter, Anne, responds to …
  • … Frances Wedgwood offers critical comments on Darwin’s work on self-regard. She asks Henrietta act as …
  • … The poet Emily Pfeiffer responds critically to Darwin’s theory of sexual selection. She has read …
  • … of sexual selection. Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, [7 November 1871] …
  • … selection for debates over marriage. Since reading Darwin’s work a “flood of questions” have …
  • … to as such questions “seem almost...out of a woman’s natural thinking”. Letter 8778 …
  • … a fight between boatmen, which reminded her of Darwin’s comments on anger and the showing of teeth …
  • … Charlotte Pape responds to Darwin and Galton’s works on heredity. She is investigating whether …
  • … her questionnaire. Letter 10390 - Herrick, S. M. B. to Darwin, [12 February …
  • … Reading Variation Letter 5712 - Dallas, W. S. to Darwin, [8 December 1867] …

6248A_20488

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … einen schwarzen Samen mit einer schneeweissen, fleischigen, süssen, aber sehr scharfen Hülle. …
  • … oder zwei) schwarzen Samen auch eine weisse, fleischige, süsse und mehlige Hülle, während die …
  • … zu derselben Stelle kam, blühte die Pflanze, und das Säulchen war mit sehr langen Antheren versehen. …
  • … Correspondence vol. 16, Appendix I. All Fritz Müller’s letters to CD were written in English (see …
  • … found drafts of some Müller letters among Fritz Müller’s papers and included these in their original …
  • … Müller refers to F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. SDallas trans. 1869. f3 The …
  • … of 30 January [1868]. f7 For CD and Müller’s earlier discussions of conspicuous seeds, see …
  • … p. 37. f14 The figure and page references are to W. SDallas trans. 1869. f15 …
  • … I have no definite opinion; I think that Sir Ch. Lyell’s suggestion “Facts and arguments in favour …
  • … all the facts are concerned with crustaceans, the book’s contents might perhaps be even more exactly …
  • … for the enclosure, see part I: 584–8. All Fritz Müller’s letters to CD were written in English (see …
  • … found drafts of some Müller letters among Fritz Müller’s papers and included these in their original …
  • … Müller refers to F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. SDallas trans. 1869. f3 The …
  • … of 30 January [1868]. f7 For CD and Müller’s earlier discussions of conspicuous seeds, see …
  • … Brazil Souce of text Möller 1915–21, 2: 141–3; W. S. Dallas trans. 1869, pp. 119–21 n. …
  • … 1: 259]. Agrees with Charles Lyell’s suggested English title "Facts and …

6248A_20488A

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … einen schwarzen Samen mit einer schneeweissen, fleischigen, süssen, aber sehr scharfen Hülle. …
  • … oder zwei) schwarzen Samen auch eine weisse, fleischige, süsse und mehlige Hülle, während die …
  • … zu derselben Stelle kam, blühte die Pflanze, und das Säulchen war mit sehr langen Antheren versehen. …
  • … Correspondence vol. 16, Appendix I. All Fritz Müller’s letters to CD were written in English (see …
  • … found drafts of some Müller letters among Fritz Müller’s papers and included these in their original …
  • … Müller refers to F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. SDallas trans. 1869. f3 The …
  • … of 30 January [1868]. f7 For CD and Müller’s earlier discussions of conspicuous seeds, see …
  • … p. 37. f14 The figure and page references are to W. SDallas trans. 1869. f15 …
  • … I have no definite opinion; I think that Sir Ch. Lyell’s suggestion “Facts and arguments in favour …
  • … all the facts are concerned with crustaceans, the book’s contents might perhaps be even more exactly …
  • … for the enclosure, see part I: 584–8. All Fritz Müller’s letters to CD were written in English (see …
  • … found drafts of some Müller letters among Fritz Müller’s papers and included these in their original …
  • … Müller refers to F. Müller 1864; the translation was W. SDallas trans. 1869. f3 The …
  • … of 30 January [1868]. f7 For CD and Müller’s earlier discussions of conspicuous seeds, see …
  • … Brazil Souce of text Möller 1915–21, 2: 141–3; W. S. Dallas trans. 1869, pp. 119–21 n. …
  • … 1: 259]. Agrees with Charles Lyell’s suggested English title "Facts and …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … Darwin's most famous book  On the origin of species by means of natural selection …
  • … 1859, the year of the publication of  Origin . Darwin’s son Francis described how his father filed …
  • … at the end of 1845, Darwin was not happy with Colburn’s terms ( Letter 856 ). Instead he asked his …
  • … with his own publisher ( Letter 824 ). Lyell’s talk with Murray must have been successful, for …
  • … ( Letters 857 ,  875 ). It was published in Murray’s Home and Colonial Library in three monthly …
  • … between Charles Darwin and John Murray. Darwin’s next experience of publishing with Murray …
  • … of scientific enquiry prepared for the use of Her Majesty’s Navy: and adapted for travellers in …
  • … (12 June [1849] Letter 1245 ). Darwin’s next publications, his barnacle books ( Fossil …
  • … was driven by natural selection. In order to ensure Darwin’s priority, his friends Charles Lyell and …
  • … Letter 2506 ). Murray decided on a retail price of 14 s ., selling to the trade at 9 s .6 d . …
  • … November 1859] Letter 2514 ). In the event, all Murray’s stock of Origin  was sold on the first …
  • … favourite hobby and he continued to publish Charles Lyell’s books he was not himself a convert to …
  • … Scepticism in Geology  (1877), an argument against Lyell’s view of a world that is slowly and …
  • … of  Variation  was further delayed by Darwin’s ill-health and the preparation of the fourth …
  • … most of  Variation  he was doubtful of the book’s success, and when Murray calculated that it …
  • … out within a few days ( Letter 5844 ). Darwin’s next publishing project with John Murray in …
  • … showed how his observations of crustacea supported Darwin’s theories; Darwin read the book when it …
  • … with Murray 750 copies of a pamphlet of Chauncey Wright‘s critical review, published in America, of …
  • … Letter 8616 ). However, when Robert Cooke, John Murray’s cousin, went round to investigate the …
  • … ( Letter 9972 ) and agreed to sell the book for 14 s . rather than 15 s . ( Letter 10034 ). …
  • … decided to have this translated into English by William Dallas and published with an introduction of …

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwin’s interests remained extremely broad, and …
  • … Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwin’s most substantial addition to  Origin  was a …
  • … at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägeli’s paper important enough to have a translation …
  • … development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägeli’s theory as a major challenge requiring a …
  • … & must be morphological’. The comment highlights Darwin’s apparent confusion about Nägeli’s
  • … use to challenge Nägeli; Darwin made full use of Hooker’s assistance and many of his examples …
  • … Fleeming Jenkin. Darwin had been very impressed by Jenkin’s 1867 review, which argued that any …
  • … it was his theory of alternate ice ages that piqued Darwin’s interest the most. He wrote, ‘this …
  • … for his theory ( Origin  4th ed., pp. 450–1). Croll’s theory, simply stated, proposed that ice …
  • … accounted for the survival of tropical species using Croll’s theory. In the same letter to …
  • … point out, ‘As regards determining the age of the earth’s crust from the secular cooling of the …
  • … ).  Darwin did not directly challenge Thomson’s estimate, but he added more on the process of …
  • … 352–4). Later in the year he was pleased to see Thomson’s work challenged by both Thomas Henry …
  • … The dog-breeder George Cupples worked hard on Darwin’s behalf, sending a steady stream of …
  • … well as live chickens and eggs of various breeds. Darwin’s cook evidently agreed to supervise the …
  • … some years in medical asylums. Maudsley forwarded Darwin’s queries to James Crichton-Browne, the …
  • … painful’. Thus began what would become Darwin’s most detailed and lengthy correspondence on …
  • … current. Darwin sent Crichton-Browne his copy of Duchenne’s photographic album, and began to receive …
  • … humans: differences with Wallace But even as Darwin’s research on expression and sexual …
  • … pp. 393–4). Darwin was astonished by Wallace’s assertions: ‘If you had not told me I d …
  • … 14 April 1869 ).  More remarkable still were Wallace’s reasons for believing in the providential …
  • … one he commissioned and paid for himself: William Sweetland Dallas’s edition of Fritz Müller’s  Für …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwin’s letters; the full transcript presented here …
  • … For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwin’s alterations. The spelling and dates, however, …
  • … reading notebook. Readers primarily interested in Darwin’s scientific reading, therefore, should …
  • … number (or numbers, as the case may be) on which Darwin’s entry is to be found. The bibliography …
  • … As in the main bibliography, the manuscript page number(s) are given on which the references to the …
  • … entered into the reading notebooks. For example, Darwin’s copy of the catalogue of scientific books …
  • … The description given by Francis Darwin of his father’s method of handling the scientific books and …
  • … of species. In 1876, long after this period of Darwin’s life was over, he frankly admitted: ‘When I …
  • … , p. 119). †The scientific books in Darwin’s library were catalogued in 1875, and this …
  • … that time, most were transferred for exhibition in Darwin’s study when Down House was opened to the …
  • … had kept were left to his son Bernard and then to Bernard’s son, Sir Robin Darwin, and many of these …
  • … in the Rare Books Room. The present collection of Darwin’s Library, therefore, does not include all …
  • … C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838 Stoke’s Library 1 Cambridge. Library 2 …
  • … Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 1836–47] Lawrence [W. Lawrence 1819] read Bory S t …
  • … [Dampier 1697] Sportsman’s repository 4 to . [W. H. Scott 1820]— contains much on dogs …
  • … The Highlands & Western Isl ds  letter to Sir W Scott [MacCulloch 1824] at Maer? W. F. …
  • … Davy 1828] 31 An analysis of British Ferns. G. W. Francis 4 s  [Francis 1837]— …
  • … Middlton Life of Cicero [Middleton 1741] W. Meister’s Life [Goethe 1842].— Malcolm’s