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Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 25 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection wasthe
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • and his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that
  • and not too much’ ( letter to Albert Günther, 15 May [1868] ). My book is horribly
  • Murray to intervene, complaining on 9 January , ‘M r . Dallasdelayis intolerableI am
  • to remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin
  • it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was
  • April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed
  • I did not see this, or rather I saw it only obs[c]urely, & have kept only a few references.’ …
  • expert and editor of the  Field , William Bernhard Tegetmeier, who tabulated results from various
  • … . As on previous occasions, Darwin offered payment to Tegetmeier for his labours, writing on 26
  • well as ofvictorious males getting wives’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 25 February [1868] ). …
  • as life he wd find the odour sexual!’ ( letter to A . R. Wallace, 16 September [1868] ). Francis
  • south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing sphinx moths that were
  • the colour sense of birds. On 17 March , he encouraged Tegetmeier to paint a pigeon magenta. To
  • mission stations in Victoria, Australia ( letter from R. B. Smyth, 13 August 1868 ); lengthy
  • and had himself watched elephants cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April
  • of her two-month old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February
  • screaming in patients undergoing vaccination ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 April 1868] ). Francis
  • rest mostly on faith, and on accumulation of adaptations, &c) … Of course I understand your
  • be acomplete & premeditated swindler’ ( letter to J. B. Innes, 1 December 1868 ), his

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • correspondence. Other contacts such as William Bernard Tegetmeier and George Frederick Cupples, …
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844] …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 1674Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1855] Darwin
  • species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled
  • flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin
  • information exchange. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • name. Letter 1220Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849 In this gossipy
  • species descriptions. Letter 1260Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 12 Oct 1849
  • Letter 5770Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., Jan [1868] Müller thanks Darwin for his
  • correspondence with the poultry expert William Bernard Tegetmeier and the Scottish gardener John
  • forms of address and acknowledgement. Darwin and W. B. Tegetmeier Letter 1751 — …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 23 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwins neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In
  • …  ( Variation ). Although it was not published until 1868, all but the concluding chapter of the
  • easy work for about 1½ hours every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had
  • to make the chemistry go on better’ ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin
  • me any harmany how I cant be idle’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 24 August [1866] ). Towards
  • such as the pigeon and poultry expert William Bernhard Tegetmeier. In January, Darwin wrote to
  • of which Tegetmeier had agreed to supervise ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 16 January [1866] ). …
  • D. Hooker, 24 December [1866] ). When finally published in 1868, it filled two lengthy volumes, …
  • George: ‘Your fatherentered at the same time with Dr B. J. who received him with triumph. All his
  • you go on, after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèewhich I dreamed of 2 nights
  • so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). Henriettas
  • there are over 200 medallions of Papa made by a man from W ms  photo in circulation amongst the
  • teleological development ( see for example, letter to C. W. Nägeli, 12 June [1866] ). Also in
  • common broom ( Cytisus scoparius ) and the white broom ( C. multiflorus ) in his botanical
  • and June on the subject of  Rhamnus catharticus  (now  R. cathartica ). Darwin had become
  • of separate sexes. William gathered numerous specimens of  R. catharticus , the only species of  …
  • species wasmerely ordinaryly diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 May11 June 1866] ). On
  • is a case of dimorphic becoming diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, 20 June [1866] ). …
  • I am well accustomed to such explosions’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 22 June [1866] ). He urged
  • replied with a modified list, adding Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin , and a recent fossil discovery in
  • selection, and with special creation ( letter from W. R. Grove, 31 August 1866 ). Hooker later
  • indeed at poor Susans loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a
  • of correcting’ ( Correspondence  vol. 16, letter to W. D. Fox, 12 December [1868] ). He may
  • material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwins interests remained extremely broad, and
  • plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to
  • Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwins most substantial addition to  Origin  was a
  • a Swiss botanist and professor at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägelis paper
  • principal engine of change in the development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägelis theory
  • in most morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now
  • are & must be morphological’. The comment highlights Darwins apparent confusion about Nägelis
  • now see is possible or probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and
  • troubled at the short duration of the world according to Sir W. Thompson, for I require for my
  • the pigeon and poultry fancier William Bernhard Tegetmeier, who sent him samples of juvenile plumage
  • ability to recognise the different varieties ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 25 February [1869] ). …
  • of information which I have sent prove of any service to M r . Darwin I can supply him with much
  • … & proximate cause in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More
  • and the bird of paradise  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and
  • an injustice & never demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). …
  • … ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 7 May 1869 , letter from W. B. Dawkins, 17 July 1869 ). He
  • species that Darwin had investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a
  • genus that he had studied in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This
  • on the German translation of  Variation  (Carus trans. 1868). The French translation proved
  • the French edition of  Variation  (Moulinié trans. 1868), and CD now extended his permission for
  • Sweetland Dallass edition of Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an
  • creation, if he is not completely staggered after reading y r  essay’. The work received a
  • whole meeting was decidedly Huxleys answer to D r  M c Cann. He literally poured boiling oil
  • Scientific Opinion , launched towards the end of 1868, was one of several periodicals begun in

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868] Darwin asks Thomas Huxley to
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] Darwins nephew, Edmund, …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Letter 6139  - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [22 April 1868] Doubleday responds to Darwins
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Himalaya and Tibet. Letter 4139  - Darwin, W. E. to Darwin, [4 May 1863] …
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Wilmington. Letter 10390 - Herrick, S. M. B . to Darwin, [12 February 1876] …
  • detail. Family letter: Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma
  • borders of his garden. Letter 4233  - Tegetmeier, W. B. to Darwin, [29 June - 7 July
  • Letter 6046  - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] John Weir describes experiments
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • and edited bya lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) …
  • over. Letter 8153  - Darwin to  Darwin, W. E., [9 January 1872] Darwin
  • service. Letter 3298  - Darwin to Clarke, W. B., [25 October 1861] Darwin asks

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 23 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was
  • during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously
  • work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material
  • to be the truth, whether pleasant or not’ (letter from W. W. Reade, 21 February 1871). The geologist
  • OldhamThey club together to buy them’ ( letter from W. B. Dawkins, 23 February 1871 ). Thomas
  • and the heavy use of their arms and legs ( letter from C. L. Bernays, 25 February 1871 ). Samples
  • to make it darker than the hair on his head ( letter from W. B. Tegetmeier, [before 25 April 1871] …
  • … ( letter from Arthur Nicols, 7 March 1871 ; letter from B. J. Sulivan, 11 March 1871 ; letter
  • is a thing which I sh d  feel very proud of, if anyone c d . say of me.’ After the publication
  • way ahead of you, as far as this goes’ ( letter to J. B. Innes, 29 May [1871] ). On
  • was achieved throughthe medium of opinion, positive law &c’, and transmitted by culture, not
  • in the world except. laughing. crying grinning pouting &c. &c’, he wrote to Hooker on 21
  • so giddy I can hardly sit up, so no more’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 4 August [1871] ). On 23
  • annually on an acre of land at 16 tons (letter from L. C. Wedgwood, [20 November 1871] ). He also
  • year, but he was sympathetic about the venture: ‘it w d  be almost superhuman virtue to give it up
  • … ( letter to Asa Gray, 16 July [1871] , letter to S. R. S. Norton, 23 November [1871] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 25 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwins fluid intake; this treatment
  • the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum
  • he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his
  • to the surgeon and naturalist Francis Trevelyan Buckland, Darwin described his symptoms in some
  • November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Societys Copley Medal; …
  • been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William
  • it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin also wrote to Fox that he was
  • progressin Britain. Challenging convention Darwins concern about the acceptance of
  • …  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The only approach to work
  • …  produce tendrils However, the queries that Darwin, describing himself asa broken-down
  • tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwins excitement about his
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] ). When Darwin asked Oliver whether the tendrils of
  • for his teacherly tone, explaining that he had felt that Darwin had misunderstood some accepted
  • … ( letter from Daniel Oliver, [17 March 1864] ). Though Darwin replied with his typical humility
  • habits of climbing plants’ (‘Climbing plants’), which Darwin submitted to the Linnean Society in
  • oxlip ( P. elatior ), and published his results in an 1868 article (‘Illegitimate offspring of
  • Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20 May 1864] ), or his
  • crossing experiments with hollyhocks, and William Bernhard Tegetmeier about his pigeon breeding. To
  • 5 September 1864 ). Fritz Müeller sent his bookFür Darwin , and Darwin had it translated by a
  • which you have bearded this lion in his den’ ( letter to B. D. Walsh, 4 December [1864] ). Walsh
  • but Lyell says when I read his discussion in the Elements [C. Lyell 1865] I shall recant for fifth
  • on intellectual &ampmoral  qualities’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 24 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • the University of Cambridge. These works, catalogued by H. W. Rutherford ( Catalogue of the library
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. Lawrence 1819] read Bory S t
  • 1822] Falconers remark on the influence of climate [W. Falconer 1781] [DAR *119: 2v. …
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • … [Dampier 1697] Sportsmans repository 4 to . [W. H. Scott 1820]— contains much on dogs
  • Read M r  Bennetts & other Edit. by Hon. & Rev. W. Herbert.— notes to White Nat. Hist of
  • Analysis & theory of the Emotions by G. Ramsay B.M. 6. 6. Black Edin. Longman [Ramsay 1848] …
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • 1851]. Packard. A Guide to the Study of Insects 1868. U. States [Packard 18689] (an
  • … [Martins 1849]. 53 [DAR 119: 1a] 54 N.B. These books have been read since I
  • of London ] from Vol I to Vol VII. part III or p 433. N.B. I think the three first of Hort T. …
  • … “Ancient & Modern Tattleon Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very curious.— …
  • 1854] [DAR 128: 14] 1855 Sept. Tegetmeier on Poultry [Tegetmeier 18567
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Robert. 1843Memoirs of the life of John   Constable, R.A., composed chiefly of his letters. …
  • 2 vols. London119: 5a Packard, Alpheus Spring. 18689Guide to the study of   …
  • of holy dying . London. [Other eds.]  *119: 13 Tegetmeier, William Bernhard. 18567.  …