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Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small


In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 21 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root response and the
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • quite untirable & I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January
  • probably intending to test its effects on chlorophyll ( letter to Joseph Fayrer, 30 March 1882 ). …
  • we know about the life of any one plant or animal!’ ( letter to Henry Groves, 3 April 1882 ). He
  • experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). While enthusiasm drove him, …
  • at an early age was encouraged by Darwin. He wrote to Francis: ‘I say nothing about the loss to
  • a small tribute of respect’ (letter from John Lubbock to Francis Darwin, 20 April 1882 (DAR 215: 10n
  • of ice dams causing glacial lakes was presented by Thomas Francis Jamieson in a paper to the
  • Darwins views on eugenics, a term coined by his cousin Francis Galton, were mixed, partly owing to
  • years of Darwins life show his increasing attachment to Francis, as father and son worked together
  • no one to talk to, I scribble this to you’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [1 August 1878] ). …
  • from Charlotte Papé, 16 July 1875 ). She now addressed Francis, who could best appreciate the

The full edition is now online!


For nearly fifty years successive teams of researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have been working to track down all surviving letters written by or to Charles Darwin, research their content, and publish the complete texts. The thirtieth and final…

Matches: 8 hits

  • to track down all surviving letters written by or to Charles Darwin, research their content, and
  • picture than we have ever had before of the course of Darwins life and development of his thought. …
  • the last 6 yearsThose 400 letters flesh out the whole of Darwins life from his time on board HMS  …
  • volumeDiscover more about the final months of Darwin's life in our Life and Letters
  • convinced of the truth of Evolution as I am. ’ Letter to John Murray, 21 January 1882
  • than for 3 weeks & have had as yet no pain. ’ Letter to THHuxley, 27 March 1882
  • all that with my children it is worth having .’ Letter from Emma Darwin to JDHooker, …
  • greatest friend outside the family, on 20 April: this letter concludes the correspondence for 1882. …

Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers


In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

Matches: 26 hits

  • In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began
  • a very old man, who probably will not last much longer.’ Darwins biggest fear was not death, but
  • sweetest place on this earth’. From the start of the year, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He
  • provision for the dividing of his wealth after his death. Darwins gloominess was compounded by the
  • and new admirers got in touch, and, for all his fears, Darwin found several scientific topics to
  • Evolution old and new when revising his essay on Erasmus Darwins scientific work, and that Darwin
  • in Unconscious memory in November 1880 and in an abusive letter about Darwin in the St Jamess
  • memory in Kosmos and sent Darwin a separate letter for publication in the Journal of Popular
  • of the false accusation’. Other friends rallied round. Francis Balfour translated Krauses account
  • had been a major undertaking for both Darwin and his son Francis, who assisted in the many
  • publishers decided to print500 more, making 2000’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 ) …
  • the animal learnt from its own individual experience ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 7 March 1881 ). …
  • whether observations of their behaviour were trustworthy ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 March [1881] …
  • about the sale of books beinga game of chance’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 12 April 1881 ). On 18
  • July, sending the pages to Germany for further checks by Francis Darwin, who was spending the summer
  • Ruskin, who lived there. Sending the last two chapters to Francis on 27 May , Darwin wrote, …
  • to begin any new subject requiring much work’, he told Francis Darwin on 30 May . ‘I have been
  • case.’ An additional motivation may have been to support Francis Darwins published research on
  • Darwin tried a variety of plants and reagents, telling Francis on 17 October , ‘I have wasted
  • up the job; but I cannot endure to do this’, Darwin told Francis on 9 Novemberand writing
  • for more suggestions of such plants, especially annuals ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 21 March
  • supposed he would feelless sulky in a day or two’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 July 1881 ). The
  • dead a work falls at this late period of the season’ ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 30 July 1881 ). …
  • conversation with you’, a Swedish teacher told him ( letter from C. E. Södling, 14 October 1881 ), …
  • vol. 30, letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). ‘I sometimes receive so many
  • Nature published the day after Darwins death in April 1882. Deaths, gifts and legacies

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep


In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments …
  • … of most advanced plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … Hooker, ‘or as far as I know any scientific man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1878] ). …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … or arched.… Almost all seedlings come up arched’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). …
  • … (see Movement in plants , pp. 112–13). He explained to Francis on 2 July : ‘I go on maundering …
  • … when he finds out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] …
  • … the bassoon & apparently more by a high than a low note.’ Francis apparently played the musical …
  • Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my blunder’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 22 December [1878] ). …
  • … on plant movement were intensely collaborative, with Francis playing a more active role than ever. …
  • … exchanged when they were apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in …
  • … accursed German language: Sachs is very kind to him’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June …
  • … have nobody to talk to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] …
  • … but it is horrid not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). …
  • … determine whether they had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 …
  • … ‘There is one machine we must have’, Francis wrote ( letter from Francis Darwin, [before 17 July …
  • … who was delighted, and eventually published them in his 1882 book Animal intelligence . ‘Like the …

Francis Darwin


Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 8 hits

  • Known to his family asFrank’, Charles Darwins seventh child himself became a distinguished
  • but then transferring to natural sciencesFrancis completed his studies at Cambridge, …
  • into debt and had kept the matter secret for some months. Darwin was very stern in his advice: ‘I
  • so bothersome an old fellow as I daresay I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin18 October
  • engaged to Amy Ruck in 1872; the couple married in 1874. Francis was already living in Down. and
  • a laboratory run by Julius von Sachs in WurzburgFrancis Darwin was elected to the Royal
  • his father had not been knighted, although in 1877 Charles Darwin was awarded an honorary degree
  • … ( The Power of Movement in Plants, 1880). Perhaps Francis Darwin, whom the family regarded as a

Movement in Plants


The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 25 hits

  • 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • research being pursued by other naturalists who, like Francis, had come to this centre for the study
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • copied but also improved on some of the apparatuses that Francis had been introduced to at Würzburg. …
  • plant physiology, but it was at its core informed by Darwins theory of evolution, particularly by
  • early 1860s, at a time when his health was especially bad, Darwin had taken up the study of climbing
  • reproduced as a small book, giving it a much wider audience. Darwin was not the first naturalist to
  • which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a much longer work,  …
  • had considered combining the works in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). …
  • from all over Europe and beyond. When Darwins son Francis worked in this laboratory in the summers
  • had also asked Horace to discuss the point with his friend Francis Balfour(258). Darwin promised to
  • of any success. '. Just two months later, Darwin put Francis in charge of this aspect of the
  • … , a plant that exhibited all three types of movement ( letter from RILynch, [before 28 July
  • more familiar with the research in Sachss laboratory as Franciss departure for Würzburg was
  • to Wurzburg, & work by myself will be dull work’ . Francis was in Würzburg until early August. …
  • the woodblock using photography for scientific accuracy ( letter from JDCooper13 December
  • lost colour, withered, and died within a couple of days ( letter from A. F. Batalin28 February
  • how their observations could have been so much at odds ( letter to Hugo de Vries 13 February 1879
  • the botanist Gaetano Durando, to find plants and seeds ( letter to Francis Darwin, [4 February8
  • only the regulator & not cause of movement ’. In the same letter, Darwin discussed terminology, …
  • to replace FranksTransversal-Heliotropismus’ ( letter from WEDarwin10 February [1880] ). …
  • experiments and devised a new test, which he described in a letter to his mother, ‘ I did some
  • and it appeared in 1880 (F. Darwin 1880b). In the same letter, Francis revealed the frustration of
  • Nature  the day after his fathers death (F. Darwin 1882). Darwins study of plant movement went

Women as a scientific audience


Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E …
  • … he seeks her help with tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 …
  • … in order to minimise impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, …
  • … he uses to avoid ownership of indelicate content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to …
  • … so as not to lose the interest of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, …
  • … which will make it more appealing to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to …
  • … Darwin’s female readership Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February …
  • … of the Manchester Ladies Literary Society . Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to …
  • … the chapter on pangenesis, which is a revelation. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. …
  • Darwin assumes that 'A. B. Blackwell' is a man. Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to …
  • … him to the psychology of Herbert Spencer. Letter 7624 - Bathoe, M . B. to Darwin …
  • … his statements on a lack of reasoning in animals. Letter 7644 - Barnard, A. to …
  • Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] Caroline Kennard responds …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours


Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 24 hits

  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was increasingly a
  • assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his sons own
  • The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of
  • and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term
  • as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton
  • of respect and affection’. He hinted as much in his letter of 4 June : ‘you will see I have done
  • In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but Francis later reported some of the results of
  • have shared Hookers suspicion of ambitious gardeners ( letter from W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August
  • … … tap one of the young leaves with a delicate twig’ ( letter to R. I. Lynch, 14 September 1877 ). …
  • with thread, card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed
  • eminent German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn, who confirmed Franciss observations: ‘the most
  • … , or to the vibratory flagella of some Infusoria’ ( letter from F. J. Cohn, 5 August 1877 ). …
  • in July 1877 (F. Darwin 1877b), and Darwin sent Cohns letter vindicating his sons research to
  • Die Seele des Kindes (The mind of the child; Preyer 1882), based partly on observations of his son
  • his sense of form and of motion was exact and lively’ ( letter from W. E. Gladstone, 23 October
  • the Westphalian Provincial Society for Science and Art. In a letter to Darwin written before 16
  • the only one full-page in size. Haeckel sent a personal letter of congratulation on 9 February , …
  • … (see Appendix V). The album arrived with a long letter from the director and secretary of the
  • had visited Down House and become friendly with George and Francis. He wrote to Francis on 24

3.16 Oscar Rejlander, photos


< Back to Introduction Darwin’s plans for the illustration of his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) led him to the Swedish-born painter and photographer, Oscar Gustaf Rejlander. Rejlander gave Darwin the notes that he had…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … &lt; Back to Introduction Darwins plans for the illustration of his book The
  • and photographer, Oscar Gustaf Rejlander. Rejlander gave Darwin the notes that he had himself made
  • in the early 1870s (he died in January 1875), and Darwin assisted him financially on at least one
  • The Expression of the Emotions. In April of that year, Darwin wrote to the London firm of Elliott
  • to any purchasers’. Phillip Prodger has suggested that Darwin agreed to be photographed by Rejlander
  • Expression of the Emotions. Open sale of any portraits of Darwin was likely to be highly
  • Library contains photographs by him of Richard Litchfield (Darwins son in law), and another man, …
  • this was the wedding day of Litchfield and Henrietta Darwin, which Rejlander thus commemorated. …
  • plans for purveying a fanciful or dramatised portrayal of Darwin, he was evidently thwarted, as
  • transition from pathognomy to portraiture in his work for Darwin must have raised interesting
  • and on one side. Of the five or so known photographs of Darwin, evidently taken at more than one
  • photographs. In this way they communicate a sense of Darwins commanding intellect and physical
  • However, they may have seemed too dramatic to please the Darwin family, and were evidently not
  • was published in Nature in 1874, and was included in Francis Darwins list of canonical
  • illustrate an obituary article in the same journal in April 1882. A coarser wood engraved version
  • … (1 October 1876); LUnivers Illustré (29 April 1882); and (reversed) in La Revue Illustrée
  • London Photographic Society, February 12, 1863. Darwins letter to his daughter Henrietta of 20
  • of Manchester, English MS 1404, pp. 523, with a letter to Dresser from Darwin, dated 10 Sept. 1875
  • March 1875), p. 301, reprinted in the same journal (29 April 1882), p. 428. Wood engraving in a
  • accompanying a laudatory article by Revd R.A. Armstrong. Francis Darwins catalogue of portraits of

3.18 Elliott and Fry photos, c.1869-1871


< Back to Introduction The leading photographic firm of Elliott and Fry seems to have portrayed Darwin at Down House on several occasions. In November 1869 Darwin told A. B. Meyer, who wanted photographs of both him and Wallace for a German…

Matches: 21 hits

  • photographic firm of Elliott and Fry seems to have portrayed Darwin at Down House on several
  • Payments to the firm on 25 July 1869 and 5 April 1870 in Darwins banking account must relate to
  • to Wallace.   Elliott and Fry evidently approached Darwin again in the spring of 1871, with a
  • to Down again for a simpler portrayal. On 2 August 1871, Darwin wrote,  ‘Many thanks for the
  • which of Elliott and Frys widely disseminated images of Darwin were taken in summer 1869, and which
  • the later 1870s are clearly wide of the mark. As regards Darwins appearance, he does not look older
  • this group of photographs, of which there is a print in the Darwin archive (DAR 225.117), shows a
  • and must therefore have been reissued commemoratively. Darwins daughter Henrietta owned this, and
  • to it. In another of Elliott and Frys photographs, Darwin sits sternly erect; in yet another he
  • to a profile or nearer to a frontal view. In all of them Darwin is wearing a distinctive waistcoat, …
  • the complexities, John van Wyhe, in hisIconographyof Darwin portraits, identifies some of the
  • the day, which were widely marketed. Thus the photographs of Darwin were frequently reissued in
  • in the National Portrait Gallery. An idealised version of Darwins head from one of the Elliott and
  • the same block was re-used as the frontispiece to the June 1882 issue, which had two obituary
  • engraving which seems almost to exaggerate the shagginess of Darwins hair, eyebrows and beard, …
  • lurid Illustrated Police News, accompanying a notice of Darwins death in 1882. A vignette
  • signed by A. Gusman in Le Magasin Pittoresque, c. 1882 (Bridgeman Images), and a painting by
  • 186971 Elliott and Fry photographs were mentioned by Francis Darwin in his catalogue of portraits
  • of the Emotions , pp. 434-49, and in vol. 21 (June 1882), as frontispiece, accompanying two
  • article in a supplement to the same journal (22 April 1882) (DAR 215.22c). It was copied in a
  • Photographic Studios of Europe (London: Piper and Carter, 1882), pp. 42-5, ‘Messrs Elliott &amp; …

Animals, ethics, and the progress of science


Darwin’s view on the kinship between humans and animals had important ethical implications. In Descent, he argued that some animals exhibited moral behaviour and had evolved mental powers analogous to conscience. He gave examples of cooperation, even…

Matches: 20 hits

  • Darwins view on the kinship between humans and animals had important ethical
  • a live worm on a hook (‘Recollections’, pp. 358, 388). Darwins concern for animals aligned with
  • and an integral part of medical and veterinary training. Darwin was clearly disturbed by the
  • another word about it, else I shall not sleep to-night’ ( letter to E. R. Lankester, 22 March [1871
  • to the last hour of his life’ ( Descent 1: 40). Darwins closest encounter with
  • of different breeds together. Galton reported regularly to Darwin on the results (all negative). He
  • Society, calling into question the theory of pangenesis. Darwin was taken aback, and swiftly replied
  • deserved credit for hisingenuity and perseverance’ ( letter to Nature , [before 27 April 1871] …
  • for further cross-circulation andSiamesing’ ( letter from Francis Galton, 13 September 1871 ). …
  • Some of the results were promising, but inconclusive (see letter from G. J. Romanes, 14 July 1875
  • more influenced by experiments on animals than on plants’, Darwin conceded. ‘I think a large number
  • for your work; &amp; I suppose birds can be chloroformed (letter to G. J. Romanes, 27 December
  • branded physiologists asdemons let loose from hell’ ( letter to F. B. Cobbe, [14 January 1875] ) …
  • detail here . He stated his position most frankly in a letter to Henrietta, 4 January [1875] . …
  • point of view I have rejoiced at the present agitation. ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January
  • science of Physiology as doomed to death in this country. ( letter To T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875
  • are now in the position of a persecuted religious sect’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 4 June [1876] ) …
  • To bring more solidarity to the field, Darwins son Francis, and a number of his close colleagues
  • in general’ ( letter from T. L. Brunton, 12 February 1882 ). Darwin declined the offer to be
  • 1881 ). The organization had its first meeting on 20 April 1882, the day after Darwins death. …

Referencing women’s work


Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 16 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • standing, and personal preferenceGeorge Romanes in his 1882 publication Animal intelligence
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • are identified only asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25
  • Sir C. Lyellor received fromMiss. B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to
  • was referenced in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C
  • are not cited in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., …
  • description of a crying baby in Mary Barton. Letter 8321 - Darwin to
  • he wouldfeel the public hummingat him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, …
  • lady, on whose accuracy I can implicitly rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H
  • of Henriettas considerable editorial input. Letter 8719 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1
  • Letters relating to Earthworms Letter 7428 - Wedgwood, F. to Darwin, [4
  • … [1 November 1877] Darwin asks his sons, Horace and Francis, to observe earthworm activity

Casting about: Darwin on worms


Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 13 hits

  • for plants to flourish can be traced back to the last book Darwin wrote, snappily-titled The
  • on their habits, which was published in 1881. Despite Darwins fears that a book on earthworms might
  • out in his Natural History of Selborne of 1789 (a book Darwin claimed hadmuch influence on my
  • a new field in natural history, and almost a century later Darwin argued that all fields had passed
  • variety of strange things he persuaded people to do. Darwin concluded that worms had no sense
  • of a metal whistle and to being shouted at, but also to Francis Darwin playing the bassoon, and to
  • made calculations about larger castings on poorer soils, and Francis helped with calculations
  • … . After a while, looking for earthworm casts became a habit; Francis noticed worm casts in fir woods
  • existence of worms at that altitude. By the 1870s, Darwin was also drawing on the work of
  • him. Soon worm excrement was trusted to postal services, and Darwin acquired casts from India and
  • observations he had gathered to write a book on the subject. Darwin brought to the topic the
  • whole soul is absorbed with worms just at present!’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton Dyer, 23 November
  • … ‘worms have much bigger souls than anyone wd suppose’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] …

John Murray


Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 18 hits

  • Darwin's most famous book  On the origin of species by means of natural
  • Scotland : it contains more than two hundred letters from Darwin, from his first negotiations in
  • date from 1859, the year of the publication of  Origin . Darwins son Francis described how his
  • more interesting correspondence ( LL  1, p. v). Darwin returned from his voyage around the
  • …  This had been published in London by Henry Colburn, but Darwin felt that the arrangements had been
  • John Murray, to open negotiations with his own publisher ( Letter 824 ). Lyells talk with Murray
  • a single volume. Returning to Murray the final proof sheets Darwin wrote, ‘I am much obliged for the
  • Murrays printers, and in the first copies some pages in Darwins chapter were transposed ( Letter
  • … &amp; make the poor workman some present’ (12 June [1849] Letter 1245 ). Darwins next
  • hisbig species book’; on 18 June 1858, he received a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace with the
  • asked Lyell to act as his intermediary with John Murray ( Letter 2437 ), who, without even reading
  • not repent of having undertaken it’ (15 October [1859] Letter 2506 ). Murray decided on a retail
  • proud at the appearance of my child’ ([3 November 1859] Letter 2514 ). In the event, all Murrays
  • … – and a second edition was immediately called for ( Letter 2549 ). In the end Murray paid Darwin
  • … (Variation ), but work progressed slowly ( Letter 3078 ); meanwhile in 1862 Murray published  On
  • Murray only offered Darwin half profits for this title ( Letter 3261 ); it was never a best-seller
  • plants (Movement in plants),  which he wrote with his son, Francis. It was extensively illustrated, …
  • Letter 13466 ]. He died a few months later, on 19 April 1882. …

1.18 John Collier, oil in Linnean


< Back to Introduction By 1881 it was clear to Darwin’s intimates that he was increasingly frail, and that, as he approached death, he had finally escaped from religious controversy to become a heroic figure, loved and venerated for his achievements…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … &lt; Back to Introduction By 1881 it was clear to Darwins intimates that he was
  • worthy likeness. While there were numerous photographs of Darwin in these last years, they lacked
  • to a commemorative function. Oulesss characterisation of Darwin as an introspective and melancholy
  • as a thinker.   George Romanes and other members of Darwins circle therefore gained his
  • by subscription, and donated