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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • to artificially fertilise plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to
  • be made on seeds of Pulmonaria officinalis . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to
  • Expression from her home in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L
  • Expression during a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., …
  • of emotion in her pet dog and birds. Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • moved one or two of them into his bedroom. Letter 5602 - Sutton, S. to Darwin, [8
  • of emotion in chimpanzees and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, …
  • attracted to dark spots on the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • Letter 7858 - Darwin to Wa llace, A. R., [12 July 1871] Darwin tells Wallace that

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 21 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwins preoccupation with the
  • to mans place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwins species theory and on the problem
  • fromsome Quadrumanum animal’, as he put it in a letter to J. D. Hooker of 24[–5] February [1863] …
  • … ‘I declare I never in my life read anything grander’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 26 [February 1863] …
  • in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwins concern about the popular
  • than  Origin had (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). …
  • from animals like the woolly mammoth and cave bear ( see letter from Jacques Boucher de Perthes, 23
  • leap from that of inferior animals made himgroan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). …
  • mentor had not said a word ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin did
  • for a fitting opportunity’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). …
  • been filled in the fossil record ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). Only until
  • the  Athenæum  in response ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 5 March [1863] ). He later expressed
  • sentence from the second edition of  Antiquity of man  (C. Lyell 1863b, p. 469), published in
  • honours like the Copley Medal ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 5 [December 1863] ). Plants and
  • very slowly recovering, but am very weak’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [29 September? 1863] ). …
  • reminder of their loss (see  Correspondence  vol. 5). Unable to find Annies gravestone in 1863, …
  • Thomass Hospital, London ( letter from George Busk, [ c. 27 August 1863] ). Brinton, who

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • anything more on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • worms , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new
  • you not think 6s is too dear for a cheap Edit? Would not 5s be better? . . . The public are
  • best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12 February 1872 ) …
  • condition as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September
  • translation remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November
  • to the comparative anatomist St George Jackson Mivart ( letter to St GJMivart,  11 January
  • comparison of Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ) …
  • appear’, complained Darwin ( letter to St GJMivart, 5 January 1872 ). Piqued, Mivart flung
  • … `chiefly perhaps because I do it badly’ ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  …
  • accepted it at least in part ( letter to August Weismann, 5 April 1872 ). ‘I wanted some
  • to believe it’ ( letter to Herman Müller, [before 5 May 1872] ).  Müller had sent him a
  • myself was standing’ ( letter to Hermann Müller, [before 5 May 1872] ). Finishing  …
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • … & new views which are daily turning up’ ( letter to ARWallace, 28 August [1872] ).  …
  • to me, which have ever been made’ ( letter to Mary Treat, 5 January 1872 ). In June, Lady
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • you agreed to let them have it for love!!!’ ( letter from RFCooke, 1 August 1872 ). It
  • gift, although he doubted he would ever use it ( letter to CLDodgson, 10 December 1872 ). …
  • try `with straight blunt knitting needle’ ( letter to LCWedgwood, 5 January [1872] ) to

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 20 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • many blessings, was finding old agea dismal time’ ( letter to Henry Johnson, 24 September 1879 ) …
  • wrinkles one all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879
  • itself, or gone some other way round?’ At least the last letter of 1879 contained a warmer note and
  • office to complete Horaces marriage settlement ( letter from W. M. Hacon, 31 December 1879 ). …
  • but they wereas nice and good as could be’ ( letter from Karl Beger, [ c. 12 February 1879] ) …
  • of the Admiralty described the unknown young man asA M r Darwin grandson of the well known
  • same man in one volume’, Darwin pointed out to Krause on 5 June , adding that although Krauses
  • him on 9 June not toexpend much powder & shot on M r  Butler’, for he really was not worth
  • leaving Darwinmore perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 12
  • beyond histether’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 5 June 1879 , and letter to G. H. Darwin, …
  • the highest point, for hiswhy”—“what for” &c are incessant’, Darwin joked on 2 July (first
  • which is his profession thonot a profitable one; also D r  C[lark]’s opinion that he was so
  • greatly amused Darwin, who felt it wasvery acute of M r  Ruskin to know that I feel a deep & …
  • Darwin with information, suggestions, and questions. On 5 February, a stonemason, Thomas Maston, …
  • vague probabilities’ ( letter to Nicolai Mengden, 5 June 1879 ). On the very day that Emma
  • and preventCattle diseases, Potato diseases &c’, probably did not know that Darwin had already

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 23 hits

  • Re: DesignAdaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby Craig
  • as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified
  • correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring
  • Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin Actor 3In the dress of a modern day
  • Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwinand acts as a sort
  • the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and
  • this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa
  • friends in England, copies of hisReview of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it
  • and the simplicity of his character. DARWIN:   5   I am allowed to work now two-and-a
  • his University) and is much less his own man. A letter from England catches his attention
  • 11   My dear HookerWhat a remarkably nice and kind letter Dr A. Gray has sent me in answer to my
  • be of any the least use to you? If so I would copy itHis letter does strike me as most uncommonly
  • on the geographical distribution of the US plants; and if my letter caused you to do this some year
  • a brace of letters 25   I send enclosed [a letter for you from Asa Gray], received
  • might like to see it; please be sure [to] return it. If your letter is Botanical and has nothing
  • I think an owl really might go in storm in this time 400 or 500 miles. Owls and Hawks have often
  • I cannot persuade myself that I can do so honourably50   knowing that Wallace is in the
  • who spake by the Prophets. DARWIN51   [And] I fear we have [a] case of scarlet
  • anxious, flitting from one worry to the next. 53   It is miserable in me to care at
  • not to care; but I found myself mistaken and punished55   My good dear friend, forgive me. …
  • and the life of the world to come. DARWIN:   56   My dearest Hooker, You will, and so
  • paragraph, in which I quote and differ from you[r178   doctrine that each variation has been
  • ARTS AND SCIENCES, PROCEEDINGS XVII, 1882 4  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 10 MAY 1848

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 23 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • my grandfathers character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). …
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • modified; but now I much regret that I did not do so’ ( letter to Samuel Butler, 3 January 1880 ). …
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • shake their heads in the same dismal manner as you & M r . Murray did, when I told them my
  • ill founded, however, for the book sold out quickly, and 500 more copies had to be printed at the
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • … ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of the family
  • and Expression . He offered detailed comments on 5 February : ‘I should have thought that the
  • great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). …
  • rather trying I fear when he is not very strong  He is 57 years of age and has been much discouraged
  • aid, and it will be a grievous shameI would subscribe £50 but I have not strength or time to go
  • his voice as clearly as if he were present’ (letters to C. W. Fox, 29 March 1880 and 10 [April

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 25 hits

  • When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect
  • handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller, 22 February
  • was the collection of observations on a global scale. Darwin was especially interested in peoples
  • cultural and conventional, or instinctive and universal. Darwin used his existing correspondence
  • and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?” Darwins questionnaire was an extension of
  • was also carefully devised so as to prevent the feelings of Darwins remote observers from colouring
  • and not the susceptibilities of a moral nature.” Darwin did not typically countenance such
  • the collection of information to its display in print. After Darwin received all of the replies to
  • Correspondence about Darwins Questionnaire (click on the letter dates to see the individual letters
  • Correspondent Letter date Location
  • nodding vertically Blair, R.H. 11 July
  • Africa)? ] mentioned in JPM Weale letter, but Bowker's answers not found
  • Fuegians Brooke, C.A.J. 30 Nov 1870
  • Dyaks Brooke, C.A.J. 30 April 1871
  • Woolston, Southampton, England letter to W.E. Darwin shrugging
  • Square W London, England enclosed in a letter from Henry Maudsley
  • South Africa possibly included in letter from Mansel Weale
  • Peradeniya, Ceylon enclosed in letter from G.H.K. Thwaites
  • Egypt] possibly included in letter(s) from Asa Gray Nile
  • Lake Wellington, Australia letter to F.J.H. von Mueller nodding, …
  • Hooker, J.D. 5 Sept 1868 Kew, London (about Nagasaki
  • Abbey Place, London, England letter to Emma Darwin baby expression
  • Penmaenmawr, Conway, Wales letter to Emma Darwin infant daughter
  • Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West
  • in Hottentots Smyth, R. Brough 13 Aug 1868

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 26 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • in satisfying female preference in the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, …
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his
  • as well say, he would drink a little and not too much’ ( letter to Albert Günther, 15 May [1868] ) …
  • Murray to intervene, complaining on 9 January , ‘M r . Dallasdelayis intolerableI am
  • would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwins angry letter to Murray crossed one from Dallas to
  • of labour to remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). …
  • by your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  s ., and recommended to Murray that
  • if I try to read a few pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). …
  • it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was
  • April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed
  • able to throw off thick dictionaries by flexing. On 5 April , Edward Blyth, who had supplied
  • 3 June 1868 ). ‘It was very kind’, Darwin wrote on 5 June , ‘almost heroic, in you to sacrifice
  • I did not see this, or rather I saw it only obs[c]urely, & have kept only a few references.’ …
  • as life he wd find the odour sexual!’ ( letter to A . R. Wallace, 16 September [1868] ). Francis
  • south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing sphinx moths that were
  • question of theOrigin of Species”’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 4 October 1868 ). …
  • distributed it in Japan ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 5 September 1868 ); Edward Wilson, a neighbour
  • of her two-month old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February
  • Molendo and Alexander Walther addressed themselves on 5 August tothe Reformator of Natural
  • rest mostly on faith, and on accumulation of adaptations, &c) … Of course I understand your
  • had sent four letters the previous year, wrote again on 5 October , ‘I am quite distressed that

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E …
  • … he seeks her help with tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 …
  • … in order to minimise impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, …
  • … he uses to avoid ownership of indelicate content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to …
  • … so as not to lose the interest of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, …
  • … which will make it more appealing to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to …
  • … Darwin’s female readership Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February …
  • … of the Manchester Ladies Literary Society . Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to …
  • … the chapter on pangenesis, which is a revelation. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. …
  • Darwin assumes that 'A. B. Blackwell' is a man. Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to …
  • … in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • … in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • … Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …
  • … of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 27 hits

  • …   Charles Darwins major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work,  …
  • couple of months were needed to index the work, a task that Darwin handed over to someone else for
  • and animals  ( Expression ), published in 1872. Although Darwin had been collecting material and
  • A global reputation The importance of Darwins network of correspondents becomes vividly
  • who might best answer the questions, with the result that Darwin began to receive replies from
  • Variation  would be based on proof-sheets received as Darwin corrected them. Closer to home, two
  • Charles Fleeming Jenkin, challenged different aspects of Darwins theory of transmutation as
  • suppose abuse is as good as praise for selling a Book’ ( letter to John Murray, 31 January [1867] …
  • to the printer, but without the additional chapter. In a letter written on 8 February [1867] to
  • booksDescent  and  Expression . In the same letter, Darwin revealed the conclusion to his
  • variation of animals and plants under domestication . In a letter to his son William dated 27
  • of his brothers embryological papers with his first letter to Darwin of 15 March 1867 , although
  • … . Indeed, he told his publisher, John Murray, in a letter of 4 April [1867] , not to send
  • tell me, at what rate your work will be published’ ( letter from J. V. Carus, 5 April 1867 ). This
  • … & sent to him, he may wish to give up the task’ ( letter to Carl Vogt, 12 April [1867] ). …
  • fit personto introduce the work to the German public ( letter from J. V. Carus, 15 April 1867 ). …
  • resulted in a mottled hybrid ( letter from Robert Trail, 5 April 1867 ). Darwin told his American
  • see your second volume onThe Struggle for Existence &c.” for I doubt if we have a sufficiency
  • … “supplemental remarks on expression”’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [1217] March [1867] ). Darwins
  • … ‘You see I have  printed  your queriesprivately50 copiesas the best way of  putting  them
  • aviary to see whether this was the case ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1867] ). He also
  • level. In his response to Wallace ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 26 February [1867] ), Darwin defended
  • might come into play in some circumstances. In a letter of 5 May [1867] , Darwin admitted, …
  • to the work I shall find it much better done by you than I c d  have succeeded in doing’ ( letter
  • I have not a word to say against it but such a view c d  hardly come into a scientific book’ ( …
  • Wallace published a long article, ‘Creation by law’ (A. R. Wallace 1867c), which responded to Jenkin
  • would subdue; that is yours’ ( letter from J. V. Carus, 5 April 1867 ). Darwin complied, and his

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 24 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • inferred that he was well from his silence on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October
  • in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] …
  • that Mr Williams wasa cheat and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). …
  • his, ‘& that he was thus free to perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874
  • Darwin had alloweda spirit séanceat his home ( letter from T. G. Appleton, 2 April 1874 ). …
  • edition, published in 1842 ( Correspondence  vol. 21, letter to Smith, Elder