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To G. J. Romanes   24 June [1881]


Discusses possible case of inherited memory involving Pompilus. Cites similar example of electric eel.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George John Romanes
Date:  24 Jun [1881]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.530)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10813

From Fritz Müller   31 May 1881

Author:  Johann Friedrich Theodor (Fritz) Müller
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  31 May 1881
Classmark:  Möller ed. 1915–21, 2: 410–11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11385A

To John Lubbock   12 November [1881]


JL’s sentence about glaciation will do excellently. Is glad JL thought about dimorphism of butterflies.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  12 Nov [1881]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (11 July 2017)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11743F

To G. J. Romanes   [17 December 1881]


Asks him to visit.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George John Romanes
Date:  [17 Dec 1881]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.578)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12382

From W. E. Darwin   1 January [1881]


Discusses possible investments.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Jan 1881
Classmark:  Cornford Family Papers (DAR 275: 75)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12392G

From T. H. Farrer   2 January [1881]


Concerning subscriptions raised for Torbitt’s experiments on potato disease.

Comments on CD’s latest book [Movement in plants].

Author:  Thomas Henry Farrer, 1st Baron Farrer
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 164: 96
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12395

From Lawrence Ruck   12 January [1881]


Discusses the grazing habits of sheep and cattle on steep hillsides.

Author:  Lawrence Ruck
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 176: 224
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12417

From J. D. Hooker   24 February 1881



The debt of plant geography to voyages may be JDH’s topic at BAAS meeting [at Swansea].

Photographs from New Zealand forwarded.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Feb 1881
Classmark:  DAR 104: 138–139
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12498

From W. R. Browne   [20–2] November [1881]


Announces intention to hold a private conference with the Archbishop of Canterbury with the aim of encouraging men of science to reaffirm their religious beliefs and also to publish a series of articles in the Contemporary Review on the state of the various sciences.

Author:  Walter Raleigh Browne
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [20–2] Nov [1881]
Classmark:  DAR 160: 334 (fragile)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12789

To Julius Lippert   [1881]


Thanks JL for copy of Die Religionen [1881].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Julius Lippert
Date:  [1881]
Classmark:  Wellcome Library (MS.7781/23)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12959

From L. M. Forster to Emma Darwin   [after 19 June 1881]


On flowers bending towards light reflected in a mirror.

Author:  Laura Mary Forster
Addressee:  Emma Wedgwood; Emma Darwin
Date:  [after 19 June 1881]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 158
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12960

To G. H. Darwin   [1881–2?]


Will GHD ask Lord R[ayleigh] whether "gas-men in testing light, exclude the diffused light".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Howard Darwin
Date:  [1881–2?]
Classmark:  DAR 210.1: 115
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12961

From Wilhelm Breitenbach   [before 20 June 1881]


Arrived in Brazil three months ago. Studying insects and plants, but work suffers from lack of scientific literature.

Fritz Müller has written to him to observe relations between ants and plants.

Writing popular articles about evolution for German newspaper in Brazil.

Sends paper from Kosmos.

Expects to spend several years in Brazil.

Author:  Wilhelm Breitenbach
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 20 June 1881]
Classmark:  DAR 202: 16
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12962

To V. O. Kovalevsky   1 and 6 January 1881


Thanks VOK for the Russian tea.

Rejoices at his prosperity and appointment at Moscow [Associate Professor, Moscow University, 1880–3].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky (Владимир Онуфриевич Ковалевский)
Date:  1 and 6 Jan 1881
Classmark:  Institut Mittag-Leffler
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12963

From A. R. Wallace   1 January 1881


ARW’s view of migration of plants from mountain to mountain gains support from case described in Nature [23 (1880): 125–6] by J. G. Baker. Identical species of alpine plants found in African mountains and Madagascar.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 271.6: a6
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12964

To Alexander Agassiz   1 [June] 1881


Thanks AA for letter on coral reefs. "I used to think … that areas of elevation and of subsidence must – as a general rule be separated by a single great line of fissure, or rather of several".

Suggests that AA urge again his views on reappearance of old characters.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Agassiz
Date:  1 [Jun] 1881
Classmark:  DAR 143: 10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12965

To James Torbitt   [5 January 1881]


T. H. Farrer and James Caird express great interest in JT’s report. Have instructed CD to hold £90 for use by JT in spring. Caird asks that potatoes be sent to his gardener for trials.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Torbitt
Date:  1 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 148: 127
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12966

To Post Office Savings Bank   1 January [1881]


Asks to have some funds of the Down Friendly Society transferred.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Post Office Savings Bank
Date:  1 Jan [1881]
Classmark:  DAR 202: 77
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12967

To A. R. Wallace   2 January 1881


On land migration of plants. The case in Nature is striking but CD doubts that seeds of plants could be blown from mountains of Abyssinia to mountains of Madagascar.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Date:  2 Jan 1881
Classmark:  British Library (Add MS 46434)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12968

From Ernst Krause   2 January 1881  


Encloses reply to Butler [Kosmos 8 (1881): 321–2]. Has also written a reply intended for English reader. Will have it translated for Popular Science Review if CD thinks suitable.

Report of Jäger accident was an error.

Kosmos has been purchased by Eduard Koch in Stuttgart and will continue as in the past.

Author:  Ernst Ludwig (Ernst) Krause
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Jan 1881
Classmark:  DAR 92: B61; DAR 221.2: 27
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-12969
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