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From Lionel Ashburner   25 June 1871

Summary

Gives examples of animal species in which adult males castrate or kill younger males.

Author:  Lionel Robert (Lionel) Ashburner
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 June 1871
Classmark:  DAR 159: 115
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10551

To W. E. Darwin   15 March [1871]

Summary

Wants WED to thank F. de Chaumont for some valuable observations.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Erasmus Darwin
Date:  15 Mar [1871]
Classmark:  Wellcome Library (RAMC/473/1). Trustees of the Army Medical Services Museum.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-11936

From A child of God   [after 24 February 1871?]

Summary

Urges CD to repent and seek salvation through Christ.

Author:  "A child of God"
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 24 Feb 1871?]
Classmark:  DAR 201: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13770

From J. W. Abernethy   [after 18 February 1871]

Summary

A poem, "Burns to Darwin".

Author:  Julian Willis Abernethy
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 18 Feb 1871]
Classmark:  DAR 140.4: 26
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13771

To E. A. Darwin   7 September [1871]

Summary

Wants to sell some shares held in trust by EAD and Josiah Wedgwood [III].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Date:  7 Sept [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 27
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13789

To Miss Fenwick   8 February [1871–82]

Summary

Sends two waste sheets of MS of Descent; Miss F can cut out any portion she likes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Miss Fenwick
Date:  8 Feb [1871-82]
Classmark:  John Hay Library, Brown University
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13806

From C. Shuttleworth   27 November [1871–80]

Summary

Reports peculiar behaviour in a fantail pigeon, which persistently courted a ginger-beer bottle.

Author:  Caroline Jemima (Caroline) Shuttleworth
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27 Nov [1871-80]
Classmark:  DAR 177: 158
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13840

From D. Thomas   [after 11 March 1871]

Summary

CD is "bent upon linking the monkey race to us"; DT finds it striking that CD should so resemble an ape.

Author:  D. Thomas
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 11 Mar 1871]
Classmark:  DAR 178: 108
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13849

To [?]   27 September [1871–81]

Summary

Thanks for a book. "I am so much overworked at present that I cannot read it now, & I am a very poor German scholar".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  27 Sept [1871-81]
Classmark:  David Schulson (dealer) (August 2005)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13886

To [?]   18 November [1871 or later]

Summary

"With Mr. Charles Darwin’s compliments enclosing one guinea."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  18 Nov [1871 or later]
Classmark:  Swann Auction Galleries (dealers) (14 September 1993)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13887

To ?   19 May [1871]

Summary

Thanks for references about dogs. Fears work will not allow him to deal with subject again. Heartily subscribes to what correspondent says about qualities of dogs. Loves his "with all my heart".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  19 May [1871]
Classmark:  Paul C. Richards (dealer) (Catalogue 109)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13889

To W. H. Flower   [1871?]

Summary

Does not know rules for admission to museum [of the Royal College of Surgeons]. CD’s son [Francis] wishes much to inspect some of the preparations.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Henry Flower
Date:  [1871?]
Classmark:  Former owner B. J. Harrison (private collection); sold by Bonhams (dealers) (15 July 2004)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5767

From St George Jackson Mivart   24 February [1871]

Summary

Would be pleased if CD called.

Author:  St George Jackson Mivart
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 Feb [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 171: 182
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5926

To ?   7 April [1871]

Summary

Asks correspondent to thank Thomas Laycock for his references. CD has been away from home and has not yet consulted his copy of Laycock’s Mind and brain [1860].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  7 Apr [1871]
Classmark:  R. M. Smythe (dealer) (November 1998)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6102A

To A. B. Buckley   18 December [1871]

Summary

Thanks her for marked proof-sheets.

Discusses climate in earlier geological periods.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Arabella Burton Buckley
Date:  18 Dec [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 177
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6508

To Louis Bertillon   18 December 1871

Summary

Thanks for his article Valeur philosophique de l'hypothèse du transformisme (Bertillon 1870), which is very clear.

Would not himself trust so much in Agassiz’s conclusions.

Glad the essay has been published, as he believes ‘there are but few in France who admit the doctrine of evolution’.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Louis-Adolf Louis (Louis) Bertillon
Date:  18 Dec 1871
Classmark:  Librairie la 42ème Ligne, Paris (dealers) (2018)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6508F

From C. H. Thiebout   [1871]

Summary

As a follower of CD, Spencer, and Kant, wishes to announce his work on the origin of "foolish illnesses" and prostitution [? Kort begrip der proefunderlijke zielkunde (1869)].

Author:  Carel Hendrik Thiebout
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1871]
Classmark:  DAR 201: 39
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6523

To T. H. Huxley   [11 or 18 May 1871]

Summary

Asks for a ticket for THH’s lecture at the Royal Institution for WED. With ED’s and HED’s forgeries of CD’s signature.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  [11 or 18] May 1871
Classmark:  Janet Huxley (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6541F

To W. B. Dawkins   12 April [1871]

Summary

Sends contribution of £5 to Settle Cave Exploration Fund.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Boyd Dawkins
Date:  12 Apr [1871]
Classmark:  Wellcome Library (MS. 7781/22)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6695

From G. H. Darwin   [c. 17 July 1871]

Summary

Gives CD some information on wills.

Author:  George Howard Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 17 July 1871]
Classmark:  DAR 210.2: 11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6765
Document type
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Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 30 hits

  • … The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the …
  • … promotes the sale’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ). The profits for Darwin were …
  • … first two printings, Darwin wrote to Murray on 20 March 1871 , ‘It is quite a grand trade to be a …
  • … in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction …
  • … to read it ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 19 February 1871 ). The African explorer and …
  • … pleasant or not’ (letter from W. W. Reade, 21 February 1871). The geologist William Boyd Dawkins …
  • … to buy them’ ( letter from W. B. Dawkins, 23 February 1871 ). Thomas Henry Huxley marvelled that …
  • … tide-marks!’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 February 1871 ). Asa Gray remarked, somewhat …
  • … and pointed ears”  (letter from Asa Gray, 14 April 1871) Like his previous book,  …
  • … arms and legs ( letter from C. L. Bernays, 25 February 1871 ). Samples of hair arrived from …
  • … his head ( letter from W. B. Tegetmeier, [before 25 April 1871] )). Hinrich Nitsche, ‘the lucky …
  • … orang-utan foetus ( letter from Hinrich Nitsche, 18 April 1871 ). Darwin thought he might use the …
  • … poor return’ ( letter to Hinrich Nitsche, 25 April [1871] ). Animal anecdotes appeared in …
  • … space each morning ( letter from Arthur Nicols, 7 March 1871 ; letter from B. J. Sulivan, 11 …
  • … of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). Roland Trimen, a long-time …
  • … in the past ( letter from Roland Trimen, 17 and 18 April 1871 ). Candid disagreement …
  • … were raised to a high pitch, as Innes wrote on 26 May 1871 about the darker races arising …
  • … as far as this goes’ ( letter to J. B. Innes, 29 May [1871] ). On religion and morality …
  • … Creator made it’ ( letter from George Morrish, 18 March 1871 ). Darwin received an anonymous …
  • … Descent  ( letter from a child of God, [after 24 February 1871] ). Yet some continued to …
  • … religious feeling’ ( letter from F. E. Abbot, 20 August 1871 ). The Anglican clergyman and …
  • … brethren’ ( letter from George Henslow, 5 December 1871 ). Ernst Haeckel boasted of his month …
  • … monkey !’ ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 21 December 1871 ). Descent  was extensively …
  • … independent of all times and all circumstances’ (8 April 1871, p. 5). Darwin condemned the author of …
  • … & classics’ ( letter to John Murray, 13 April [1871] ). But a similar point was made by …
  • … the killing of some members of a hive a duty (Cobbe 1871, pp. 174, 188–9). Darwin was particularly …
  • … by culture, not biology ( letter from John Morley, 30 March 1871 ). Reaction at home …
  • … its master. ( Letter from Hensleigh Wedgwood, [3–9 March 1871] .) Some of Darwin’s …
  • … to me’ ( letter to Hensleigh Wedgwood, 9 March 1871 ). A widening rift By far the …
  • … 1871a), which appeared just prior to  Descent  in early 1871. ‘I daresay it will tell heavily …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Blair, R.H. 11 July 1871 Worcester College for the …
  • … Brooke, C.A.J. 30 April 1871 Sarawak, Borneo …
  • … Chaumont, F.S.B.F. de 11 March 1871 Woolston, …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 3 April 1871 West Riding …
  • … Donders, F.C. 28 March 1871 Utrecht, Netherlands …
  • … Foster, Michael 4 June [1871] Trinity College, …
  • … Gray, Asa 14 April 1871 Cambridge, Massachusetts, …
  • … Gray, Asa 10 & 14 March [1871] Cambridge, …
  • … Mivart, G.J. 26 Jan 1871 North Bank, London, England …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 1 Feb 1871 11 St Mary Abbot's …
  • … Rejlander, O.G. [1871] Victoria Street, London, …
  • … Smith, Andrew 1 Feb. 1871 11 Saint Mary Abbot's …
  • … Smith, Andrew 17 April 1871 16 Alexander Square, …
  • … Swinhoe, Robert 14 March 1871 33 Oakley Square, …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … first is undated but we know it was written before 25 April 1871 because Darwin alluded to a case …
  • … report by the pigeon-fancier W. B. Tegetmeier, 25 April [1871] . In his letter Chance is …
  • … (Letter from Frank Chance, [before 25 April 1871] ) Responding to this meticulous self …
  • … were very rare. When we were editing volume 19 (1871), Chance’s enclosure of beard and …
  • … : In your work on the ""Descent of Man"" (ed. 1871) ii. 298, 299, in …
  • … followed up on a similar case that CD had observed on 13 May 1871. William’s letter of 5 June 1871

Henrietta Emma Darwin

Summary

Henrietta “Etty” Darwin (1843–1927) was the eldest of Charles Darwin’s daughters to reach adulthood. She married Richard Buckley Litchfield in 1871. She was a valued editor to her father as well as companion and correspondent to both of her parents.…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … reach adulthood. She married Richard Buckley Litchfield in 1871. She was a valued editor to her …
  • … by her father for his scientific writing, particularly his 1871 work,   The Descent of Man .  In …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … [1850] and n. 6; and letter to J. B. Innes, 29 May [1871] ). Their true friendship does …
  • … request favourably—’ (letter from J. B. Innes, 26 May 1871 ). Indeed Innes had such a high …
  • … school and organ funds (letter to J. B. Innes, 13 January 1871 ). Down’s next clergyman …
  • … very dull sermons’ (letter to J. B. Innes, 18 January [1871] ). Mr Powell was happy to take up …
  • … qualifications’ (letter from J. B. Innes, 5 June 1871 ). Particularly in the early days of …

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Letter 7048 : Darwin, W. E., to Darwin, C. R., [April? 1871] In Descent of man (1: 71 …
  • … Letter 7645 : Morley, John to Darwin, 30 March 1871 The politician and man of letters, …
  • … of Descent of Man in the Pall Mall Gazette (Morley 1871). Darwin admired the review, and …
  • … Letter 7685 : Darwin to Morley, John, 14 April [1871] "When I speak of intellectual …
  • … Letter 7691 , Morley, John, to Darwin, 17 April 1871 "I don't think Mr. Mill& …
  • … 7470 : Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, [before 3 March 1871] Darwin exchanged long letters …
  • … Letter 7537 : Darwin, C. R. to Wenslow, Hensleigh, 3 March [1871] Using the example of …
  • … 3. [ available at Darwinonline ] Cobbe, F. P. 1871. 'Darwinism in morals'. …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … heart’ ( Correspondence vol. 19, letter to ?, 19 May [1871] ). As a magistrate in Down, he had …
  • … vol. 19, letter to E. R. Lankester, 22 March [1871] ). In the same year, Darwin had published …
  • … of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1871 that outlined principles for …

William Winwood Reade

Summary

On 19 May 1868, an African explorer and unsuccessful novelist, William Winwoode Reade (1838–1875) offered to help Darwin, and started a correspondence and, arguably, a collaboration, that would last until Reade's death. After a first 1861 tour of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of it" – Winwood Reade to Charles Darwin, 31 January 1871 ) and sought Darwin’s advice on …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Charles Darwin’s daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and July 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound notebook now in the Darwin Archive of Cambridge University Library (DAR 247). They are published in volume 19 of The…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … wrote the following journal entries in March and July 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound …
  • … by Henrietta herself. Darwin’s letters in 1870 and 1871 ( Correspondence , vols 18 and 19) …
  • … missions due to take place between 26 February and 5 March 1871 in four towns within the deanery of …
  • … from Charles and Emma Darwin to F. J. Wedgwood, [March 1871?], and letter from F. J. Wedgwood to H. …
  • … University Library. Henrietta Darwin | March 1871 1871 March— Sea Grove …
  • … away what they have no equivalent for. July 4th 1871. How hard it is to wait—the …
  • … I think I am a very happy woman. Sunday July 9^th^. 1871 I want to think why I shd …
  • … mission leaders in the  Hampshire Advertiser , 21 January 1871, p. 7. ^4^Probably John …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Letter 7624 - Bathoe, M . B. to Darwin, [25 March 1871] Mary Bathoe responds …
  • … Letter 7644 - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslow’s daughter, …
  • … 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] Frances Wedgwood offers …
  • … 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] The poet Emily Pfeiffer …
  • … Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, [7 November 1871] Sarah Hennell writes to Darwin …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … his results tended to disprove Darwin’s theory (Galton 1871). This brought a quick rejoinder from …
  • … together to facilitate cross-circulation ( 13 September 1871 ). His views on inheritance continued …

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … politely worded rebuke to St G. J. Mivart ( 21 April [1871] ) for  the inadequacies, as Darwin saw …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Darwin on human evolution

Summary

'I hear that Ladies think it delightful reading, but that it does not do to talk about it, which no doubt promotes the sale.' For the first time online you can now read the full texts of nearly 800 letters Darwin wrote and received during 1871,…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin wrote and received more than 800 letters during 1871, the year in which Descent of man , …
  • … and work for this year in  Darwin's life in letters, 1871: An emptying nest . …
  • … had published a short paper on the action of earthworms; in 1871, he was able to make exact …
  • … margin: 10px;","class":"media-element file-default"}}]] In 1871, Darwin& …

Darwin in public and private

Summary

Extracts from Darwin's published works, in particular Descent of man, and selected letters, explore Darwin's views on the operation of sexual selection in humans, and both his publicly and privately expressed views on its practical implications…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … in relation to sex , (London: John Murray, 1st ed., 1871), vol. 1., pp. 207 – 208. 3) “Man …
  • … and has a more inventive genius…”   Descent (1871), vol. 2, pp. 316 – 317. 4) …
  • … greater tenderness and less selfishness…” Descent (1871), vol. 2, pp. 326 – 327. 5) “The …
  • … merely the use of the senses and hands….”  Descent (1871), vol. 2, pp. 327. 6) “…Thus man …
  • … is in ornamental plumage to the peahen.”   Descent (1871), vol. 2, pp. 328 – 329. 7) …
  • … chiefly to her adult daughters….”  Descent (1871), vol. 2, p. 329. 8) “Man is more …
  • … should have gained the power of selection…” Descent (1871), vol. 2, pp. 371 – 372. …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Letter 7433  - Wedgwood,  F. to Darwin, [9 January 1871] Darwin’s brother-in-law, …
  • … Letter 8113 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [20 December 1871] Mary Treat describes her …
  • … Letter 7605  - Darwin to Darwin,  H. E., [20 March 1871] Darwin reports to …
  • … Letter 7858 - Darwin to Wa llace, A. R., [12 July 1871] Darwin tells Wallace that …
  • … 8089 - Darwin to Litc hfield, H. E., [2 December 1871] Darwin sends a chapter on …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … parliament to include a question on cousin-marriage in the 1871 census.  This was unsuccessful, but …
  • … to carry off anothers wife? ( from John Lubbock, 18 March [1871] ). It was Lubbock who drew …

Descent

Summary

‘Our ancestor was an animal which breathed water, had a swim-bladder, a great swimming tail, an imperfect skull & undoubtedly was an hermaphrodite! Here is a pleasant genealogy for mankind.’ There are more than five hundred letters associated with…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ’ Descent was published in two volumes in 1871, yet as late as the summer of 1868 …
  • … ’ Descent was published on 24 February 1871, sold out, and was rushed into a second …
  • … to, Descent , see Darwin’s Life in Letters: 1871 . …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, [7 November 1871] Sarah Hennell writes to Darwin …
  • … Letter 8079 - Norton, S. R. to Darwin, [20 November 1871] Sarah Norton passes on to …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …
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