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To William Bowman   16 May [1869–81]

Summary

"I shall not be in London on Monday, but I have written to my Brother to ask him to aid you"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Bowman, 1st baronet
Date:  16 May [1869-81]
Classmark:  George Houle Autographs (dealer) (Catalogue 61, March 1992)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13781

To Adolph Reuter   24 July [1869]

Summary

Thanks for facts on inheritance. May be used if CD corrects 3d ed. [2d ed.] of Variation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Adolf Reuter
Date:  24 July [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 297
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13837

To ?   2 May [1869 or later]

Summary

"When a man has laboured hard in science & has proved that he is capable of original research, he may [some]times indulge in speculation [&] the public will indulge him. But even in this case it is a common error to speculate too largely, for speculation is far easier than observation or experiments . . ."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  2 May [1869-82]
Classmark:  Sotheby’s (dealers) (28 March 1983)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13866A

To Richard Kippist   31 January [1869?]

Summary

"You are most perfectly welcome to Fragmenta [F. J. H. von Mueller Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae (1858–64)], & I shall be delighted if they are of the slightest use to you."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Richard Kippist
Date:  31 Jan [1869?]
Classmark:  Linnean Society of London (pasted in Mueller 1858–82, vol. 1)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3426A

To Benjamin Dann Walsh   3 April [1869]

Summary

Glad BDW has proved his case on dimorphism of Cynips.

Interested in galls

and BDW’s Cicada articles [Proc. Entomol. Soc. Philadelphia (1864)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Benjamin Dann Walsh
Date:  3 Apr [1869]
Classmark:  Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (Walsh 17)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5482

From J. D. Hooker   14 [January] 1869

Summary

Oliver overlooked CD’s request about rutaceous flowers. Of precisely which points about the ovules does CD want illustrations?

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  14 [Jan] 1869
Classmark:  DAR 48: A78, DAR 103: 3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5729

To George Howard Darwin   6 February [1869]

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Summary

John Lubbock regrets GHD did not take the Eton post. JL thinks scientific masters will soon occupy places as high and as profitable as classical masters.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Howard Darwin
Date:  6 Feb [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 210.1: 4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5843

To Charles Lyell   [3 November 1869]

Summary

Takes "much to heart" solar evidence for short age of the earth. Cites evidence for "long endurance of our existing continents". Comments on process of denudation.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [3 Nov 1869]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.346)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-5974

To ?   6 April [1869–71]

Summary

"My experiment was intended solely to show that colour reappeared, and I choose kinds which breed [true] to colour, as is certainly the case with [sports] and those which I tried . . .

I have recorded an undoubted case of wild rock Pigeons caught in Scotland having bred in confinement …"

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  6 Apr [1869-71]
Classmark:  L’Autographe (dealers) (Catalogue 21)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6098A

From W. W. Reade   28 June [1869]

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Summary

Horned rams of Guinea sheep.

CD’s queries about expression are too difficult for him to answer.

Author:  William Winwood Reade
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 June [1869]
Classmark:  DAR 86: A32–3
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6260

To Scientific Opinion   [before 20 October 1869]

Summary

Replies to F. Delpino’s criticisms of Pangenesis [Sci. Opin. 2 (1869): 365–7, 391–3, 407–8], especially concerning the difficulty of explaining the regrowth of amputated organs.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Scientific Opinion
Date:  [before 20 Oct 1869]
Classmark:  Scientific Opinion 2 (1869): 426.
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6442

From John Lubbock   [after 5 August 1869]

Summary

Visiting arrangements.

Author:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 5 Aug 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 170: 70
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6519

From Francis Darwin   [before 8 May 1869]

Summary

Reports what he must pay for university courses. Forgets what CD wants to know about vermiform appendage.

Author:  Francis Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 8 May 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 274.1: 12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6519F

From E. A. Darwin   [after 21 April 1869]

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Summary

Discusses CD’s health and James Paget’s "verdict".

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 21 Apr 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B65
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6521

From George Henslow   [after 22 February 1869]

Summary

Sends information from a Kent sheep-breeder.

Author:  George Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 22 Feb 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 166: 167
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6522

From James Paget   [1869]

Summary

"I enclose a note from Lord Fitzwilliam about his horse with zebra-marks. The case seems as striking as I believed."

Author:  James Paget, 1st baronet
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [1869]
Classmark:  Paget ed. 1901, p. 408
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6533

From Margaret Susan Vaughan Williams to Henrietta Emma Darwin   [after 14 October 1869]

Summary

Describes expression of her baby when crying.

Author:  Margaret Susan Wedgwood; Margaret Susan Vaughan Williams
Addressee:  Henrietta Emma Darwin; Henrietta Emma Litchfield
Date:  [after 14 Oct 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 180: 4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6535

From E. A. Darwin   26 [November 1869 or later]

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Summary

Has seen J. J. Sylvester again.

Author:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  26 [Nov 1869 or later]
Classmark:  DAR 105: B66
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6539

To William Thierry Preyer   [before 21 March 1869]

Summary

Replies to inquiries about his life and career.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Thierry (William) Preyer
Date:  [before 21 Mar 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 262–5
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6540

From Vladimir Onofrievich Kovalevsky   [January–March 1869]

Summary

Has written to Moscow about translations of Origin. Wishes to translate additions to the fifth English edition and print them as a supplement.

Pleased by CD’s high opinion of Alexander Kovalevsky.

Author:  Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky (Владимир Онуфриевич Ковалевский)
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [Jan–Mar 1869]
Classmark:  DAR 169: 54
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-6541
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Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition …
  • … that is something’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 January 1869] ). Much of the remainder of …
  • … to be the case’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). Hooker went straight to a crucial …
  • … probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and letter from A. R. Wallace, …
  • … in distribution’ ( letter to James Croll, 31 January [1869] ). Darwin had argued ( Origin , pp. …
  • … formation’ ( letter to James Croll,  31 January [1869] ). Croll could not supply Darwin with an …
  • … have got that yet’ ( letter from James Croll, 4 February 1869 ).  Darwin did not directly …
  • … towards [Thomson]’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 19 March [1869] ). Towards Descent …
  • … ‘everlasting old Origin’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 1 June [1869] ), he was able to return to work on  …
  • … ( letter from Robert Elliot to George Cupples, 21 June 1869 ).  Details on mating behaviour …
  • … in the garden ( letter from Frederick Smith, 8 October 1869 ). Albert Günther, assistant in the …
  • … varieties ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 25 February [1869] ). The data contined to …
  • … cocks & hens.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 November [1869] ). Yet completion of the work was …
  • … for  Descent . Researching emotion In 1869, Darwin still expected that  Descent …
  • … hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James Crichton-Browne and …
  • … ( enclosure to letter from Henry Maudsley, 20 May 1869 ). Darwin had often complained of the …
  • … in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More remarkable still were Wallace …
  • … seem to you like some mental hallucination’ ( 18 April 1869 ). Since his marriage to Annie …
  • …  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and scolded him for again being too …
  • … demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). Proceeding on all fronts …
  • … South American cordillera ( letter to Charles Lyell, 20 May 1869 ), and fossil discoveries in …
  • … investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a letter to the  Gardeners …
  • … of the soil ( letter to  Gardeners’ Chronicle , 9 May [1869] ). In March, Darwin received …
  • … in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This research contributed to  …
  • … editions ( see letter from Victor Masson, 29 September 1869 ). The work had been undertaken, like …
  • … Animals”’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 19 November [1869] ). Angered by these proceedings, Darwin …
  • … of Fritz Müller’s  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an explication of Darwinian …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Crichton-Browne, James 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Crichton-Browne, James 19 May 1869 West Riding …
  • … Gray, Asa 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Jane 9 May [1869] [Alexandria, Egypt] …
  • … Gray, Asa 8 & 9 May 1869 Florence, Italy (about …
  • … King, P.G. 25 Feb 1869 Sydney, Australia …
  • … Maudsley, Henry 20 May 1869 32 Queen Anne St. …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 17 Jan 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 28 June [1869] Sierra Leone, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 26 Dec 1869 Sierra Leone, Africa …
  • … Scott, John 2 July 1869 Royal Botanic Gardens, …

Perfect copper-plate hand: From Adolf Reuter, 30 May 1869

Summary

My favourite correspondent was chosen not because he is a brilliant conversationalist or a significant scientific thinker – but after a decade of reading a series of challenging hand writings, my favourite is the one who wrote in a perfect copper-plate…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … My favourite correspondent was chosen not because he is a brilliant conversationalist or a …

Cross and self fertilisation

Summary

The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom, published on 10 November 1876, was the result of a decade-long project to provide evidence for Darwin’s belief that ‘‘Nature thus tells us, in the most emphatic manner, that she abhors…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of self-fertility over subsequent generations. In June 1869, Müller remarked, on receiving a new …
  • … sometimes depends’ ( From Fritz Müller, 15 June 1869 ). By May 1870, Darwin reported that he was …
  • … Müller ( To Fritz Müller, 28 November 1868 ). In March 1869, Müller reported results of …
  • … pod were mutually sterile ( From Fritz Müller, 14 March 1869 ). ‘The case of the Abutilon sterile …
  • … of this plant sent by Müller ( To Fritz Müller, 18 July [1869] ). Darwin sent specimens of plants …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] Jane Loring Gray, …
  • … Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwin’s niece, Margaret, …
  • … Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John Scott responds to Darwin’s …
  • …  - Darwin to  Gunther, A. C. L. G., [21 September 1869] Darwin asks Gunther for “a great …

Diagrams and drawings in letters

Summary

Over 850 illustrations from the printed volumes of The Correspondence of Charles Darwin have been added to the online transcripts of the letters. The contents include maps, diagrams, drawings, sketches and photographs, covering geological, botanical,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … of  Robinia rubra  and  Pirus malus ,  23 September 1869 Alexander Agassiz's …

Jane Gray

Summary

Jane Loring Gray, the daughter of a Boston lawyer, married the Harvard botanist Asa Gray in 1848 and evidence suggests that she took an active interest in the scientific pursuits of her husband and his friends. Although she is only known to have…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … (letter from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May 1869 ) Darwin cited Gray’s …
  • … their year long trip to Europe and North Africa in 1868 to 1869, the Grays visited Charles and Emma …
  • … 1868, and visiting again on their return journey in August 1869. Although they never met again, the …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … standard of science’ ( to Charles Layton, 24 November [1869] ). From the 3 rd edition on …
  • … published, 1866 5 th English edition published, 1869 6 th English edition …
  • … on the fifth edition from Boxing Day 1868 until February 1869.  Among the changes were stories about …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Darwin became increasingly involved in botanical experiments in the years after the publication of Origin. The building of a small hothouse - a heated greenhouse - early in 1863  greatly increased the range of plants that he could keep for scientific…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … comprised two halves kept at different temperatures, and in 1869 Darwin told the botanist William …
  • … temperatures’ (letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March [1869] ,  Calendar  no. 6661). …

3.18 Elliott and Fry photos, c.1869-1871

Summary

< Back to Introduction The leading photographic firm of Elliott and Fry seems to have portrayed Darwin at Down House on several occasions. In November 1869 Darwin told A. B. Meyer, who wanted photographs of both him and Wallace for a German…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Darwin at Down House on several occasions. In November 1869 Darwin told A. B. Meyer, who wanted …
  • … down here on purpose’. Payments to the firm on 25 July 1869 and 5 April 1870 in Darwin’s banking …
  • … widely disseminated images of Darwin were taken in summer 1869, and which in summer 1871: the …
  • … were dated by Darwin’s daughter Henrietta on the backs to 1869. By 1871-2 some of Elliott and Fry’s …
  • … it ‘abt. 1870’, then crossed this date out in favour of 1869 – the date which John van Wyhe assigns …
  • … some of the Elliott and Fry group as having been taken in 1869 and 1871, but dates others (still …
  • … to this source. It is significant that none of these 1869–71 Elliott and Fry photographs were …
  • … as belonging to groups of photographs taken in summer 1869 and summer 1871, possible also in 1874. 
 …
  • … letters from Darwin to A.B. Meyer, 27 November [1869], (DCP-LETT-7014), and to Wallace, 5 December …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Becker tells Darwin that …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Suffragist and …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … work on human expression. Donders visited Darwin in 1869 , and a year later Darwin consoled him …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … vol. 17, letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). His views were presented more fully in a …
  • … comparative anatomist through his work on primates. In July 1869, Mivart published the first of a …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … he attracted many admirers in German-speaking countries. In 1869, his birthday was celebrated by an …
  • … vol. 17, letter from F. M. Malven, 12 February [1869] ). An extract from Darwin’s reply to Malven …
  • … with his’ ( letter to F. M. Malven, [after 12 February 1869] ). Accompanying this extract was the …
  • … some of whom drew substantially on his theory. In 1869, Hermann Müller (brother to Fritz) sent …
  • … theory to flowers and flower-visiting insects; H. Müller 1869)). Darwin was full of admiration and …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] Darwin thanks Antoinette …

3.12 Edwards, second group of photos

Summary

< Back to Introduction Despite the prior difficulties experienced by both photographer and sitter, it is evident that Ernest Edwards portrayed Darwin again in the late 1860s; but exactly when and in what circumstances is not known. There are strong…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … later 1860s. Alfred Russel Wallace wrote to him in December 1869 to report that a young German …
  • … of the undocumented photographs by Edwards as being before 1869.   physical location …
  • … Letter from Darwin to George Charles Wallich, 18 April [1869], DCP-LETT-6701. Letter from Alfred …

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … " Letter 6728 : from Charles Lyell, 5 May 1869 "I feel that …
  • … Letter 6866 : From Federico Delpino, 22 August 1869 "Perhaps because of intellectual …

John Beddoe

Summary

In 1869, when gathering data on sexual selection in humans, Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with John Beddoe, a doctor in Bristol. He was looking for evidence that racial differences that appear to have no benefit in terms of survival - and…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … In 1869 Darwin exchanged a short series of letters with a John Beddoe, a doctor in …

3.15 George Charles Wallich, photo

Summary

< Back to Introduction In the years around 1868–1871, when professional photographers competed for sittings with Darwin, a doctor called George Charles Wallich approached him with a similar request. Wallich was planning to publish a set of his own…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … one of Darwin. However, in a letter to Wallich of 18 April 1869, Darwin declined to come to his …
  • … in 2005.   Darwin’s solicitude to help Wallich in 1869 reflected the fact that they had …
  • … letters to Wallich: 12 Dec. [1860], DCP-LETT-3020; 18 April [1869], DCP-LETT-6701; 24 February [1872 …

1.11 Laura Russell, oil

Summary

< Back to Introduction This little oil portrait of Darwin was painted by Laura Russell, daughter of Jules, vicomte de Peyronnet. She was married to Arthur Russell, MP for Tavistock; he was one of the sons of Lord William Russell, and his elder…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … with the Earl of Derby at Holwood House in the summer of 1869, when Laura was eight months pregnant …
  • … of the canvas establishes that it was painted on 23 August 1869, at Down House ‘from nature’. It has …
  • … Laura Russell 
 date of creation 23 August 1869 
 computer-readable date 1869-08 …
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