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Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 19 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • that he wasunwell & must write briefly’ ( letter to John Scott, 31 May [1863] ), and in a
  • persevered with his work on Variation until 20 July, his letter-writing dwindled considerably. The
  • of man and his history' The first five months of 1863 contain the bulk of the
  • by the publication in February of books by his friends Charles Lyell, the respected geologist, and
  • fromsome Quadrumanum animal’, as he put it in a letter to J. D. Hooker of 24[–5] February [1863] …
  • … ‘I declare I never in my life read anything grander’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 26 [February 1863] …
  • Britains scientific circles following the publication of Lyells and Huxleys books. Three
  • Origin had (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). In the
  • with animals now extinct had been rapidly accumulating. Lyells argument for a greater human
  • as well as on evidence collected earlier in the century. Lyells  Antiquity of man  and Huxleys  …
  • arguments for species change. In this context, Lyells discussion of the origin of species
  • that of inferior animals made himgroan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin
  • out that species were not separately created’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 17 March [1863] ). Public
  • you, as my old honoured guide & master’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). …
  • stronger statements regarding species change ( letter from Charles Lyell, 11 March 1863 ). The
  • letter to J. D. Dana, 20 February [1863] , and letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). …
  • bookfrom which he hadgained nothing’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 1213 March [1863] ). …
  • that the Public shall see how far you go’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 18 April [1863] ). …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book …
  • … some of whom took immediate action to mediate a solution. Charles Darwin had close ties with both …
  • … his views were generally derided. 1  In 1859, Lyell visited several sites in France …
  • … belief that these were indeed implements of early humans (C. Lyell 1859). In September 1860 he …
  • … species such as the mammoth ( Correspondence vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 4 May [1860] and n. …
  • … regarding the age of the human species. The visits by both Lyell and Lubbock reflected the growing …
  • … Lubbock reviewed the literature on the topic and noted that Charles Adolphe Morlot had summarised, …
  • … Prehistoric times (Lubbock 1865).  By 1860, Lyell had begun work on a sixth edition of …
  • … Antiquity of man (see below, ‘Textual changes made to C. Lyell 1863c’). On 6 February 1863, …
  • … Busk, Prestwich, and Galton.   In February 1863, Lubbock received a letter from Lyell, …
  • … Bath in 1864 (C. Lyell 1864). 3  By November 1863 a third edition of Antiquity of …
  • … of several aspects of the book. Throughout the first half of 1863, Darwin discussed the book in …
  • … aggrieved about Lyell’s failure to support him. In April 1863, in a letter to the Athenæum , he …
  • … transmutation; he also wrote to Lyell telling him about the letter to the Athenæum . 9 …
  • … his celebrated work on the ‘ Antiquity of man ,’ Sir Charles Lyell has made much use of my earlier …
  • … me from any such inference. The statement made by Sir Charles Lyell, in a note to page 11 of his …
  • … note on p. 11.  Unlike the earlier controversies of 1863 where the disputants had quarrelled …
  • … it therefore did not ‘justify so severe an attack on Sir Charles Lyell’. 32  Darwin’s …
  • … Stocking 1987, and Van Riper 1993. 2. Letter from Charles Lyell to John Lubbock, 20 …
  • … 5. For two interpretations of Hugh Falconer’s attack on Charles Lyell, see Bynum 1984 and L. G. …

Darwin’s hothouse and lists of hothouse plants

Summary

Darwin became increasingly involved in botanical experiments in the years after the publication of Origin. The building of a small hothouse - a heated greenhouse - early in 1863  greatly increased the range of plants that he could keep for scientific…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … purposes’ (see  Correspondence  vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1862] , and …
  • … experimentation, and the building of the hothouse early in 1863 marked something of a milestone in …
  • … book (Down House MS) and  Correspondence  vol. 5, letter to J. D. Hooker, 19 April [1855] ). …
  • … its sensitivity to touch (see  Correspondence  vol. 10, letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 [December …
  • … his employer’s hothouses over the previous two years. In a letter of 24 December [1862] ( …
  • … mid-February (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 13 January [1863] and 15 February [1863] ). It was …
  • … he had had, he would ‘probably have made a mess of it’ (letter to G. H. Turnbull, [16? February …
  • … adding ‘I shall keep to curious & experimental plants’ (letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January …
  • … of Westerham, with whom he had dealt over many years. In his letter to Hooker, Darwin mentioned that …
  • … of the plants you want before going to Nurserymen’ (letter from J. D. Hooker, [15 January 1863] ) …
  • … I shall avoid[,] of course I must not have from Kew’ (letter to J. D. Hooker, 30 January [1863] ) …
  • … him: ‘I long to stock it, just like a school-boy’ (letter to J. D.  Hooker, 15 February [1863] ). …
  • … which I wished for, but which I did not like to ask for’ (letter to J. D. Hooker, [21 February …
  • … in a particular mixture of moss, peat, and charcoal (see the letter from Henrietta Emma Darwin to …
  • … of his plants, proffering further advice on cultivation (see letter from J. D. Hooker, [6 March …
  • … each leaf’ (letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin’s aesthetic appreciation of …
  • … of the tropics ( Correspondence  vol. 3, letter to Charles Lyell, 8 October [1845] ). …
  • … which they belonged. In his letter to Hooker of 5 March [1863] , he announced that the plants …
  • … worth trial’ (letter to J. D. Hooker, 21 February [1863] ). Darwin’s hothouse became an …

Charles Lyell

Summary

As an author, friend and correspondent, Charles Lyell played a crucial role in shaping Darwin's scientific life. Born to a wealthy gentry family in Scotland in 1797, Lyell had a classical and legal education but by the 1820s had become entranced by…

Matches: 10 hits

  • As an author, friend and correspondent, Charles Lyell played a crucial role in shaping Darwin's
  • than that allowed for by traditional Biblical criticismLyell believed, however, that the subject
  • that could be viewed in action at the present timeIn Lyell's view, this ruled out any sudden
  • to keep up with the subsidence of the ocean floorAlthough Lyell had originally suggested a
  • Darwin always believed that his books 'came half out of Lyell's brains'. The
  • against the transmutation of one species into another. (Lyell even suggested that looking for long
  • the incomplete character of the fossil record.) Darwin told Lyell of his species work in a letter
  • Alfred Russel Wallace did propose similar views, Lyell (with Joseph Hooker) engineered the &#039
  • in 1858. Darwin's views posed a terrible paradox for LyellIn his view, what set humans
  • from other forms of lifeAfter an agonized struggle, Lyell did come round to accepting a limited

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 20 hits

  • learn that the book was on sale even in railway stations ( letter to Charles Lyell, 14 January
  • the book, thinking that it would be nice easy reading.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 May [1860] ). …
  • he told Hooker, did not at all concern his main argument ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] …
  • his theory would have beenutterly  smashed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). (A
  • from right principles of scientific investigation.—’ ( letter to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). …
  • a theory solely by explaining an ample lot of facts.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 18 February [1860] ). …
  • phenomena it comes in time to be admitted as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] …
  • current knowledge could not illuminate thismystery’. Charles Lyell worried, among other things, …
  • did not necessarily lead to progression ( letter to Charles Lyell, 18 [and 19 February 1860] ). To
  • of reasoning about global change. Darwin also knew that Lyell was a powerful potential ally. Indeed, …
  • plant species and varieties than from animal breeding. With Lyell also questioning how interbreeding
  • perfected structure as the eye. As Darwin admitted to Lyell, Gray, and others, imagining how
  • Certainly this was a major difficulty standing in the way of Lyells acceptance of the theory, as
  • explicitly in  Origin  — only one sentence, he told Lyell, showed that he believedman is in same
  • of the scientifically literate clergymen Baden Powell and Charles Kingsley attested. Moreover, …
  • any new converts or even cause earlier proponents (like Lyell) to retract their support altogether
  • different opposers view the subject’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 15 February [1860] ); later he
  • better fun observing is than writing.—’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 12 September [1860] ). Despite
  • … & not amuse myself with interludes.—’ (letters to Charles Lyell, 24 November [1860] , and to
  • daughter Annes fatal illness never far from their minds, Charles and Emma did whatever they could

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August …
  • … silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to …
  • … observations of cats’ instinctive behaviour. Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, …
  • … to artificially fertilise plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to …
  • … be made on seeds of Pulmonaria officinalis . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to …
  • … Expression from her home in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L …
  • … Expression during a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., …
  • … expression of emotion in her pet dog and birds. Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. …
  • … is making similar observations for him. Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. …
  • … of a crying baby to Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, …
  • … briefly on her ongoing observations of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. …
  • … expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 - Treat, M. to Darwin, …
  • … birds, insects or plants on Darwin’s behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to …
  • … of an angry pig and her niece’s ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, …
  • … that she make observations of her pet cats. Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 …
  • … on her experiments with fly-catching Drosera . Letter 9426 - Story …
  • … without the birds attacking the buds and flowers. Letter 9616 - Marshall, T. to …
  • Letter 4242 - Hildebrand, F. H. G. to Darwin, [16 July 1863] Hildebrand writes to …
  • … 9 November 1868] Darwin’s nephews, Edmund and Charles, write to Emma Darwin’s sister, …
  • Letter 4235 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [8 July 1863] Lydia Becker sends Darwin a …
  • Letter 4139  - Darwin, W. E. to Darwin, [4 May 1863] William sends the results of a …
  • Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [31 July 1863] Lydia Becker details her …
  • … 4233  - Tegetmeier, W. B. to Darwin, [29 June - 7 July 1863] Tegetmeier updates Darwin …
  • … 3896 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H, [before 25 February 1863] Darwin offers the results of …
  • Letter 4010 - Huxley, T. H. to Darwin, [25 February 1863] Huxley praises Henrietta’s …
  • … in the future. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] …

Evolution: Selected Letters of Charles Darwin 1860-1870

Summary

This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and scientific colleagues around the world; letters by the critics who tried to stamp out his ideas, and by admirers who helped them to spread. It takes up the story of…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … This selection of Charles Darwin’s letters includes correspondence with his friends and …
  • … to confide in his closest friends and associates by letter. The letters in this volume speak …
  • … know you have been miserably uncomfortable. Emma to Charles Darwin, 1861. …
  • … think about the derivation of Species … Darwin to Charles Lyell, 1863. …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 19 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • dispute between two of Darwins friends, John Lubbock and Charles Lyell . These events all inspired
  • The death of Hugh Falconer Darwins first letter to Hooker of 1865 suggests that the family
  • having all the Boys at home: they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] …
  • had failed to include among the grounds of the award ( see letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus
  • his letters to Darwin, and Darwin responded warmly: ‘Your letter is by far the grandest eulogium
  • may well rest content that I have not laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] …
  • always a most kind friend to me. So the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] …
  • claimed, important for his enjoyment of life. He wrote to Charles Lyell on 22 January [1865] , …
  • Scott had evidently started his crossing experiments in 1863 (see Correspondence  vol. 11, …
  • and those of Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon, and Charles Bonnet; Darwin wrote back: ‘I do
  • the Royal Society of Edinburgh criticising Origin . Like Charles Lyell, who wrote to Darwin on
  • for existence (ibid., pp. 27681). Darwin responded to Lyells account in some detail ( see letter
  • vol. 11, letter from J. D. Hooker, 10 June 1863 ). However, probably the most enthusiastic
  • the correspondence. At the end of May, the dispute between Charles Lyell and John Lubbock over
  • human antiquity, adding a note to his preface asserting that Lyell in his  Antiquity of man , …
  • inadvertence’. Though Lubbock had raised the matter with Lyell before publishing, this statement, …
  • set up to support FitzRoys children ( see letter from Charles Shaw, 3 October 1865 ). …
  • are letters commenting on Origin , including two from Charles Lyell, who had been sent the proof

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 22 hits

  • … 1 Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by …
  • … from the correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, …
  • … following: Actor 1 – Asa Gray Actor 2 – Charles Darwin Actor 3 – In the dress …
  • … the botanist, Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwin… made his home on the border …
  • … the year 1839, and copied and communicated to Messrs Lyell and Hooker in 1844, being a …
  • … his University) and is much less his own man. A letter from England catches his attention …
  • … 11   My dear Hooker… What a remarkably nice and kind letter Dr A. Gray has sent me in answer to my …
  • … be of any the least use to you? If so I would copy it… His letter does strike me as most uncommonly …
  • … on the geographical distribution of the US plants; and if my letter caused you to do this some year …
  • … at the expense of Agassiz. DARWIN:   20   Lyell told me, that Agassiz, having a …
  • … a brace of letters 25   I send enclosed [a letter for you from Asa Gray], received …
  • … might like to see it; please be sure [to] return it. If your letter is Botanical and has nothing …
  • … Atlantic. HOOKER:   28   Thanks for your letter and its enclosure from A. Gray which …
  • … – to be false… Yours most sincerely and gratefully Charles Darwin. CREED AND FEVER: 1858 …
  • … forgetfuless of your darling. BOOKS BY THE LATE CHARLES DARWIN: 1863-1865 In which …
  • … and officially die. And then publish books ‘by the late Charles Darwin’. Darwin takes up …
  • …   173   Ever yours cordially (though an Englishman) Charles Darwin. GRAY:  174   …
  • … at an unexpected and probably transient notoriety… Charles Darwin died on the 19th April …
  • … 1860 98 A GRAY TO ALPHONSE DE CANDOLLE, 16 FEB 1863 99  C DARWIN TO LYELL, …
  • … GRAY TO JD HOOKER, 18 FEBRUARY 1861 115 A GRAY TO CHARLES WRIGHT, 17 APRIL 1862 …
  • … 1862 149 C DARWIN TO J. D. HOOKER 26 JULY 1863 150 C DARWIN TO J. D. …
  • … TO ASA GRAY 20 APRIL 1863 174 FROM A GRAY TO CHARLES DARWIN, 24 JULY 1865 …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 12 hits

  • up each edition to the existing standard of science’ ( to Charles Layton, 24 November [1869] ). …
  • edition published May 1862 2d German translation, 1863 2d French translation 1865
  • expansionin many places’ . Chief among these was Charles Lyell, instrumental in shaping both
  • last one was a welcome endorsement from the religious author Charles Kingsley, a chaplain to the
  • sufficiently acknowledged earlier workAccording to a letter to Asa Gray he had yet to start
  • Black Pigs in the Everglades  delights  me If Lyell was Darwins key correspondent for
  • an animals colour and its immunity to poison (see letter from Jeffries Wyman, [ c . 15] …
  • hitherto slurred it over. In his Christmas Day letter to his old friend Joseph Hooker, …
  • … (With a glossary of scientific terms??) by Charles Darwin F.R.S.   …
  • many of his old friends and former correspondents, including Lyell ( now approached through his
  • of population increase in elephants in response to a letter published in the Athenaeum by a
  • ed. , pp45061). Despite continuing scepticism from Charles Lyell, who was staying with the

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … but really I do think you have a good right to be so’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [15 and] 20 …
  • … species. Darwin attempted to dissuade him from this view ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 14 [January 1862 …
  • … partially sterile together. He failed. Huxley replied ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 January 1862 …
  • … and pronounced them ‘simply perfect’, but continued ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 18 December [1862] ) …
  • … resigned to their difference of opinion, but complained ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 28 December [1862 …
  • … letters, Darwin, impressed, gave him the commission ( see letter to John Scott, 11 December [1862] …
  • … protégé, telling Hooker: ‘he is no common man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 [December 1862] ). …
  • … Towards the end of the year, he wrote to Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 [December 1862] ): …
  • … and added, ‘new cases are tumbling in almost daily’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 January [1862] ). In …
  • … hopeful, became increasingly frustrated, telling Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 March [1862] ) …
  • … on the problem: ‘the labour is great’, he told Gray ( letter to Asa Gray, 10–20 June [1862] ), ‘I …
  • … resulted from his ‘ enormous  labour over them’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 [October 1862] ; …
  • … Oliver: ‘I can see at least 3 classes of dimorphism’ ( letter to Daniel Oliver, 12 [April 1862] ), …
  • … result once out of four or five sets of experiments’ ( letter to M. T. Masters, 24 July [1862] ). …
  • … one species may be said to be generically distinct’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 14 July [1862] ). The …
  • … and determined to publish on  Linum  ‘at once’ ( letter to John Scott, 11 December [1862] ), …
  • … d . like to make out this wonderfully complex case—’ ( letter to Daniel Oliver, 29 [July 1862] ). …
  • … The case clearly excited Darwin, who exclaimed to Gray ( letter to Asa Gray, 9 August [1862] ), ‘I …
  • … that the case warranted a paper for the Linnean Society ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 October [1862] …
  • … in the preparation of translations of his books. When Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard informed him …
  • … part of his popular exposition of Darwin’s theory (Rolle 1863; see letter to Friedrich Rolle, 17 …
  • … also sent presentation copies of his botanical studies to Charles Naudin, a botanist at the Muséum d …
  • … Darwin was glad that Glen Roy was ‘settled’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 22 August [1862] ), he …
  • … palaeontologist who believes in immutability’, he told Lyell ( letter to Charles Lyell, 1 October …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … earthworms . Selected letters Letter 1113 - Darwin to Whitby, M. …
  • … work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • … her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D …
  • … Darwin’s Fertilisation of Orchids . Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., …
  • … being acknowledged publicly as a science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to …
  • … are identified only as “friends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 …
  • … Sir C. Lyell” or received from “Miss. B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to …
  • … was referenced in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C …
  • … are not cited in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., …
  • … description of a crying baby in Mary Barton. Letter 8321 - Darwin to …
  • … he would “feel the public humming” at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, …
  • … lady, on whose accuracy I can implicitly rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H …
  • … of Henrietta’s considerable editorial input. Letter 8719 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 …
  • … Letters relating to Earthworms Letter 7428 - Wedgwood, F. to Darwin, [4 …
  • … depth of furrows in an old field near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to …
  • … activity in the fields of North Wales. Letter 8193 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H …
  • … published discussion of earthworm activity . Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. …
  • … discussion of turf-based worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, …
  • … lady, on whose accuracy I can implicitly rely”. Letter 11221 - Darwin to Darwin …
  • … are referenced in Vegetable Mould . Letter 12742 - Darwin, H. to Darwin, …
  • … "My son Horace" in Vegetable Mould . Letter 12745 - Darwin to …
  • … anonymously in Vegetable Mould . Letter 12760 - Wedgwood, K. E. S. to …
  • … but does not identify the workers in question. Letter 13037 - Darwin to Darwin, …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 18 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • Pound foolish, Penurious, Pragmatical Prigs’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [29 December 1866] ). But
  • able to write easy work for about 1½ hours every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). …
  • once daily to make the chemistry go on better’ ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). …
  • see you out with our beagles before the season is over’ ( letter from John Lubbock, 4 August 1866
  • work doing me any harmany how I cant be idle’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 24 August [1866] ). …
  • production of which Tegetmeier had agreed to supervise ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 16 January
  • ofDomestic Animals & Cult. Plantsto Printers’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1866] …
  • good deal I think, & have come to more definite views’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 22 December
  • in correspondence throughout the year, as in his remark to Lyell, ‘I quite follow you in thinking
  • in this volume), drawing Darwin, Hooker, and the botanist Charles James Fox Bunbury into the
  • … [28 February 1866] ). Darwin also ventured to inform Lyell that he did not support Lyells theory
  • by Heinrich Georg Bronn, had been published in 1860 and 1863 by the firm E. Schweizerbartsche
  • fresh opportunity for intense debate. As Darwin remarked to Lyell earlier in the year: ‘a squabble
  • good, & we have been at it many a long year’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 15 February [1866] ). …
  • had been a subject of long discussion in previous years with Lyell, Gray, and Hooker. Wallace
  • their fathers death in 1848 until Catherine married in 1863. Catherine had written shortly before
  • loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7? January 1866] ), and

Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 25 hits

  • …   Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large …
  • … of Argyll, and an anonymous review by an engineer, Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin, challenged …
  • … suppose abuse is as good as praise for selling a Book’ ( letter to John Murray, 31 January [1867] …
  • … to the printer, but without the additional chapter. In a letter written on 8 February [1867] to …
  • … books,  Descent  and  Expression . In the same letter, Darwin revealed the conclusion to his …
  • … variation of animals and plants under domestication . In a letter to his son William dated 27 …
  • … Vorlesungen über den Menschen  (Lectures on man; Vogt 1863) from German into French. With a …
  • … of his brother’s embryological papers with his first letter to Darwin of 15 March 1867 , although …
  • … . Indeed, he told his publisher, John Murray, in a letter of 4 April [1867] , not to send …
  • … tell me, at what rate your work will be published’ ( letter from J. V. Carus, 5 April 1867 ). This …
  • … & sent to him, he may wish to give up the task’ ( letter to Carl Vogt, 12 April [1867] ). …
  • … fit person’ to introduce the work to the German public ( letter from J. V. Carus, 15 April 1867 ). …
  • … Vogt should translate my book in preference to you’ ( letter to J. V. Carus, 18 April [1867] ). …
  • … hypothesis of pangenesis’. Such was the case, reported by Charles Victor Naudin, of a fan palm, …
  • … varieties at the eye, which resulted in a mottled hybrid ( letter from Robert Trail, 5 April 1867 …
  • … seems to me, if true, a wonderful physiological fact’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 15 April [1867] ). …
  • … anxious about the reception of pangenesis. He was happy that Charles Lyell had a positive response, …
  • … it will be a somewhat important step in Biology’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 22 August [1867] ). …
  • … on the anatomy of expression by medical experts such as Charles Bell and Guillaume Benjamin Amand …
  • … and ‘clever’, but with certain weak parts ( letter to Charles Lyell, 1 June [1867] ). Charles
  • … as one who feels himself likely to be beat’ ( letter from Charles Kingsley, 6 June 1867 ). Darwin …
  • … c d  hardly come into a scientific book’ ( letter to Charles Kingsley, 10 June [1867] ). …
  • … the most telling Reviews of the hostile kind’ ( letter to Charles Kingsley, 10 June [1867] ). …
  • … & botany, before writing about them’ ( letter from Charles Kingsley, 6 June 1867 ). The …
  • … than those with beaks shorter than average’ ( letter to Charles Kingsley, 10 June [1867] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • quite untirable & I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January
  • probably intending to test its effects on chlorophyll ( letter to Joseph Fayrer, 30 March 1882 ). …
  • we know about the life of any one plant or animal!’ ( letter to Henry Groves, 3 April 1882 ). He
  • of seeing the flowers & experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). …
  • to take his daily strolls (Henrietta Emma Litchfield, ‘Charles Darwins death’, DAR 262.23: 2, p. 2) …
  • snakes, centipedes, and spiders. The instructions were from Charles Lawrence Hughes, a fellow pupil
  • Holland, she mentions his warm reception on arrival: ‘Charles is as well as possible & in gayer
  • recommendations for annual medals. He strongly supported Charles Lyell for the Copley, the Royal
  • that the future Historian of the Natural Sciences, will rank Lyells labours as more influential in
  • point of view I think no man ranks in the same class with Lyell’ ( letter to William Sharpey, 22
  • … ( letter from Aleksander Jelski, [186082] ). In 1863, the final blow was dealt to Darwins
  • a fallen enemy!’ ( letter to T. F. Jamieson, 24 January [1863] ). From 1863 to 1865, Darwin
  • November [1864] ). Writing to the clergyman and naturalist Charles Kingsley, he was more gloomy: …
  • men whom I should have liked to have known’ ( letter to Charles Kingsley, 2 June [1865] ). …
  • curious to read what you will say on Man & his Races’, Lyell wrote. ‘It was not a theme to be
  • theory for the whole of the organic world ( letter from Charles Lyell, 16 July 1867 ). In the same
  • and I must not make you my father confessor. ( Letter from Charles Lyell, 1 September 1874 .) …
  • complete With volume 30, the  Correspondence of Charles Darwin  is now complete. In the

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 22 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • the long illness that had plagued him since the spring of 1863. Because of poor health, Darwin
  • from that of the five physicians Darwin had consulted in 1863. In a letter of 26[–7] March [1864] …
  • and he received more letters of advice from Jenner. In a letter of 15 December [1864] to the
  • As Darwin explained to his cousin William Darwin Fox in a letter of 30 November [1864] , ‘the
  • leaf, and aerial roots. When his health deteriorated in 1863, he found that he could still continue
  • gradation by which  leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). …
  • fearfully for it is a leaf climber & therefore sacred’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] …
  • matters which routinists regard in the light of axioms’ ( letter from Daniel Oliver, [17 March 1864
  • long series of changes . . .’ When he told Asa Gray in a letter of 29 October [1864] that he was
  • of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20 May
  • and animal-breeders. As in earlier years, Darwin consulted Charles William Crocker about his
  • curators at a great distance. Gray forwarded a letter from Charles Wright, a plant collector in Cuba
  • Hugh Falconer, 3 November 186[4] ). The French botanist, Charles Victor Naudin, wrote a gracious
  • scientific debate. He had begun taking the journal in April 1863 and was an enthusiastic subscriber. …
  • when Colenso was in England in 1864, socialising with Charles Lyell and other members of the London
  • again, to Ramsays view for third or fourth time; but Lyell says when I read his discussion in the
  • and their predecessors had continued to grow following the 1863 publication of Huxleys  Evidence
  • … [May 1864] ). He added that he wished Wallace had written Lyells section on humans in  Antiquity
  • failure to win the award in the two preceding years. An 1863 letter from the president of the Royal
  • have been particularly heartened when his former mentor, Lyell, congratulated him by saying thatan
  • of moral courage which is so small still’ ( letter from Charles Lyell, 4 November 1864 ); in

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important …
  • … in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of …
  • … botanist Asa Gray. Darwin and Hooker Letter 714 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D. …
  • … and he is curious about Hooker’s thoughts. Letter 729 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., …
  • … to Hooker “it is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D. …
  • … wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, …
  • … and asks him to append the ranges of the species. Letter 1685 — Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. …
  • … and relationships of alpine flora in the USA. Letter 2125 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, …
  • … and their approach to information exchange. Letter 1202 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D …
  • … first describer’s name to specific name. Letter 1220 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., …
  • … extract anything valuable from his letters to Darwin and Lyell for Athenæum . He mentioned Darwin …
  • … perpetuity of names in species descriptions. Letter 1260 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. …
  • … ends with a discussion of lamination of gneiss. Letter 1319 — Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, …
  • … up his doubts about Darwin’s doctrines. In his second letter he talks about his visit with Falconer. …
  • … was on the Beagle voyage and afterwards. Letter 152 — Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, J. …
  • … is Henslow’s “bounden duty to lecture me”. Letter 196 — Henslow, J. S. to Darwin, C. R. …
  • … sends home a copy of his notes on the specimens. Letter 249 — Henslow, J. S. to Darwin, …
  • … sends news of Cambridge and mutual friends. Letter 251 — Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, J. S …
  • … illness and specimens are sent to Henslow. Letter 272 — Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, J. S. …
  • … collection and plans to cross the Cordilleras. Letter 1189 — Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, …
  • … Hermann Müller. Darwin and Lubbock Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, …
  • … and it has reawakened his passion for entomology. Letter 1720 — Darwin, C. R. to …
  • Letter 4170 — Becker, Lydia to Darwin, C. R., 18 May 1863 This is a very formal letter
  • Letter 4258 — Becker, Lydia to Darwin, C. R., 31 July [1863] Becker has found seeds produced …
  • Letter 4260a — Darwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia Becker for …
  • … day with Henslow; much had to be done. His friend, Alexander Charles Wood, has written to Capt. …

Floral Dimorphism

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Floral studies In 1877 Darwin published a book that included a series of smaller studies on botanical subjects. Titled The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, it consisted primarily of…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … Dimorphic Plants: Primulaceae Letters Letter Packet: Floral Dimorphism …
  • … and the appearance of his new Orchid book. Letter 3515 - Daniel Oliver to Darwin, 23 …
  • … find anything distinctly dimorphic in the Oxalis. Letter 3757 - Joseph Dalton Hooker to …
  • … and Darwin held Hooker’s work in high esteem. Letter 4053 - Darwin to Asa Gray, 20 March …
  • … Reading Endersby, Jim. "Sympathetic Science: Charles Darwin, Joseph Booker, and the …
  • … family, his personal health, and his botanic work all in one letter? Why or why not? …
  • … for this week’s experiment, the class read chapter 1 of Charles Darwin’s 1877 T he …
  • … and fertility” of their offspring.[2] [1] Charles Darwin, The Different Forms of Flowers …

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • Government grant was exhausted ( Correspondence  vol. 2, letter to A. Y. Spearman, 9 October 1843, …
  • were not neglected either, as the correspondence with Charles Lyell, George Robert Waterhouse, John
  • his ideas on species mutability with Hooker, Horner, Jenyns, Lyell, Owen, and Charles James Fox
  • are not (it is like confessing a murder) immutable’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [11 January 1844] ). …
  • the essay of 1844 to read (see  Correspondence  vol. 4, letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 [February 1847]) …
  • himself: as he told his cousin William Darwin Fox in a letter of [24 April 1845] , he felt he
  • Natural selection Perhaps the most interesting letter relating to Darwins species theory, …
  • listed possible editors: at first he proposed any one of Lyell, Henslow, Edward Forbes, William
  • of elevation’, which formed the basis of discussions with Charles Lyell and Leonard Horner in
  • the geology of this vast area, reflecting the influence of Lyells  Principles of geology  (18303
  • Darwin not only used his personal notes and records but, by letter, marshalled the resources of
  • Journal of researches  for a second edition in 1845. At Lyells recommendation, arrangements were
  • of the laws of creation, Geographical Distribution’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [10 February 1845] ) …

Descent

Summary

There are more than five hundred letters associated with the research and writing of Darwin’s book, Descent of man and selection in relation to sex (Descent). They trace not only the tortuous route to eventual publication, but the development of Darwin’s…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … concealed it . Just weeks after publication he wrote to Charles Lyell, ‘ I show that I believe man …
  • … is in fact impossible to doubt it ’. At the time, Lyell was himself writing about human …
  • … to us should so much resemble one ’. Darwin saved the letter to show Henrietta . *** ‘ …
  • … human origins, see Darwin’s Life in Letters, 1863 . ***The contents of Darwin’s …
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