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From Francis Walker   24 June [1862]

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Summary

Identified two flies as species of Empis that suck flowers, but the females also feed on small Diptera.

Author:  Francis Walker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  24 June [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 70: 182
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-10547

To James Brown Gibson   [after 29 June 1862]

Summary

Thanks JBG for acceding to his wishes in the endeavour to discover whether hair colour in Europeans is correlated with susceptibility to tropical diseases [see Descent 1: 244–5].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  James Brown Gibson
Date:  [after 29 June 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 96: 4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3361

To John Higgins   1 June 1862

Summary

Acknowledges receipt of £240 7s. 9d.

Hopes to meet JH at Erasmus Alvey Darwin’s house in London on Friday 6 June.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Higgins
Date:  1 June 1862
Classmark:  Dominic Winter Auctioneers (dealers) (10 April 2019, lot 138)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3581F

To Daniel Oliver   [before 11 June 1862]

Summary

Asa Gray approves of Orchids; his work on American species confirms CD’s findings.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  [before 11 June 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 33 (EH 88206016)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3583

From G. C. Oxenden   [before 21 June 1862]

Summary

Sad that CD is quitting his studies of orchids.

Author:  George Chichester Oxenden
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 21 June 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 173.2: 52
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3584

From W. E. Darwin   June 1862

Summary

Found 27 flowers of Orchis latifolia and in 16 of them were dead flies of one particular kind.

Author:  William Erasmus Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  June 1862
Classmark:  DAR 162.1: 89
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3585

From Asa Gray   [2 June 1862]

Summary

Discusses heterostyly in Houstonia.

Author:  Asa Gray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [2 June 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 110 (ser. 2): 66
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3588

From G. C. Oxenden   4 June [1862]

Summary

Sends orchids.

Author:  George Chichester Oxenden
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 June [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 173.2: 53
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3589

From E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung   7 June 1862

Summary

Discusses publication of second German edition of Origin [1863] and German edition of Orchids [1862].

Author:  E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 June 1862
Classmark:  DAR 177: 68
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3590

To A. G. More   7 June 1862

Summary

Suspects that bee orchid is self-fertilising form of Ophrys arachnites, which requires insect aid.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Alexander Goodman More
Date:  7 June 1862
Classmark:  DAR 146: 405
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3591

To Daniel Oliver   8 June [1862]

Summary

Describes floral anatomy of a Catasetum sent by DO.

Has gone on from orchids to studying insect agency in Pelargonium.

His doubts on the worth of publishing Orchids.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  8 June [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 32 (EH 88206015)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3592

From J. D. Hooker   9 June 1862

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Summary

Oliver has written able paper on dimorphism for Natural History Review [n.s. 2 (1862): 235–43].

CD’s account of Viola is novel and interesting.

Has finished Cameroon mountain plants.

Jury work at exhibition.

Domestic problems – wife is ill, no cook, etc.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 June 1862
Classmark:  DAR 101: 40–1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3593

To Journal of Horticulture   [before 10 June 1862]

Summary

Asks whether any correspondents have observed any sensible differences between the bees kept in different parts of Great Britain. CD has heard from several sources that breeds of bee in different areas vary.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Journal of Horticulture
Date:  [before 10 June 1862]
Classmark:  Journal of Horticulture, Cottage Gardener, and Country Gentleman n.s. 3 (1862): 207
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3594

To Asa Gray   10–20 June [1862]

Summary

Thanks AG for praise of Orchids and his notes on several American species of orchid. Comments on AG’s observations.

Is experimenting [on dimorphism] with Rhexia and Melastoma.

Asks AG’s opinion of a paper by Thomas Meehan ["On the uniformity of relative characters between allied species of European and American trees", Proc. Philadelphia Acad. Nat. Sci. (1862): 10–13] which is the best case of the apparently direct action of the conditions of life CD has seen.

Requests postage stamp for his ill son [Leonard].

Thanks AG for observations on Cypripedium and gives recent observations of his own.

Arethusa is very pretty; structure seems like that of Vanilla.

Finds the little (so-called imperfect) flowers of Viola and Oxalis curious: the pollen-grains emit their tubes whilst within the anthers, and they travel in straight lines right to the stigmas.

Sympathises with events in the U. S.

Reports on French translation of Origin by Mlle C. Royer, "one of the cleverest & oddest women in Europe".

Alphonse de Candolle says he wants direct proof of natural selection; "he will have to wait a long time for that".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Asa Gray
Date:  10–20 June [1862]
Classmark:  Gray Herbarium of Harvard University (66)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3595

To H. W. Bates   11 June [1862]

Summary

Encloses a question [missing] concerning language [from Hensleigh Wedgwood].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Walter Bates
Date:  11 June [1862]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.284)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3596

To J. D. Hooker   11 June [1862]

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Summary

Sorry to hear of Mrs Hooker’s health and domestic problems. Wishes natural selection had produced neuters who would not flirt or marry.

Will be eager to hear Cameroon results.

Wishes JDH would discuss the "mundane glacial period". Still believes it will be "the turning point of all recent geographical distribution".

Pollen placed for 65 hours on apparent (CD still thinks real) stigma of Leschenaultia has not protruded a vestige of a tube.

"Oliver the omniscient" has produced an article in Botanische Zeitung with accurate account of all CD saw in Viola.

Asa Gray’s "red-hot" praise of Orchids [Am. J. Sci. 2d ser. 34 (1862): 138–51].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  11 June [1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 155
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3597

From Frederick Currey   12 June 1862

Summary

Offers rare Irish orchid (Spiranthes).

Author:  Frederick Currey
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 June 1862
Classmark:  DAR 161.2: 305
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3598

From George Howard Darwin   [12 June 1862]

Summary

Leonard Darwin has scarlet fever so GHD has said he should be sent home and has asked E. A. Williams to call at Down.

Author:  George Howard Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [12 June 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 251
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3598F

To Leonard Horner   13 June [1862]

Summary

Sends condolences on death of LH’s wife. Recalls many pleasant hours in Bedford Place. He and Emma thank LH for sending the memorial paper.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Leonard Horner
Date:  13 June [1862]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (MS.2216: 167)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3599

To Patrick Matthew   13 June [1862]

Summary

It would be a pleasure to see "the first enunciator of the theory of Natural Selection" but his health makes it impossible. Hopes to come to London soon and would like to arrange an interview with PM if he is staying more than a week.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Patrick Matthew
Date:  13 June [1862]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (Acc. 10963)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3600
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Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … animals made him ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later …
  • … old honoured guide & master’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwin …
  • … a fitting opportunity’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). …
  • … in the fossil record ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 5 [and 6] January [1863] ). Only until March did …
  • … Dana, 20 February [1863] , and letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). In March, after …
  • … 29 May [1863] , and letter to Hugh Falconer, [25–6 August 1863] ). Sterility and …
  • … [1863] that he had been ‘ordered to do nothing for 6 months’ by his doctors, mentioning that even …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned …
  • … on the outcome ( enclosure to letter from G. H. Darwin, 6 [August] 1874 ): I think you …
  • … & it had been refused’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, [6 or 7 August 1874] ). When the letter was …
  • … to the vomit and ate it ( letter from W. G. Walker, 6 December 1874 ). The Zoological …

Darwin's Fantastical Voyage

Summary

Learn about Darwin's adventures on his epic journey.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … These activities explore Darwin’s life changing voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Using letters home, …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate…

Matches: 7 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, …
  • … Index-maker’, Darwin wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 6 January . Darwin had sent the manuscript …
  • … but never fulfilled. He was sent a news clipping on 6 July from the  Maryport Weekly Advertiser …
  • … House of Commons than any assembly in the world’ (from ?, 6 April 1868). On 21 May , Darwin …
  • … The Swiss botanist Alphonse de Candolle described on 6 July the inheritance over eight …
  • … is too short for so long a discussion’, he wrote on 6 April . Yet Wallace continued to press him, …
  • … you as their leader’ ( letter from Gaston de Saporta, 6 September 1868 ). The support …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and [of] all the scientist's colleagues. 6. Darwin's poetic sensibility …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … below, ‘Textual changes made to C. Lyell 1863c’). On 6 February 1863, Antiquity of man (C. Lyell …
  • … over the comparative anatomy of human and ape brains. 6 Many of Lyell’s supporters were …
  • … Lyell, see Bynum 1984 and L. G. Wilson 1996. 6. Owen’s complaints about C. Lyell 1863a …
  • … See Correspondence vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. …
  • … T. H. Huxley, 7 June 1865, Imperial College, Huxley papers 6: 110). For more on the X-club, see …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin’s best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 …
  • … intellectual errors’ ( letter from St G. J. Mivart, 6 January 1872 ). Darwin likened the …
  • … effect on my mind’ ( letter to Chauncey Wright, 6 April 1872 ).  A competing theory on the …
  • … in his `Literary Banquet’ (letters from John Murray, 6 November [1872] and 9 November 1872 ). …

Darwin's life in letters

Summary

For all his working life, Darwin used letters as a way both of discussing ideas and gathering the ‘great quantities of facts’ that he used in developing and supporting his theories. They form a fascinating collection from many hundreds of correspondents,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … with letters. ( Darwin to John Jenner Weir, [6 March 1868] ) For all his working …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also greatly honoured …
  • … book had to go along on the excursion,’ he reported on 6 July , ‘and it did us excellent service. …
  • … laurel in the wreath of your fame ’, Haeckel wrote on 6 June , ‘to have a predecessor in the …

St George Jackson Mivart

Summary

In the second half of 1874, Darwin’s peace was disturbed by an anonymous article in the Quarterly Review suggesting that his son George was opposed to the institution of marriage and in favour of ‘unrestrained licentiousness’. Darwin suspected, correctly,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … which Darwin approved ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [5 or 6 August 1874] ), while reiterating his …
  • … and sent a fair copy of his letter with his letter of 6 [August] 1874 . George and Darwin were …
  • … Huxley’s reaction was savage ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [6 December 1874] ). Hooker and Huxley …

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … a paper for the Linnean Society ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 October [1862] ). However, it was not …
  • … different translator ( see letter from Edouard Claparède, 6 September 1862 ). In Germany, …
  • … of the human species ( see letter from John Lubbock, 6 January 1862 ). Ramsay’s was not the …
  • … of the pot of life’? ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 6 May 1862 ). In his address, Huxley also …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Jamieson, 3 September 1861 To Thomas Jamieson, 6 September [1861] To Charles …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v.] 6 Books to be Read …
  • … [Le Couteur 1836] Bechstein on Caged Birds. 10 s  6 d . translated by Rennie [Bechstein …
  • … de la Geographie des trois Regnes de la nature. Paris. 6: folio par Céran de Lemonier. Bailliere …
  • … Organique dans l’echelle animale, par A. Dugés, 4to. avec 6 planches, ibid, 1832. 6 s . [Dugés …
  • … p. 195) “Boltons Harmonia Ruralis” [Bolton 1794–6]— Yarrell probably has it. account of …
  • … of Carnation. Auricula. Polyanth tulip. Rose. Hyacinth. 6 s . a catalogue of vars. [T. Hogg 1820] …
  • … Edition, with Plates and Woodcuts. Post 8vo., 9 s . 6 d . [Knapp] 1838] Read Gleanings in …
  • … Pœppig Travels in S. America. German [Pöppig 1835–6].— Zoologie Generale. Iside. St Hilaire …
  • … 1809]. Communicat to Board of Agriculture. vol 6 quoted by Youatt on migration of Sheep [Anon …
  • … [C. H. Smith 1839–40] /on Ruminants [Jardine ed. 1835–6]// on Horses [C. H. Smith 1841]// Exotic …
  • … Nacht. von einigen Berlin 1763? [Kölreuter 1761–6] Godwins answer to Malthus [Godwin 1820] …
  • … [Etherington 1841–3]. Whittaker 1844. in Parts. cheap. 1.6 a part. 38 Schlegel Essay on …
  • … Darluc. Hist Nat. de la Provence [Darluc 1782–6] 8vo. 1782. Tom I p. 303 to 329 gives account of …
  • … of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which species are …
  • … Jussieus introduct to Bot. price 6 s  [Jussieu 1842] [DAR *119: 20v.] …
  • …  40 vols. 12mo. coloured plates, cloth lettered, (pub. at 6 s  per vol.) reduced to 5 s  1834–43 …
  • … 5. Peacocks, Pheasants, &c. [Jardine 1834a] 6. Birds of the Game kind [Jardine 1834b]. …
  • … Ruminating Animals (Deer, Antelopes, &c.) [Jardine 1835–6] 12. Ruminating Animals (Goats, …
  • … of  Vertebrate  animals 54 folio Plates. Maclise 2”12.6. [Maclise 1847] good for woodcuts. (Roy. …
  • … Analysis & theory of the Emotions by G. Ramsay B.M. 6. 6. Black Edin. Longman [Ramsay 1848] …
  • … (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has & …
  • … when out Lisianky’s Voyage round world 1803–6 [Lisyansky 1814]— nothing Lyell’s …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … I have not laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] ). Sic transit …
  • … modification of structure’ (G. D. Campbell 1864, pp. 275–6). Campbell argued further that natural …
  • … observations to high scientific account’ (A. Gray 1865–6, pp. 273-4). Darwin had also written to …
  • … to the Anthropologicals?’ ( letter from F. H. Hooker, 6 September [1865] ). Before he returned …

Photograph album of Dutch admirers

Summary

Darwin received the photograph album for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from his scientific admirers in the Netherlands. He wrote to the Dutch zoologist Pieter Harting, An account of your countrymen’s generous sympathy in having sent me on my…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ( Letter from A. A. van Bemmelen and H. J.  Veth, 6 February 1877 ) Dutch …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, …

Vivisection: first sketch of the bill

Summary

Strictly Confidential Mem: This print is only a first sketch. It is being now recast with a new & more simple form – but the substance of the proposed measure may be equally well seen in this draft. R.B.L. | 2 586 Darwin and vivisection …

Matches: 2 hits

  • … for demonstration or illustration. “ 6. —Licensed persons to use anasthetics in all …
  • … in all painful experiments when possible. 6.—It shall not be lawful for any person …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … 1863 and n. 1, and letters from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [6–27 September 1863], 29 September [1863] …
  • … Ladies & MPs' (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [6–27 September 1863], and letter …
  • … MS), 20 August 1863, recording a payment of £2 11 s. 6 d. for distributing the 'cruelty …
  • … December [1863], and Animal World , 1 February 1872, pp. 65–6). It is clear that the use of steel …
  • … against the use of steel traps in 1877 ( Spectator , 6 January 1877, p. 15, and Emma Darwin 2: …
  • … pheasants, and other game-birds (Carr 1981, pp. 475–6, Mackenzie 1988, p. 18, Allen 1994, p. 127.). …
  • … of animals, 1835 ( Statutes, public and general , 5 & 6 Will. IV c. 59), and the Act for the …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … were incipient species ( Natural selection, p. 145–6): From looking at species as only …
  • … Elwin to Murray, 3 May 1859 , and letter to John Murray, 6 May [1859] ). The extant …
  • … but in this he was disappointed. ‘We have been here above 6 week,’ he wrote to Fox, ‘& I feel …
  • … points of Darwin’s theory ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 May 1859 ). Among the older scientists, …
  • … larky since we run two horses’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 6 October [1858] ). Visitors to Down and …

The writing of "Origin"

Summary

From a quiet rural existence at Down in Kent, filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on the transmutation of species, Darwin was jolted into action in 1858 by the arrival of an unexpected letter (no longer extant) from Alfred Russel Wallace outlining a…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … were incipient species ( Natural selection , p. 145–6): From looking at species as only …
  • … to Murray, 3 May 1859 , and letter to John Murray, 6 May [1859 ]). The extant …
  • … but in this he was disappointed. ‘We have been here above 6 week,’ he wrote to Fox, ‘& I feel …
  • … points of Darwin’s theory (see letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 May 1859 ). Among the older scientists, …
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