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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • observations of catsinstinctive behaviour. Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, …
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • him. Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • on her ongoing observations of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to
  • dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [13 December 1872] …
  • of her pet cats. Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary
  • Letter 9426 - Story-Maskelyne , T. M. to Darwin, [23 April 1874] Thereza
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 20 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • been the naturalist and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that Clarks dietary treatment woulddo wonders’, but as
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • in London, his son George organised a séance at Erasmuss house. The event was led by the medium
  • séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those present included George
  • one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. …
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • vol. 22, Appendix V and Dawson 2007, pp. 7781). Darwin first considered taking legal action over
  • of books in relation to the Origin, of which I have the M.S. half completed; but I have started the
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • Darwin replied, ‘I have so poor a metaphysical head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration
  • for a Serbian translation of  Origin  ( letter from M. M. Radovanović, 17 September 1874 ), …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 18 hits

  • Charles Darwins daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and
  • 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound notebook now in the Darwin Archive of Cambridge University
  • within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwins letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • reflect her concerns about the consequences of her fathers theories for religious belief, which he
  • discussed in the first entry and attended by Henriettas friend and relative Emily Caroline (Lena) …
  • on a discussion with her cousin, Frances Julia (Snow) Wedgwood, about religion and free will in
  • on the expression of emotion (see letters from F. J. Wedgwood to H. E. and C. R. Darwin, [186772], …
  • barrister and lecturer in music at the London Working Mens College, and they were married in the
  • fresh in my mind I will give an account of it. Lena & Alice M. 2 were both mission women, …
  • amongst whom of course was Lena had any knowledge of it. M r . W. spoke or preached as u like to
  • fits they didnt attemptbut otherwise it must have m. resembled a Wesleyan revivaleven down to the
  • her Father who w d  be waiting for herwhen down came M r . W. on his knees between them & …
  • to reappear next day in the vestry where Lena took her & was m. gratified to find she had cried. …
  • it is intense enjoyment I can well believe. I can imagine no m. intense feeling than must be felt by
  • …  of results. 7 Then I emboldened myself to discover m. of Snos creed than I ever have done
  • worship of humanitythis I hope is only in its budI c d  conceive a life wh. was filled & …
  • wills are free? If these questions are hopeless Huxleys 8 advice is goodturn our eyes from
  • 6 Laura May Forster . 7 Frances Julia Wedgwood (Snow) and George Eliot. The

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 15 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • … set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication …
  • … work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • … her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D …
  • … publicly as a science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May …
  • … Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] Darwin asks …
  • … received from “Miss. B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] …
  • … final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] …
  • … of a crying baby in Mary Barton. Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … Henrietta, about how best to reference her husband’s contribution to a chapter on music in …
  • … the public humming” at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …
  • … whose accuracy I can implicitly rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 …
  • … considerable editorial input. Letter 8719 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 January 1873] …
  • … relating to Earthworms Letter 7428 - Wedgwood, F. to Darwin, [4 January …
  • … turf-based worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • anything more on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July
  • and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • … , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new work, …
  • … , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of his legacy is
  • are accustomed to novels for 1s’, he wrote to Murray on 8 January , but Murray complained that
  • editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s. …
  • condition as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September
  • let alone the fifthPrinting of the proofs of Moulinié’s translation of the fifth English edition
  • This complex operation, combined with Moulinié’s increasingly poor health, led to yet further delay, …
  • Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). I
  • felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite Darwins
  • than offended by `that clever book’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ) and invited
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • others described the way their hands blushed (letter from MISnow, 29 [November 1872 or later] …
  • to contain wormcasts from India. Darwins niece Lucy Wedgwood, who had started her observations the
  • life which surprised & gratified me more’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ).  Fox

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … Tollet for proofreading and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. …
  • … her to read to check that she can understand it. Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F. …
  • … from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E …
  • … to avoid ownership of indelicate content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, …
  • … so as not to lose the interest of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, …
  • … will make it more appealing to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E …
  • … got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership Letter
  • … with which to work. She has transcribed parts of Darwin’s papers, including diagrams, to share with …
  • … "epistolary acquaintance" of his, Sara Hennell . Hennell's writings show a " …
  • … of Herbert Spencer. Letter 7624 - Bathoe, M . B. to Darwin, [25 March 1871] …
  • … to an asylum with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., …
  • … thinking”. Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February …
  • … in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • … questionnaire. Letter 10390 - Herrick, S. M. B. to Darwin, [12 February 1876] …
  • … in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • … Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …
  • … of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • came on 19 April. Plans were made for a burial in St Marys churchyard in Down, where his brother
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • vegetables such as potatoes, carrots, and beets. Romaness experiments had been conducted to lend
  • asymmetric, thus facilitating cross-fertilisation. Darwins aim, he said, was just tohave the
  • 1882 ). Earthworms and evolution Darwins last book, Earthworms , had been
  • V). The conservative Quarterly Review , owned by Darwins publisher John Murray, carried an
  • … ( Correspondence vol. 29, letter from J. F. Simpson, 8 November 1881 ). He remarked on the
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • of tidal evolution’ ( Nature , 24 November 1881, p. 81). Darwin boasted to Rich: ‘Georges work
  • dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 March 1882] (DAR 210.3: 45)). …
  • were not wanting to tell me how you felt for meHope [Wedgwood] expresses a feeling that I should
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • History, that I went as Naturalist on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World & collected in
  • great minds’ ( letter from Aleksander Jelski, [186082] ). In 1863, the final blow was
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To
  • and journals by Lyells sister-in-law Katherine (see K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 4456). A complete
  • both our names to appear’ ( letter to Louisa Stevenson, 8 April 1871 ). It was Darwins name that

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 19 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any …
  • … he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The …
  • … evolution and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 87–90, Darwin had briefly introduced the …
  • … in satisfying female preference in the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, …
  • … book would take the form of a ‘short essay’ on man ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 3 July 1868 ). But …
  • … as well say, he would drink a little and not too much’ ( letter to Albert Günther, 15 May [1868] ) …
  • … had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwin’s request, he modified his original plan, …
  • … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin …
  • … your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  s ., and recommended to Murray that Dallas …
  • … Generally favourable accounts appeared in some of London’s leading weeklies such as the  Saturday …
  • … Gazette , was by George Henry Lewes, well-known in London’s literary circles and an author of …
  • Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote …
  • … it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not …
  • … April 1868 . The letter was addressed to ‘the Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed …
  • … Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing …
  • … enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). Researching …
  • … cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April [1868] ). Such facts proved …
  • … of her two-month old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 14 hits

  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Britain? Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, …
  • pursuit of real, professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., …
  • colour andbeautyof tropical vegetation. Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27
  • meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to FitzRoy, R., …
  • … ‘ A Biographical Sketch of an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May
  • them in the north-facing borders of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • Published in GardenersChronicle , Darwin asks M. J. Berkeley to identify microscopical
  • the house immediately after a rain storm. Here, Darwins scientific investigation is inextricably
  • a fellow of Trinity would be far more useful in Georges pursuit of a profession. Gove maintained
  • experiments he is undertaking in his home to test Wallaces theory that birds reject highly-coloured
  • in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • on the bedroom wallpaper. Letter 10821 - Graham C. C. to Darwin, [30 January 1877] …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … spent an extended period in Würzburg at Julius Sachs’s botanical institute, one of most advanced …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … Hooker, ‘or as far as I know any scientific man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1878] ). …
  • … Sophy to observe the arching shoots of Neottia (bird’s nest orchid) near her home in Surrey: ‘If …
  • … or arched.… Almost all seedlings come up arched’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). …
  • … when he finds out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] …
  • Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my blunder’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 22 December [1878] ). …
  • … apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in Germany, not returning …
  • … be obtained at Down House, but Francis thought Horace’s abilities were a match for German instrument …
  • … here is far from well made.’ (Jemmy or Jim was Horace’s nickname.) Francis was occasionally …
  • letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was apparently matched by his …
  • … Anne Westwood, and the proud grandparents. Many of Darwin’s letters conveyed news of the boy. ‘All …
  • … faculties. He seemed to take special note of the child’s use of language and power of judgment. …
  • … own research on animal instinct and intelligence. ‘Frank’s son, nearly 2 years old (& we think …
  • … Record”’ ( letter from Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvár, 28 April 1878 ). ‘What a wonderful change …
  • … into Greek. Theodor von Heldreich wrote from Athens on 8 February that the translator, a young …
  • … Samuel Haughton. ‘If I do write’, George worried, ‘I’m pretty sure to get in Haughton’s ill favour …
  • … opponent’ ( Correspondence vol. 24, letter to T. C. Eyton, 22 April 1876 ). ‘When I first read …
  • … secretary, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil ( letter to R. A. T. Gascoyne-Cecil, 18 May 1878 ). …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 24 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, family
  • Controversy and Erasmus Darwin Darwins most recent book, Erasmus Darwin , had been
  • generations. He continued to receive letters about Erasmuss life and other bits of family history. …
  • Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends, full of lively
  • the eagerness of the two learned divines to see a pigs body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • family shake their heads in the same dismal manner as you & M r . Murray did, when I told them
  • structural differentiations’ ( letter from F. M. Balfour, [22 November 1880] ). George Romanes, …
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • have been forestalled: ‘I had hoped to call & see whether M rs . Biddulph would admit me, &amp
  • … ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of the family
  • Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwins Wedgwood nieces, Sophy and Lucy, were asked
  • We find that the light frightens them’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October [1880] ). The
  • Darwin encouraged the experiment, but conceded, ‘M rs . Romanes is quite right not to allow the
  • Galton, 7 April 1880 , and letter from Francis Galton, 8 April 1880 ). Darwin was queried about
  • of several close family members. Emmas brother Josiah Wedgwood III died on 11 March. Like Emma, he
  • … & am never happy except when at work’ ( letter to J. M. Herbert, 25 December [1880] ). …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • 39. tom. 4. p. 273. Latreille Geographie des Insectes 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. …
  • de Serres Cavernes dOssements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] good to trace Europ. forms
  • Horticultural Society of London ].— [DAR *119: 8v.] A history of British Birds by
  • … [Reimarius 1760] The Highlands & Western Isl ds  letter to Sir W Scott [MacCulloch 1824
  • 183440]: In Portfolio ofabstracts34  —letter from Skuckard of books on Silk Worm
  • 1847] good for woodcuts. (Roy. Coll. of Surgeons) M.M Turpin & Poiteau Traité des arbres
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • letters of M r  Knight July 8 th  M.S. Voyage of Kolff to the Molucca Sea [Kolff 1840] …
  • Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar ]. Vol 1to 7. M.S. Translat.— from 1740. 2 d . vol
  • 1854 Jan 15. Seemans Narrative of H.M.S. Herald [Seeman 1853]. Feb 6. Wallace
  • … (Liebig 1851). 50  Probably Elizabeth Wedgwood. 51  This note is a
  • Belcher, Edward. 1848Narrative of the voyage of H.M.S.   Samarang during the years 184346; …
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • 1850The life and correspondence of Andrew Combe,   M.D.  Edinburgh128: 5 Conrad, …
  • years 18381842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. New York. [Abstract in DAR 71: 512.]  …
  • years 18381842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Philadelphia. [Abstract in DAR 205.3: …
  • ou, iconographie de toutes les espèces et   variétés darbres, fruitiers cultivés dans cet   …
  • sur la distribution géographique des animaux vertébrés, moins les oiseauxJournal de Physique 94
  • Drury, Robert. 1729Madagascar; or, Robert Drurys   journal, during fifteen   years
  • … [Vols. 3 and 4 in Darwin Library.]  119: 3a Dugès, Antoine. 1832Memoir sur la
  • Narrative of a voyage round the world, performed in H.M.S.   Sulphur,   183642 . 2 vols. …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … of departure reviews of Origin . The second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to …
  • … everything is the result of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 …
  • … nature, as he is in a “muddle” on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, …
  • … about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] Darwin …
  • Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] Darwin writes to Gray about his review …
  • … constant watching of an intelligent ‘chooser’ like man's selection to which you so often …
  • … to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 Darwin praises Graham’s Creed of science , but disagrees …
  • … chance” but has horrid doubt whether convictions of man’s mind, which has been developed from lower …
  • … Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive position …
  • … members of his own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov …
  • … to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious doubts. She fears his work …
  • … only He can give me.” Letter 5303 — Boole, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., 13 Dec 1866 In …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 13 hits

  • Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth
  • Letters Darwins Notes On Marriage [April - July 1838] In these notes, …
  • an hourwith poor Mrs. Lyell sitting by”. Letter 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to
  • whose attractions are not those of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13
  • ornaments in the making of feminine works”. Letter 4441 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [30
  • the young, especially ladies, to study nature. Letter 4940 - Cresy, E. to Darwin, E., …
  • Jnr. seeks Darwin-family support for Elizabeth Garretts candidacy for the position of Professorship
  • Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] Darwin thanks Antoinette
  • author, is a man. Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, [1 September 1870] …
  • is left of them ears”. Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, [7 November 1871] …
  • natural thinking”. Letter 8079 - Norton, S. R. to Darwin, [20 November 1871] …
  • women. Letter 10746Darwin to Dicey, E. M., [1877] Darwin gives his
  • patience. Letter 13607Darwin to Kennard, C. A., [9 January 1882] Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emma’s backgammon games. ‘I have won, hurrah, …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amy’s child expected in September. Their joy …
  • … to William on 11 September just hours after Amy’s death. For once, the labour of checking proofs …
  • … dimorphic and trimorphic plants in new ways. New Year's resolutions Darwin began …
  • … quantity of work’ left in him for ‘new matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The …
  • … to a reprint of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February …
  • … not even to look at a single proof ’. Perhaps Carus’s meticulous correction of errors in the German …
  • … & I for blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. …
  • … provided evidence for the ‘advantages of crossing’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising …
  • … effected by his forthcoming pamphlet, Darwin confounded (C. O’Shaughnessy 1876), which, he …
  • … and who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). Although …
  • … in an anonymous article, which impugned not only George’s but also Darwin’s respectability (see …
  • … amendments to his results ( letter from Moritz Schiff, 8 May 1876 ). Pangenesis v. …
  • … year’s experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less welcome reaction …
  • … and ardent naturalist Thomas Edward ( letter from F. M. Balfour, 11 December 1876 ; letter to …
  • … In the same month, Darwin heard that his sister Caroline Wedgwood continued to languish in …
  • … and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In England, the …
  • … in harmony with yours’ ( letter from George Henslow, [ c. 7 December 1876] ). A more typical …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • … to Hooker “it is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D. …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1855] Darwin …
  • … recalled meeting Darwin three years earlier at Hooker’s. Gray has filled up Darwin’s paper [see …
  • … reform, Darwin opposes appending first describer’s name to specific name. Letter 1220 — …
  • … relates personal matters. Hooker has received Darwin’s earlier letter [ 1202 ]. He thanks …
  • … to Darwin and Lyell for Athenæum . He mentioned Darwin’s work on complemental males in barnacles …
  • … Catherine’s and his own. He also notes that Hensleigh [Wedgwood] thinks he has settled the free-will …
  • Letter 7124 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin writes to his …
  • … and corrections. Letter 5745 — Barber, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., [after Feb 1867] In …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 27 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely observed the
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his obvious
  • just as he had earlier analysed his own childhood memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was
  • children. Darwin maintained his record of Williams development from the day of his birth, 27
  • by five: George Howard, born 9 July 1845; Elizabeth, born 8 July 1847; Francis, born 16 August 1848; …
  • of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, she noted
  • movement which causes hiccough.— 2  At his 8 th  day he frowned much. & I believe
  • of muscles, without a corresponding sensation. D r . Holland[12informs me children do not
  • also just at the same period or a few days earlierNov. 8[16] When seven weeks old, his eyes
  • was called.— 29 th . Cried at the sight of Allen Wedgwood[32Is able to catch hold of a
  • loose about four feet, walked well & says goat. M. 23 d . Has been accustomed to see
  • our door N o  12 and N o  11 is in the slit for the Letter box.— he decidedly ran past N o  11
  • has learned them from my sometimes changing the first letter in any word he is usingthus I say
  • trowsers. Emma one morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet of C. Langton,[52W. instantly observed
  • she added an s to the end of every wordEttis & Bettis &c afterwards all the ws were turned
  • goed dawn to the willage”. Fish for Smith. Kaw for cow. &c. Lenny[612 years old speaks
  • Lizzy come & stay here. — Shant stay here. People say Im mansstay in mans room. Papa
  • answer) (indignantlyI are . 44  Lenny. Im a good boy you mustnt thmack me now— …
  • cut up your potatoe. Lizzy after a pauseYes Parslow. Imsidering.” Lenny in an indignant
  • coming out of the drawing room rather indignantlyIm so dull. There is only horrid beastly boys in
  • any thing with my egg. Miss Th. Shall I cut up y r  meat? L. I dont care whether you do or
  • of CDs queries about expression. [4See Notebook M, pp. 53, 58, 96, Notebook N, pp. 37, 121
  • … , pp. 1312. [6Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The story of Charles Darwins involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It
  • unique window into this complicated relationship throughout Darwins life, as it reveals his
  • belief (and doubt) than many non-conformist denominations. Darwins parents attended a Unitarian
  • A nominal adherence to the Anglican Churchs teachings was still essential for admittance to many of
  • the necessary studies to be a clergyman. During Darwins lifetime, the vast majority of the
  • with the pursuit of scientific interests. Indeed, Darwins Cambridge mentorJohn Stevens Henslow, …
  • clergymen naturalists. A nostalgic piece in Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine described the early
  • on every side his own snug ivy-covered house’ (Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine (1887): 321). …
  • … & I can see it even through a grove of Palms.—’ (letter to Caroline Darwin, 256 April [1832] …
  • wrote to the contrary: ‘I am sorry to see in your last letter that you still look forward to the
  • near the British Museum or some other learned place’ (letter from E. A. Darwin, 18 August [1832] …
  • it is a sort of scene I never ought to think about—’ (letter to W. D. Fox, [912 August] 1835 ). …
  • late 1830s, and in correspondence with his fiancéeEmma Wedgwood, in 1838 and 1839, as can be read
  • went dutifully to the local Anglican church of St Marys each Sunday. All the children were baptised
  • their children Mary and Charles were buried; later Darwins brother Erasmus, Emmas sister Sarah, …
  • However, what remains is cordial; in the first extant letter of the correspondence, Darwin wrote to
  • he administered from 1848 to 1869 (letter to J. B. Innes, [8 May 1848] and n. 2). Darwin praised
  • a letter of 1854 in which he saidFrom all I have seen of M r  Innesconduct towards the poor
  • Innes informed Darwin that though heheard all good of M r . Ffindens moral character, his
  • an interesting letter from Darwin to the evangelist J. W. C. Fegan. Darwin whole-heartedly supported