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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August …
  • … silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to …
  • … observations of cats’ instinctive behaviour. Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, …
  • … plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • … him. Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October …
  • … on her ongoing observations of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to …
  • … dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [13 December 1872] …
  • … of her pet cats. Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary …
  • Letter 9426 - Story-Maskelyne , T. M. to Darwin, [23 April 1874] Thereza …
  • … New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin …
  • … Women: Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] …
  • … lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August …
  • … on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • … any way he can. Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Charles Darwin’s daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and July 1871 …
  • … within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwin’s letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • … reflect her concerns about the consequences of her father’s theories for religious belief, which he …
  • … discussed in the first entry and attended by Henrietta’s friend and relative Emily Caroline (Lena) …
  • … on the expression of emotion (see letters from F. J. Wedgwood to H. E. and C. R. Darwin, [1867–72], …
  • … barrister and lecturer in music at the London Working Men’s College, and they were married in the …
  • …  of results. 7 Then I emboldened myself to discover m. of Sno’s creed than I ever have done …
  • … be looked at in a purely physical point of view so may God’s influence. I suppose both are forces …
  • … the good of the sufferer? If we say my conviction of God’s watchfulness over me is so profound even …
  • … at fault in the outer world, how can we know that it is m trustworthy in the inner world. This view …
  • … wills are free? If these questions are hopeless Huxleys 8 advice is good—turn our eyes from …
  • … when I feel my day made bright & happy by one short letter. I want him to take me in his arms …
  • … him— But what a tremendous thought: that I have the life’s happiness of a human soul in my hands— …
  • … Notes: 1 Edmund Langton was Henrietta’s cousin; his wife, Emily Caroline , was …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 22 hits

  • over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second half of
  • been the naturalist and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that Clarks dietary treatment woulddo wonders’, but as
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • inferred that he was well from his silence on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October
  • in London, his son George organised a séance at Erasmuss house. The event was led by the medium
  • in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] …
  • that Mr Williams wasa cheat and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). …
  • to get the two men on each side of him to hold each others hands, instead of his, ‘& that he
  • first three months of the year and, like many of Darwins enterprises in the 1870s, were family
  • one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. …
  • Cupples, a Scottish deerhound expert who forwarded Darwins queries about the numbers of males and
  • Huxley, 14 April 1874 ). The technical nature of Huxleys argument prompted him to add, ‘Put my
  • price of nine shillings, in line with Charles Lyells  Students elements of geology , and with
  • vol. 22, Appendix V and Dawson 2007, pp. 7781). Darwin first considered taking legal action over
  • much in Switzerland ( letter from Francis and Amy Darwin, 8 August [1874] ). Francis had
  • of books in relation to the Origin, of which I have the M.S. half completed; but I have started the
  • Darwin replied, ‘I have so poor a metaphysical head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration
  • for a Serbian translation of  Origin  ( letter from M. M. Radovanović, 17 September 1874 ), …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • … selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication Vegetable …
  • … work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • … her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D …
  • … being acknowledged publicly as a science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to …
  • … Lyell for advice on how to reference Arabella Buckley’s observations of pigeons, which he planned to …
  • … received from “Miss. B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] …
  • … final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] …
  • … of a crying baby in Mary Barton. Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E. …
  • … Henrietta, about how best to reference her husband’s contribution to a chapter on music in …
  • … whose accuracy I can implicitly rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 …
  • … her editorial work on Expression . While her husband's contribution to the same work was …
  • … considerable editorial input. Letter 8719 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 January 1873] …
  • … relating to Earthworms Letter 7428 - Wedgwood, F. to Darwin, [4 January …
  • … activity in the fields of North Wales. Letter 8193 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H …
  • … discussion of earthworm activity . Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 …
  • … turf-based worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 24 hits

  • What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 November [1872] …
  • …   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the emotions
  • anything more on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July
  • and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • … , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new work, …
  • … , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of his legacy is
  • are accustomed to novels for 1s’, he wrote to Murray on 8 January , but Murray complained that
  • editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s. …
  • condition as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September
  • let alone the fifthPrinting of the proofs of Moulinié’s translation of the fifth English edition
  • This complex operation, combined with Moulinié’s increasingly poor health, led to yet further delay, …
  • be resetThe investment in stereotype reinforced Darwins intention to make no further changes to
  • to the comparative anatomist St George Jackson Mivart ( letter to St GJMivart,  11 January
  • comparison of Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ) …
  • relations between them irretrievably break down. Mivarts book had been followed by a highly
  • a copy of an article replying to Thomas Henry Huxleys scathing review of  Genesis of species , …
  • philosopher Chauncey Wright. The republication of Wrights paper had been arranged by Darwin himself
  • felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite Darwins
  • to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  Darwin's theories under siege The whole
  • than offended by `that clever book’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ) and invited
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • others described the way their hands blushed (letter from MISnow, 29 [November 1872 or later] …
  • to contain wormcasts from India. Darwins niece Lucy Wedgwood, who had started her observations the
  • life which surprised & gratified me more’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ).  Fox

Capturing Darwin’s voice: audio of selected letters

Summary

On a sunny Wednesday in June 2011 in a makeshift recording studio somewhere in Cambridge, we were very pleased to welcome Terry Molloy back to the Darwin Correspondence Project for a special recording session. Terry, known for his portrayal of Davros in Dr…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … Gray. Re: Design toured Britain and America in 2007–8, shedding light on how Darwin developed …
  • … of a performance is available). This time Terry’s task was to bring some carefully selected …
  • … a long and full day at the microphone, resulting in Terry’s interpretations of 23 letters.  A …
  • … making observations, as exemplified by the letters to his Wedgwood nieces, Lucy ( [before 25 …
  • … seeking permission to go on the Beagle voyage, to a letter to C. A. Kennard written on 9 …
  • … from the youthful exuberance of the Beagle letters (e.g. letter to Caroline Darwin, 29 April …
  • …  particular letters. How should one read Darwin’s politely worded rebuke to St G. J. Mivart ( 21 …
  • … that led up to his ‘confessing a murder’ in his famous  letter to J. D. Hooker, in which he admitted …
  • … who was proofreading a draft chapter of Descent (letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of letters on …
  • … Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … Tollet for proofreading and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. …
  • … her to read to check that she can understand it. Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F. …
  • … from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E …
  • … he seeks her help with tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 …
  • … in order to minimise impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, …
  • … to avoid ownership of indelicate content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, …
  • … so as not to lose the interest of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, …
  • … will make it more appealing to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E …
  • … got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership Letter
  • … with which to work. She has transcribed parts of Darwin’s papers, including diagrams, to share with …
  • Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … "epistolary acquaintance" of his, Sara Hennell . Hennell's writings show a " …
  • … of Herbert Spencer. Letter 7624 - Bathoe, M . B. to Darwin, [25 March 1871] …
  • … range of evidence in order to raise questions about Darwin’s conclusions, in particular his …
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslow’s daughter, Anne, responds to …
  • … to an asylum with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., …
  • … beauty in the process of sexual selection. Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, [7 …
  • … thinking”. Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February …
  • … questionnaire. Letter 10390 - Herrick, S. M. B. to Darwin, [12 February 1876] …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • … came on 19 April. Plans were made for a burial in St Mary’s churchyard in Down, where his brother …
  • … Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwin’s greatest scientific pleasure. The year …
  • … fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882 …
  • … some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwin’s interest in root response and the effects …
  • … François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20 …
  • … vegetables such as potatoes, carrots, and beets. Romanes’s experiments had been conducted to lend …
  • … quite untirable & I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January …
  • … probably intending to test its effects on chlorophyll ( letter to Joseph Fayrer, 30 March 1882 ). …
  • … asymmetric, thus facilitating cross-fertilisation. Darwin’s aim, he said, was just to ‘have the …
  • … 1882 ). Earthworms and evolution Darwin’s last book, Earthworms , had been …
  • … V). The conservative Quarterly Review , owned by Darwin’s publisher John Murray, carried an …
  • … ( Correspondence vol. 29, letter from J. F. Simpson, 8 November 1881 ). He remarked on the …
  • … them half the worm had disappeared down the frog’s throat. I watched them for a quarter of an hour …
  • … with both combatants the worse for wear. Darwin’s writing on human evolution continued to …
  • … famous writer Louisa May Alcott. The importance of Darwin’s work in inspiring future research was …
  • … ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard’s reply must be read in full to be …
  • … of art (Collier 1882), which seemed to follow Darwin’s views on the aesthetic sense of animals, …
  • … February 1882 ). Collier had married Thomas Henry Huxley’s daughter Marian. He returned the joke: …
  • … The two men also agreed on the deficiencies of Huxley’s argument that animals were conscious …
  • … of tidal evolution’ ( Nature , 24 November 1881, p. 81). Darwin boasted to Rich: ‘George’s work …
  • … great minds’ ( letter from Aleksander Jelski, [1860–82] ). In 1863, the final blow was …
  • … and journals by Lyell’s sister-in-law Katherine (see K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 445–6). A complete …
  • … both our names to appear’ ( letter to Louisa Stevenson, 8 April 1871 ). It was Darwin’s name that …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … Britain? Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, …
  • … pursuit of real, professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., …
  • … colour and “beauty” of tropical vegetation. Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 …
  • … meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to FitzRoy, R., …
  • … his two-month-old “animalcule of a son", William. Darwin’s roles as father and scientists were …
  • … ‘ A Biographical Sketch of an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May …
  • … them in the north-facing borders of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • … and “never saw anything so beautiful”. Letter 4230 - Darwin to Gardeners’ Chronicle, [2 …
  • … the house immediately after a rain storm. Here, Darwin’s scientific investigation is inextricably …
  • … at least provide Darwin with aesthetic pleasure. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • … he has moved one or two of them into his bedroom. Letter 4469 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin …
  • … before expecting to dedicate his life to science. Letter 4472 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin …
  • … duty to the public to contribute more than this. Letter 6044 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H., …
  • … a fellow of Trinity would be far more useful in George’s pursuit of a profession. Gove maintained …
  • … and influence to help shape his sons’ fortunes. Letter 6046 - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, …
  • … experiments he is undertaking in his home to test Wallace’s theory that birds reject highly-coloured …
  • … from the comfort of his “ pretty garden ”. Letter 6139 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [22 …
  • … moths all of which were conducted in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S …
  • … attracted to dark spots on the bedroom wallpaper. Letter 10821 - Graham C. C. to Darwin …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … in satisfying female preference in the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, …
  • … of changing the races of man’ (Correspondence vol. 12, letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). …
  • … book would take the form of a ‘short essay’ on man ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 3 July 1868 ). But …
  • … as well say, he would drink a little and not too much’ ( letter to Albert Günther, 15 May [1868] ) …
  • … had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwin’s request, he modified his original plan, …
  • … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … of labour to remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). …
  • … if I try to read a few pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). …
  • … Generally favourable accounts appeared in some of London’s leading weeklies such as the  Saturday …
  • … Gazette , was by George Henry Lewes, well-known in London’s literary circles and an author of …
  • … Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote …
  • … by Owen’. John Edward Gray, a colleague of Richard Owen’s in the British Museum, agreed about the …
  • … Science, Robertson published a rejoinder, arousing Darwin’s ire still further: ‘he is a scamp & …
  • … . The letter was addressed to ‘the Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed Darwin to be …
  • … of details and untoward examples even from Darwin’s inner circle of expert naturalists. The Swiss …
  • … provided by  Variation  for expanding Darwin’s network of informers proved very fruitful. On 1 …
  • … the breed ‘was no authority whatever’. Darwin’s reply opened the door to a long-running …
  • … cause of science.’ Darwin began to make an index of Weir’s correspondence in April, and by the end …
  • … Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing …
  • … enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). Researching …
  • … cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April [1868] ). Such facts proved …
  • … of her two-month old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February …
  • … omnipotent and omniscient Creator’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 8 May [1868] ). Others were concerned …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … 39. tom. 4. p. 273. Latreille Geographie des Insectes 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. …
  • … de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] good to trace Europ. forms …
  • … [Reimarius 1760] The Highlands & Western Isl ds  letter to Sir W Scott [MacCulloch 1824 …
  • … 1834–40]: In Portfolio of “abstracts” 34  —letter from Skuckard of books on Silk Worm …
  • … M rs  Fry’s Life [Fry 1847] Horace Walpoles letter to C t . of Ossory [Walpole 1848] …
  • … Asiatic Society ]—contains very little Macleay’s letter to D r  Fleming [Macleay 1830] …
  • … letters of M r  Knight July 8 th  M.S. Voyage of Kolff to the Molucca Sea [Kolff 1840] …
  • … 1854 Jan 15. Seeman’s Narrative of H.M.S. Herald [Seeman 1853]. Feb 6. Wallace …
  • … ou, iconographie de toutes les espèces et   variétés d’arbres, fruitiers cultivés dans cet   …
  • … augmentée d’un grand nombre de fruits, les uns échappés aux recherches de Duhamel, les autres …
  • … . Vol. 37 in Jardine, William, ed.,  The naturalist’s library . 40 vols. Edinburgh. 1843.  *119: …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … spent an extended period in Würzburg at Julius Sachs’s botanical institute, one of most advanced …
  • … Darwin delighted in his role as grandfather to Francis’s son Bernard, occasionally comparing the …
  • … Hooker, ‘or as far as I know any scientific man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1878] ). …
  • … Sophy to observe the arching shoots of Neottia (bird’s nest orchid) near her home in Surrey: ‘If …
  • … or arched.… Almost all seedlings come up arched’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). …
  • … when he finds out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] …
  • … Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my blunder’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 22 December [1878] ). …
  • … apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in Germany, not returning …
  • … accursed German language: Sachs is very kind to him’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June …
  • … have nobody to talk to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] …
  • … but it is horrid not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). …
  • … be obtained at Down House, but Francis thought Horace’s abilities were a match for German instrument …
  • … here is far from well made.’ (Jemmy or Jim was Horace’s nickname.) Francis was occasionally …
  • letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was apparently matched by his …
  • … Anne Westwood, and the proud grandparents. Many of Darwin’s letters conveyed news of the boy. ‘All …
  • … faculties. He seemed to take special note of the child’s use of language and power of judgment. …
  • … own research on animal instinct and intelligence. ‘Frank’s son, nearly 2 years old (& we think …
  • … a young monkey, so as to observe its mind’? Darwin’s suggestion was seconded: ‘Frank says you ought …
  • … cases of animal intelligence were observed by Darwin’s correspondents. The German stamp-collector …
  • … younger generation of naturalists continued to find Darwin’s work inspiring. The geologist Sydney …
  • … into Greek. Theodor von Heldreich wrote from Athens on 8 February that the translator, a young …
  • … Association of Naturalists in September 1877, Darwin’s outspoken supporter Ernst Haeckel championed …
  • … Samuel Haughton. ‘If I do write’, George worried, ‘I’m pretty sure to get in Haughton’s ill favour …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwin’s work for the boundary between animals …
  • … animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwin’s early observations of infants, family …
  • … Controversy and Erasmus Darwin Darwin’s most recent book, Erasmus Darwin , had been …
  • … generations. He continued to receive letters about Erasmus’s life and other bits of family history. …
  • … Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwin’s grandfather’s clerical friends, full of lively …
  • … the eagerness of the two learned divines to see a pig’s body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied …
  • … have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 …
  • … delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and …
  • … been co-authored with Ernst Krause, whose essay on Erasmus’s scientific work complemented Darwin’s …
  • … much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and …
  • … modified; but now I much regret that I did not do so’ ( letter to Samuel Butler, 3 January 1880 ). …
  • … structural differentiations’ ( letter from F. M. Balfour, [22 November 1880] ). George Romanes, …
  • … Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwin’s Wedgwood nieces, Sophy and Lucy, were asked …
  • … We find that the light frightens them’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October [1880] ). The …
  • … Galton, 7 April 1880 , and letter from Francis Galton, 8 April 1880 ). Darwin was queried about …
  • … of several close family members. Emma’s brother Josiah Wedgwood III died on 11 March. Like Emma, he …
  • … & am never happy except when at work’ ( letter to J. M. Herbert, 25 December [1880] ). …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can …
  • … century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were Christian, …
  • … implications of his theory for religion in general. Darwin's name was also appropriated by …
  • … of departure reviews of Origin . The second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to …
  • … everything is the result of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 …
  • … nature, as he is in a “muddle” on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, …
  • … shares a witty thought experiment about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, …
  • … He asks Gray some questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8
  • … of my precipice”. Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 — Wallace, A. R. to Darwin, …
  • … constant watching of an intelligent ‘chooser’ like man's selection to which you so often …
  • … of variations. Darwin and Graham Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, …
  • … chance” but has horrid doubt whether convictions of man’s mind, which has been developed from lower …
  • … Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive position …
  • … members of his own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov …
  • … to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious doubts. She fears his work …
  • … 18 Nov 1859 Clergyman Charles Kingsley judges Darwin’s book [ Origin ] free from two …
  • … of the book and how he instead “humbly accepts God’s revelation of himself both in His works & …
  • … only He can give me.” Letter 5303 — Boole, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., 13 Dec 1866 In …
  • … whether Darwin believes natural selection obviates man’s ability to be guided by spiritual motives. …
  • … Darwin believes he is unable to answer Mary Boole’s questions about religious implications of …
  • … it is safest to believe that the subject is beyond man’s intellect, “but man can do his duty”. …
  • … to Physician E. B. Aveling that the publication of Aveling’s remarks on his writings requires no …
  • … of thought is best promoted by gradual illumination of men’s minds produced by advance of science. …
  • … collection of letters, written after the Duke of Argyll’s address to the Royal Society of Edinburgh …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth …
  • … feminine world of family, home and sociability. Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., …
  • … an hour “with poor Mrs. Lyell sitting by”. Letter 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to …
  • … whose attractions are not those of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 …
  • … ornaments in the making of feminine works”. Letter 4441 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [30 …
  • … the young, especially ladies, to study nature. Letter 4940 - Cresy, E. to Darwin, E., …
  • … Jnr. seeks Darwin-family support for Elizabeth Garrett’s candidacy for the position of Professorship …
  • … Anderson is “neither masculine nor pedantic”. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., …
  • … to him as a published science author, is a man. Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, …
  • … Theoriae Functionum Ellipticarum , (1829). Letter 7329 - Murray, J. to Darwin, [28 …
  • … to prick up what little is left of them ears”. Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, …
  • … selection for debates about marriage. Since reading Darwin’s work a “flood of questions” have …
  • … to as such questions “seem almost out of a woman’s natural thinking”. Letter 8079 - …
  • … women. Letter 10746 – Darwin to Dicey, E. M., [1877] Darwin gives his …
  • … L., [18 October 1881] Darwin advises his niece’s friend, Mrs Forsyth, on how best to …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … Plants always held an important place in Darwin’s theorising about species, and botanical research …
  • … the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous review in …
  • … V). Darwin remained bitter and dissatisfied with Mivart’s attempts at conciliation, and spent weeks …
  • … of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwin’s friends had to find ways of coming to …
  • … the publisher of the Quarterly Review , in which Mivart’s anonymous essay had appeared. ‘I told …
  • … to the Editor … Poor Murray shuddered again & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January …
  • … feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire was not fully spent, however, for he …
  • … The vivisection issue was a delicate one within Darwin’s family, and he tried to balance his concern …
  • … paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbe’s memorial inflammatory and unfair in its …
  • … on 12 May, one week after a rival bill based on Cobbe’s memorial had been read in the House of Lords …
  • … on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Klein’s testimony from Huxley on 30 October 1875 : …
  • … medicine in London. Klein had assisted in some of Darwin’s botanical research and had visited Down …
  • …   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwin’s keen interest in the progress of physiology …
  • … of protoplasm. He added the details of Brunton and Fayrer’s experiments to Insectivorous plants , …
  • … I can say is that I am ready to commit suicide.’ Darwin’s despair over the revision process may have …
  • … offered to pay the costs for printing an additional 250 ( letter to John Murray, 3 May 1875 ). …
  • … & bless the day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 …
  • … that the originally red half has become wholly white’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [before 4 …
  • … pp. 188–90). He drew attention to this discussion in a letter to George Rolleston, remarking on 2 …
  • … Darwin wrote, ‘I beg ten thousand pardon & more’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . February …
  • … signed himself, ‘Your affect son … the proofmaniac’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, 1 and 2 May [1875 …
  • … energy as yours almost always succeeds.’ ‘I’m afraid my letters smell of pitch,’ George replied on …
  • … between Whitney and Max Müller. In Descent 2d ed., pp. 86–8, Darwin had cited Whitney’s …
  • … of having made false statements,’ Darwin replied on 8 April . ‘This is conduct which a man does …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emma’s backgammon games. ‘I have won, hurrah, …
  • … ‘my wife … poor creature, has won only 2490 games’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876 ). …
  • … Lodge with his wife, Amy, had settled in as his father’s botanical assistant, and their close …
  • … concussion from a riding accident, and George Darwin’s ill-health grew worse, echoing Darwin’s own …
  • … of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amy’s child expected in September. Their joy …
  • … to William on 11 September just hours after Amy’s death. For once, the labour of checking proofs …
  • … dimorphic and trimorphic plants in new ways. New Year's resolutions Darwin began …
  • … quantity of work’ left in him for ‘new matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The …
  • … to a reprint of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February …
  • … not even to look at a single proof ’. Perhaps Carus’s meticulous correction of errors in the German …
  • … & I for blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. …
  • … provided evidence for the ‘advantages of crossing’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising …
  • … year to write about his life ( Correspondence vol. 23, letter from Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, 20 …
  • … nowadays is evolution and it is the correct one’ ( letter from Nemo, [1876?] ). …
  • … him ‘basely’ and who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). …
  • … in an anonymous article, which impugned not only George’s but also Darwin’s respectability (see …
  • … that Mivart still had the capacity to damage George’s reputation. ‘I care little about myself but Mr …
  • … the still raw memory of this incident that underlay Darwin’s heartfelt thanks to Wallace for his …
  • … Darwin hoped not only to remove any stain on Lankester’s scientific reputation, but also to save the …
  • … 29 January 1876 ). Both aims were achieved, and in Darwin’s view, the five votes against Lankester …
  • … action to take. Burdon Sanderson was keen for the society’s secretary, George Romanes, to write …
  • … with him on the subject, this did not affect Darwin’s pragmatic summing up of the situation: ‘It …
  • … amendments to his results ( letter from Moritz Schiff, 8 May 1876 ). Pangenesis v. …
  • … and ardent naturalist Thomas Edward ( letter from F. M. Balfour, 11 December 1876 ; letter to …
  • … In the same month, Darwin heard that his sister Caroline Wedgwood continued to languish in …
  • … and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In England, the …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children,[1] began the research that …
  • … relatives with young families.[4] However, it was Darwin’s personal experience of fatherhood that …
  • … of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwin’s notes reveals, he closely observed the …
  • … The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwin’s character clearly perceived by Emma during …
  • … does that prove”.’[6] For in these notes, Darwin’s deep scientific curiosity transcends his obvious …
  • … just as he had earlier analysed his own childhood memories.[8] Yet, though the dissociation was …
  • … children. Darwin maintained his record of William’s development from the day of his birth, 27 …
  • … by five: George Howard, born 9 July 1845; Elizabeth, born 8 July 1847; Francis, born 16 August 1848; …
  • … of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwin’s attention on William and Anne, she noted …
  • … until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwin’s later entries, like Emma’s, focus on the …
  • … movement which causes hiccough.— 2  At his 8 th  day he frowned much. & I believe …
  • … during first fortnight at sudden sounds. & at Emma’s moving 3 [11]  When one month …
  • … also just at the same period or a few days earlier— Nov. 8[16] When seven weeks old, his eyes …
  • … set him crying again  He does not easily catch a person’s eye & is not easily attracted …
  • … taking breath after each scream approaches it.— 8  Between 11 & 12 weeks old in …
  • … when doing something disagreeable. say 50–60 days old 7 or 8 weeks old Continues occasionally …
  • … Feb. 17 7 wks  & 3 days 8 – 5 6 wks 8 – 4 …
  • … our door N o  12 and N o  11 is in the slit for the Letter box.— he decidedly ran past N o  11 …
  • … has learned them from my sometimes changing the first letter in any word he is using—thus I say …
  • … Lizzy come & stay here. — Shant stay here. People say I’m man’s— stay in man’s room. Papa …
  • … answer) (indignantly)  I are . 44  Lenny. I’m a good boy you mustn’t thmack me now— …
  • … coming out of the drawing room rather indignantly “I’m so dull. There is only horrid beastly boys in …
  • … of CD’s queries about expression. [4] See Notebook M, pp. 53, 58, 96, Notebook N, pp. 37, 121 …
  • … , pp. 131–2. [6]  Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important …
  • … in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of …
  • … botanist Asa Gray. Darwin and Hooker Letter 714 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D. …
  • … to Hooker “it is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D. …
  • … wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, …
  • … reform, Darwin opposes appending first describer’s name to specific name. Letter 1220 — …
  • … relates personal matters. Hooker has received Darwin’s earlier letter [ 1202 ]. He thanks …
  • … to Darwin and Lyell for Athenæum . He mentioned Darwin’s work on complemental males in barnacles …
  • … Darwin took up a difficult group like barnacles. Darwin’s theories have progressed but Hooker is not …
  • … He writes on Himalayan stratigraphy. He believes Hooker’s observations of glacial action are the …
  • … impressed with variation. Here we see the effect of Darwin’s species sketch on Hooker’s view of …
  • … or inspiring whole research programmes. Darwin’s Mentors This collection of …
  • … Catherine’s and his own. He also notes that Hensleigh [Wedgwood] thinks he has settled the free-will …
  • Letter 7124 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin writes to his …
  • … and corrections. Letter 5745 — Barber, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., [after Feb 1867] In …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It …
  • … into this complicated relationship throughout Darwin’s life, as it reveals his personal and …
  • … and various dissenting establishments. In the Darwin and Wedgwood households, formal adherence to …
  • … (and doubt) than many non-conformist denominations. Darwin’s parents attended a Unitarian chapel …
  • … A nominal adherence to the Anglican Church’s teachings was still essential for admittance to many of …
  • … necessary studies to be a clergyman. During Darwin’s lifetime, the vast majority of the …
  • … with the pursuit of scientific interests. Indeed, Darwin’s Cambridge mentor, John Stevens Henslow, …
  • … clergymen naturalists. A nostalgic piece in Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine described the early …
  • … on every side his own snug ivy-covered house’ (Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine (1887): 321). …
  • … & I can see it even through a grove of Palms.—’ (letter to Caroline Darwin, 25–6 April [1832] …
  • … wrote to the contrary: ‘I am sorry to see in your last letter that you still look forward to the …
  • … near the British Museum or some other learned place’ (letter from E. A. Darwin, 18 August [1832] …
  • … it is a sort of scene I never ought to think about—’ (letter to W. D. Fox, [9–12 August] 1835 ). …
  • … went dutifully to the local Anglican church of St Mary’s each Sunday. All the children were baptised …
  • … their children Mary and Charles were buried; later Darwin’s brother Erasmus, Emma’s sister Sarah, …
  • … of the letters highlighted in this section focus on Darwin’s long-standing relationship with the …
  • … However, what remains is cordial; in the first extant letter of the correspondence, Darwin wrote to …
  • … (a local charity), which he administered from 1848 to 1869 (letter to J. B. Innes, [8 May 1848] …
  • … Innes informed Darwin that though he ‘heard all good of M r . Ffinden’s moral character, his …
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