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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • him. Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • on her ongoing observations of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to
  • dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [13 December 1872] …
  • of her pet cats. Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary
  • Letter 9426 - Story-Maskelyne , T. M. to Darwin, [23 April 1874] Thereza
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … (1) Ansted, D. T. (8) Anthropological Society, …
  • … (2) Bence Jones, Henry (8) Beneden, Édouard …
  • … (2) Blackley, C. H. (8) Blackwall, John …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … Wedderburn, David (1) Wedgwood, C. S. (8) …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 20 hits

  • Charles Darwins daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and
  • 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound notebook now in the Darwin Archive of Cambridge University
  • within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwins letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • reflect her concerns about the consequences of her fathers theories for religious belief, which he
  • discussed in the first entry and attended by Henriettas friend and relative Emily Caroline (Lena) …
  • on a discussion with her cousin, Frances Julia (Snow) Wedgwood, about religion and free will in
  • on the expression of emotion (see letters from F. J. Wedgwood to H. E. and C. R. Darwin, [186772], …
  • Descent  (see letter from Charles and Emma Darwin to F. J. Wedgwood, [March 1871?], and letter from
  • barrister and lecturer in music at the London Working Mens College, and they were married in the
  • fresh in my mind I will give an account of it. Lena & Alice M. 2 were both mission women, …
  • amongst whom of course was Lena had any knowledge of it. M r . W. spoke or preached as u like to
  • fits they didnt attemptbut otherwise it must have m. resembled a Wesleyan revivaleven down to the
  • her Father who w d  be waiting for herwhen down came M r . W. on his knees between them & …
  • to reappear next day in the vestry where Lena took her & was m. gratified to find she had cried. …
  • it is intense enjoyment I can well believe. I can imagine no m. intense feeling than must be felt by
  • …  of results. 7 Then I emboldened myself to discover m. of Snos creed than I ever have done
  • at fault in the outer world, how can we know that it is m trustworthy in the inner world. This view
  • worship of humanitythis I hope is only in its budI c d  conceive a life wh. was filled & …
  • wills are free? If these questions are hopeless Huxleys 8 advice is goodturn our eyes from
  • 6 Laura May Forster . 7 Frances Julia Wedgwood (Snow) and George Eliot. The

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 21 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • been the naturalist and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a
  • during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a
  • of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences
  • The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to London, staying at his brother Erasmuss house.  …
  • August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that Clarks dietary treatment woulddo wonders’, but as
  • in London, his son George organised a séance at Erasmuss house. The event was led by the medium
  • another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those present
  • to get the two men on each side of him to hold each others hands, instead of his, ‘& that he
  • one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 8 January 1874 , letter to J. D. …
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • vol. 22, Appendix V and Dawson 2007, pp. 7781). Darwin first considered taking legal action over
  • much in Switzerland ( letter from Francis and Amy Darwin, 8 August [1874] ). Francis had
  • of books in relation to the Origin, of which I have the M.S. half completed; but I have started the
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • Darwin replied, ‘I have so poor a metaphysical head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration
  • for a Serbian translation of  Origin  ( letter from M. M. Radovanović, 17 September 1874 ), …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 7 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • … set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication …
  • … Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] Darwin asks …
  • … final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] …
  • … Henrietta, about how best to reference her husband’s contribution to a chapter on music in …
  • … whose accuracy I can implicitly rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 …
  • … considerable editorial input. Letter 8719 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 January 1873] …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little
  • shall be chiefly new work’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 November [1872] ), and the tenor of his
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July [1872] ). …
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • … , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new work, …
  • … , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of his legacy is
  • are accustomed to novels for 1s’, he wrote to Murray on 8 January , but Murray complained that
  • editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s. …
  • let alone the fifthPrinting of the proofs of Moulinié’s translation of the fifth English edition
  • This complex operation, combined with Moulinié’s increasingly poor health, led to yet further delay, …
  • be resetThe investment in stereotype reinforced Darwins intention to make no further changes to
  • Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). I
  • felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite Darwins
  • … `chiefly perhaps because I do it badly’ ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  …
  • than offended by `that clever book’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ) and invited
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • others described the way their hands blushed (letter from MISnow, 29 [November 1872 or later] …
  • to contain wormcasts from India. Darwins niece Lucy Wedgwood, who had started her observations the
  • life which surprised & gratified me more’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ).  Fox

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … May 1859] Darwin expresses anxiety over Hooker’s suggestion that his writing style might …
  • … Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin seeks Henrietta’s …
  • … got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership Letter …
  • … with which to work. She has transcribed parts of Darwin’s papers, including diagrams, to share with …
  • … Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist …
  • … "epistolary acquaintance" of his, Sara Hennell . Hennell's writings show a " …
  • … range of evidence in order to raise questions about Darwin’s conclusions, in particular his …
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslow’s daughter, Anne, responds to …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 18 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any …
  • … he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The …
  • … evolution and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 87–90, Darwin had briefly introduced the …
  • … process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection was ‘the …
  • … had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwin’s request, he modified his original plan, …
  • … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin …
  • … your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  s ., and recommended to Murray that Dallas …
  • … Generally favourable accounts appeared in some of London’s leading weeklies such as the  Saturday …
  • … Gazette , was by George Henry Lewes, well-known in London’s literary circles and an author of …
  • Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote …
  • … by Owen’. John Edward Gray, a colleague of Richard Owen’s in the British Museum, agreed about the …
  • … Science, Robertson published a rejoinder, arousing Darwin’s ire still further: ‘he is a scamp & …
  • … April 1868 . The letter was addressed to ‘the Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed …
  • … Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing …
  • … enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). Researching …
  • … cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April [1868] ). Such facts proved …
  • … omnipotent and omniscient Creator’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 8 May [1868] ). Others were concerned …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 12 hits

  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, R. W., [31 August 1831] Darwin
  • professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., [8 & 26
  • and taking in the aesthetic beauty of the world around him. Darwin describes thestrikingcolour
  • town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to FitzRoy, R., [20 February 1840] Darwin
  • Published in GardenersChronicle , Darwin asks M. J. Berkeley to identify microscopical
  • the house immediately after a rain storm. Here, Darwins scientific investigation is inextricably
  • a fellow of Trinity would be far more useful in Georges pursuit of a profession. Gove maintained
  • experiments he is undertaking in his home to test Wallaces theory that birds reject highly-coloured
  • in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • on the bedroom wallpaper. Letter 10821 - Graham C. C. to Darwin, [30 January 1877] …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 26 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • came on 19 April. Plans were made for a burial in St Marys churchyard in Down, where his brother
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • to Fritz Müller, 4 January 1882 ). These were topics that Darwin had been investigating for years, …
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • vegetables such as potatoes, carrots, and beets. Romaness experiments had been conducted to lend
  • asymmetric, thus facilitating cross-fertilisation. Darwins aim, he said, was just tohave the
  • 1882 ). Earthworms and evolution Darwins last book, Earthworms , had been
  • V). The conservative Quarterly Review , owned by Darwins publisher John Murray, carried an
  • … ( Correspondence vol. 29, letter from J. F. Simpson, 8 November 1881 ). He remarked on the
  • them half the worm had disappeared down the frogs throat. I watched them for a quarter of an hour
  • with both combatants the worse for wear. Darwins writing on human evolution continued to
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • of tidal evolution’ ( Nature , 24 November 1881, p. 81). Darwin boasted to Rich: ‘Georges work
  • dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 March 1882] (DAR 210.3: 45)). …
  • were not wanting to tell me how you felt for meHope [Wedgwood] expresses a feeling that I should
  • to some Estancia,’ wrote Hughes, ‘as the scenery &c. will amply repay your trouble’ ( letter
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • History, that I went as Naturalist on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World & collected in
  • great minds’ ( letter from Aleksander Jelski, [186082] ). In 1863, the final blow was
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To
  • and journals by Lyells sister-in-law Katherine (see K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 4456). A complete
  • both our names to appear’ ( letter to Louisa Stevenson, 8 April 1871 ). It was Darwins name that

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 28 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • 39. tom. 4. p. 273. Latreille Geographie des Insectes 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. …
  • de Serres Cavernes dOssements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] good to trace Europ. forms
  • Horticultural Society of London ].— [DAR *119: 8v.] A history of British Birds by
  • 1847] good for woodcuts. (Roy. Coll. of Surgeons) M.M Turpin & Poiteau Traité des arbres
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • letters of M r  Knight July 8 th  M.S. Voyage of Kolff to the Molucca Sea [Kolff 1840] …
  • Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar ]. Vol 1to 7. M.S. Translat.— from 1740. 2 d . vol
  • 1854 Jan 15. Seemans Narrative of H.M.S. Herald [Seeman 1853]. Feb 6. Wallace
  • … (Liebig 1851). 50  Probably Elizabeth Wedgwood. 51  This note is a
  • Belcher, Edward. 1848Narrative of the voyage of H.M.S.   Samarang during the years 184346; …
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • 1850The life and correspondence of Andrew Combe,   M.D.  Edinburgh128: 5 Conrad, …
  • years 18381842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. New York. [Abstract in DAR 71: 512.]  …
  • years 18381842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Philadelphia. [Abstract in DAR 205.3: …
  • ou, iconographie de toutes les espèces et   variétés darbres, fruitiers cultivés dans cet   …
  • sur la distribution géographique des animaux vertébrés, moins les oiseauxJournal de Physique 94
  • Drury, Robert. 1729Madagascar; or, Robert Drurys   journal, during fifteen   years
  • … [Vols. 3 and 4 in Darwin Library.]  119: 3a Dugès, Antoine. 1832Memoir sur la
  • augmentée dun grand nombre de fruits, les uns échappés aux recherches de Duhamel, les autres
  • Narrative of a voyage round the world, performed in H.M.S.   Sulphur,   183642 . 2 vols. …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • history of   Selbourne by the late Rev. Gilbert White, M.A.  A new edition, with notes. London. …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … spent an extended period in Würzburg at Julius Sachs’s botanical institute, one of most advanced …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Sophy to observe the arching shoots of Neottia (bird’s nest orchid) near her home in Surrey: ‘If …
  • … 22 December [1878] ). Son abroad Darwin’s experiments on plant movement were …
  • … apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in Germany, not returning …
  • … be obtained at Down House, but Francis thought Horace’s abilities were a match for German instrument …
  • … here is far from well made.’ (Jemmy or Jim was Horace’s nickname.) Francis was occasionally …
  • … letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was apparently matched by his …
  • … Anne Westwood, and the proud grandparents. Many of Darwin’s letters conveyed news of the boy. ‘All …
  • … faculties. He seemed to take special note of the child’s use of language and power of judgment. …
  • … own research on animal instinct and intelligence. ‘Frank’s son, nearly 2 years old (& we think …
  • … a young monkey, so as to observe its mind’? Darwin’s suggestion was seconded: ‘Frank says you ought …
  • … cases of animal intelligence were observed by Darwin’s correspondents. The German stamp-collector …
  • … younger generation of naturalists continued to find Darwin’s work inspiring. The geologist Sydney …
  • … into Greek. Theodor von Heldreich wrote from Athens on 8 February that the translator, a young …
  • … Samuel Haughton. ‘If I do write’, George worried, ‘I’m pretty sure to get in Haughton’s ill favour …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 23 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • Controversy and Erasmus Darwin Darwins most recent book, Erasmus Darwin , had been
  • generations. He continued to receive letters about Erasmuss life and other bits of family history. …
  • Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends, full of lively
  • the eagerness of the two learned divines to see a pigs body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied
  • … ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwins sons George and Leonard also continued to
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • family shake their heads in the same dismal manner as you & M r . Murray did, when I told them
  • structural differentiations’ ( letter from F. M. Balfour, [22 November 1880] ). George Romanes, …
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • have been forestalled: ‘I had hoped to call & see whether M rs . Biddulph would admit me, &amp
  • … ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of the family
  • Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwins Wedgwood nieces, Sophy and Lucy, were asked
  • We find that the light frightens them’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October [1880] ). The
  • Darwin encouraged the experiment, but conceded, ‘M rs . Romanes is quite right not to allow the
  • Galton, 7 April 1880 , and letter from Francis Galton, 8 April 1880 ). Darwin was queried about
  • great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). …
  • of several close family members. Emmas brother Josiah Wedgwood III died on 11 March. Like Emma, he
  • … & am never happy except when at work’ ( letter to J. M. Herbert, 25 December [1880] ). …

Have you read the one about....

Summary

... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some serious - but all letters you can read here.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … ... the atheistical cats, or the old fogies in Cambridge? We've suggested a few - some funny, some …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … Origin . The second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 2814 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May [1860] Darwin …
  • … questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] …
  • … constant watching of an intelligent ‘chooser’ like man's selection to which you so often …
  • … to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 Darwin praises Graham’s Creed of science , but disagrees …
  • … chance” but has horrid doubt whether convictions of man’s mind, which has been developed from lower …
  • … Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive position …
  • … to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious doubts. She fears his work …
  • … 18 Nov 1859 Clergyman Charles Kingsley judges Darwin’s book [ Origin ] free from two …
  • … of the book and how he instead “humbly accepts God’s revelation of himself both in His works & …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth
  • Letters Darwins Notes On Marriage [April - July 1838] In these notes, …
  • of family, home and sociability. Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] …
  • theories, & accumulating facts in silence & solitude”. Darwin also comments that he has
  • sitting by”. Letter 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to Darwin, [6 September 1862] …
  • of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] Darwin
  • Jnr. seeks Darwin-family support for Elizabeth Garretts candidacy for the position of Professorship
  • Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] Darwin thanks Antoinette
  • author, is a man. Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, [1 September 1870] …
  • is left of them ears”. Letter 8055 - Hennell, S. S. to Darwin, [7 November 1871] …
  • selection for debates about marriage. Since reading Darwins work aflood of questionshave
  • to as such questionsseem almost out of a womans natural thinking”. Letter 8079 - …
  • women. Letter 10746Darwin to Dicey, E. M., [1877] Darwin gives his
  • patience. Letter 13607Darwin to Kennard, C. A., [9 January 1882] Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emmas backgammon games. ‘I have won, hurrah, …
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amys child expected in September. Their joy
  • to William on 11 September just hours after Amys death. For once, the labour of checking proofs
  • dimorphic and trimorphic plants in new ways. New Year's resolutions Darwin began
  • of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February 1876 ). When
  • not even to look at a single proof ’. Perhaps Caruss meticulous correction of errors in the German
  • effected by his forthcoming pamphlet, Darwin confounded (C. OShaughnessy 1876), which, he
  • and who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). Although
  • in an anonymous article, which impugned not only Georges but also Darwins respectability (see
  • that Mivart still had the capacity to damage Georges reputation. ‘I care little about myself but Mr
  • the still raw memory of this incident that underlay Darwins heartfelt thanks to Wallace for his
  • amendments to his results ( letter from Moritz Schiff, 8 May 1876 ). Pangenesis v. …
  • years experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less welcome reaction
  • and ardent naturalist Thomas Edward ( letter from F. M. Balfour, 11 December 1876 ; letter to
  • than2 or 3 times as slowly as writing ’ (DAR 258: 860). He thought typing would be a boon to
  • In the same month, Darwin heard that his sister Caroline Wedgwood continued to languish in
  • and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In England, the
  • in harmony with yours’ ( letter from George Henslow, [ c. 7 December 1876] ). A more typical

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 27 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely observed the
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his obvious
  • just as he had earlier analysed his own childhood memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was
  • children. Darwin maintained his record of Williams development from the day of his birth, 27
  • by five: George Howard, born 9 July 1845; Elizabeth, born 8 July 1847; Francis, born 16 August 1848; …
  • of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, she noted
  • movement which causes hiccough.— 2  At his 8 th  day he frowned much. & I believe
  • of muscles, without a corresponding sensation. D r . Holland[12informs me children do not
  • also just at the same period or a few days earlierNov. 8[16] When seven weeks old, his eyes
  • taking breath after each scream approaches it.— 8  Between 11 & 12 weeks old in
  • was called.— 29 th . Cried at the sight of Allen Wedgwood[32Is able to catch hold of a
  • loose about four feet, walked well & says goat. M. 23 d . Has been accustomed to see
  • trowsers. Emma one morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet of C. Langton,[52W. instantly observed
  • she added an s to the end of every wordEttis & Bettis &c afterwards all the ws were turned
  • goed dawn to the willage”. Fish for Smith. Kaw for cow. &c. Lenny[612 years old speaks
  • Lizzy come & stay here. — Shant stay here. People say Im mansstay in mans room. Papa
  • answer) (indignantlyI are . 44  Lenny. Im a good boy you mustnt thmack me now— …
  • cut up your potatoe. Lizzy after a pauseYes Parslow. Imsidering.” Lenny in an indignant
  • coming out of the drawing room rather indignantlyIm so dull. There is only horrid beastly boys in
  • any thing with my egg. Miss Th. Shall I cut up y r  meat? L. I dont care whether you do or
  • … “But I could not help it”— I saidLenny you c d  help it, dont say that”. “I could not help it a
  • of CDs queries about expression. [4See Notebook M, pp. 53, 58, 96, Notebook N, pp. 37, 121
  • … [6Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . [7]  …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 18 hits

  • The story of