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From Henry Holland   [c. April 1862]

Summary

Louis Pasteur’s memoir "is a very able and convincing one" ["Mémoire sur les corpuscles organisés qui existent dans l’atmosphère", Ann. Sci. Nat. (Zool.) 3d ser. 16 (1861): 5–98].

Author:  Henry Holland
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. Apr 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 166.2: 237
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3490

To Charles Lyell   1 April [1862]

Summary

Explains how melting of ice in Glen Spean could have successively freed two lower cols, thus establishing the water-levels that determined the two lower shelves in Glen Roy.

Plans to read a paper to the Linnean Society ["Sexual forms of Catasetum", Collected papers 2: 63–70].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  1 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.275)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3491

To Octavian Blewitt   2 April [1862]

Summary

Declines the honour of acting as Steward at the Annual Dinner of the Royal Literary Fund.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Octavian Blewitt
Date:  2 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  The British Library (Loan 96: RLF 4/16 1862 file 3)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3491F

From George Busk   1 April 1862

Summary

E. A. Parkes informs him there will be difficulty about the Army returns [on CD’s Query to Army surgeons, see Freeman, Works of Charles Darwin, p. 111] owing to official obstructions by Director General. [Enclosed letter from Parkes to GB says that the Director General does not think that Army surgeons could be asked to collect information systematically for CD, but perhaps some informal, voluntary arrangement could be made.]

Author:  George Busk
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  1 Apr 1862
Classmark:  DAR 160.3: 377, DAR 174.1: 22
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3492

From J. D. Hooker   [7 April 1862]

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Summary

Will hope to be able to send Vanilla flowers in a day or two.

How is CD after his tremendous effect on the placid Linneans? ["Sexual forms of Catasetum", Collected papers 2: 63–70; read 3 Apr 1862.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [7 Apr 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 101: 32
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3495

From Alfred Russel Wallace   7 April 1862

Summary

Cannot accept invitation at present.

Is sending a wild honeycomb from Timor.

Author:  Alfred Russel Wallace
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  7 Apr 1862
Classmark:  DAR 106/7 (ser. 2): 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3496

From Edward Newman   6 April 1862

Summary

Has several specimens illustrating dimorphism in insects that he would be happy to leave where CD could examine them.

Discusses the ant genera Formica and Atta, and the origin of the two forms of workers commonly found in the species of these genera.

Author:  Edward Newman
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  6 Apr 1862
Classmark:  DAR 172.2: 38
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3497

From Edmund Alexander Parkes   8 April 1862

Summary

Suggests CD use a tabular form for Army doctors to write their observations on, and suggests it be limited to malaria, yellow fever, and dysentery.

Author:  Edmund Alexander Parkes
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 Apr 1862
Classmark:  DAR 174.1: 23
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3498

To J. D. Hooker   9 [April 1862]

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Summary

On Vanilla.

Asks JDH to observe whether he has both long- and short-styled form of Menyanthes

and whether he has "Saxifrages with long hairs glandular at the tip".

The Linnean Society session made him vomit all night. Fears he must give up trying to read papers or speak. "It is a horrid bore. I can do nothing like other people."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  9 [Apr 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 115: 148
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3500

To John Murray   9 April [1862]

Summary

JM is a bold man to print 1500 copies [of Orchids].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  9 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff. 116–117)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3501

From Daniel Oliver   10 April 1862

Summary

Now believes flowers of Fumariaceae must be self-fertilised.

Planning a piece on dimorphism in the Natural History Review ["On the two forms, or dimorphic condition, in the species of Primula … by Charles Darwin", n.s. 2 (1862): 235–43].

Observations on Campanula dimorphism.

Author:  Daniel Oliver
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Apr 1862
Classmark:  DAR 173.1: 13
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3502

To Andrew Murray   10 April [1862]

Summary

Did CD lend AM a pamphlet on cave insects by S. Scudder ["On the genus Raphidophora", Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 8 (1861–2): 6–14]? CD much wants it and remembers lending it to someone.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Andrew Dickson (Andrew) Murray
Date:  10 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  R. D. Pyrah
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3503

To Daniel Oliver   12 [April 1862]

Summary

DO’s observations on polymorphism in Primula and Campanula. CD recognises three classes of dimorphism, as in Primula, Thymus, and Campanula and violets.

DO’s Campanula paper and Royal Institution lecture [Not. Proc. R. Inst. G. B. 3 (1858–62): 431–3].

CD’s interest in Fumariaceae from A. Gray’s comments on "selfing".

Bees bite holes in flowers when same species grows in high density.

Organisation of CD’s notes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  12 [Apr 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 1 (EH 88205985)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3504

From Andrew Murray   12 April 1862

Summary

AM did not borrow a Samuel Scudder pamphlet from CD; in fact he was not aware of its existence.

Author:  Andrew Dickson (Andrew) Murray
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12 Apr 1862
Classmark:  DAR 171.2: 325
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3505

From J. D. Hooker   [15 April 1862]

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Summary

Is it convenient for him and Willy to come to Down from Thursday to Sunday?

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [15 Apr 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 101: 31
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3506

To H. W. Bates   16 April [1862]

Summary

Invitation to visit; Hooker will be present. Gives directions to Down. Also plans to invite John Lubbock over for an evening.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Henry Walter Bates
Date:  16 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library (Robert M. Stecher collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3507

To C. E. Brown-Séquard   16 April [1862]

Summary

French translation of 3d edition of Origin has been greatly delayed.

Very pleased with CEB-S’s intent to write a review and with his near agreement. CD believes that so many really good judges concur with him in the main that his views will ultimately prevail. Continental reviews have been more positive than British ones. Édouard Claparède’s ["M. Darwin et sa théorie de la formation des espèces", Rev. Ger. 16 (1861): 523–59; 17 (1861): 232–63] is too favourable.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Édouard Brown-Séquard
Date:  16 Apr [1862]
Classmark:  Royal College of Physicians of London (MS-BROWC/981/97)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3508

From John Lubbock   17 April 1862

Summary

JL is going on a geological excursion with Joseph Prestwich and John Evans.

Author:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  17 Apr 1862
Classmark:  DAR 170.1: 29
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3510

From H. W. Bates   [17 April 1862]

Summary

Accepts CD’s invitation.

Author:  Henry Walter Bates
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [17 Apr 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 160.1: 66
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3511

To Daniel Oliver   20 [April 1862]

Summary

Requests Oxalis acetosella, which he suspects is dimorphic.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Daniel Oliver
Date:  20 [Apr 1862]
Classmark:  DAR 261.10: 56 (EH 88206039)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-3512
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Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … The Scottish botanist John Scott wrote from Calcutta, 4 May 1868 : “Shame is … expressed by an …
  • … Foster, Michael 4 June [1871] Trinity College, …
  • … Geach, F.F. 4 July 1868 Johore, Malaysia …
  • … Haast, J.F.J. von 4 Dec 1867 Christchurch, New …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … (1) Alberts, Karl (4) Alberts, Maurice …
  • … (2) Allman, G. J. (4) Althaus, Julius …
  • … (1) Atkinson, Edward (4) Aubertin, J. J. …
  • … (1) Bailey, W. W. (4) Baillie, A. F. …
  • … (1) Bary, Anton de (4) Bashford, Frederick …
  • … (1) Behrens, Wilhelm (4) Beke, C. T. …
  • … (1) Bianconi, G. G. (4) Bibliogr. Inst. …
  • … (8) Blackwall, John (4) Blackwell, A. L. B. …
  • … (7) Blair, R. H. (4) Blake, C. C. (3 …
  • … (2) Broca, Paul (4) Broderip, W. J. …
  • … (1) Browne, Hugh (4) Browne, W. R. …
  • … (1) Canning, A. S. G. (4) Capes, Frederick …
  • … (1) Cardwell, Edward (4) Carlier, A. G. …
  • … (1) Chapman, John (4) Charles, R. F. …
  • … (2) Cheeseman, T. F. (4) Chemical supplier …
  • … (1) Chester, J. L. (4) Chiantore, G. …
  • … (2) Clark, J. W. (b) (4) Clarke, Benjamin …
  • … (3) Coan, T. M. (4) Cobbe, F. P. (13 …
  • … (2) Crotch, G. R. (4) Crotch, W. D. …
  • … (56) Dallinger, W. H. (4) Daly, J. …
  • … (11) Dobson, G. E. (4) Dodel-Port, Arnold …
  • … (3) Dunker, Wilhelm (4) Dupré, August …
  • … (2) Fawcett, Henry (4) Fayrer, Joseph …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … translation, 1863 2d French translation 1865 4 th English edition published, 1866 …
  • … Lyell, 11 October [1859] and letter from Charles Lyell, 4 October 1859 ).  Despite having …
  • … doomed to disappointment.   3 rd to 4 th editions This …
  • … Everything which I have read during last 4 years I find is quite washy in my mind . Once …

Darwin And Evolution

Summary

What is evolution? What did Darwin discover and how did he come to his conclusions?

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Activities give an introduction to Charles Darwin and his theories of evolution. Specimens brought …

Darwin's Fantastical Voyage

Summary

Learn about Darwin's adventures on his epic journey.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … These activities explore Darwin’s life changing voyage aboard HMS Beagle. Using letters home, …

Detecting Darwin

Summary

Who was Charles Darwin? What is he famous for? Why is he still important?

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Pupils act as Darwin detectives, exploring clues about Darwin’s life and work. No prior knowledge …

Language: Interview with Gregory Radick

Summary

Darwin made a famous comment about parallels between changes in language and species change. Gregory Radick, Professor of History and Philosophy of Science at Leeds University, talks about the importance of the development of language to Darwin, what…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Could you tell us a bit more about that? 4. How did you use Darwin’s …
  • … between him and us, however uncomfortable. 4. How did you use Darwin’s correspondence to re …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … improvement to Jones’s diet ( see letter to T. H. Huxley, 4 October [1865] ). It was not until …
  • … for the press in the autumn’ ( letter to John Murray, 4 April [1865] ). In early June, he wrote to …
  • … from the Linnean Society ( letter to [Richard Kippist], 4 June [1865] ). The paper was published …
  • … to high scientific account’ (A. Gray 1865–6, pp. 273-4). Darwin had also written to Gray on 19 …
  • … for him to read attentively ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, [4 June 1865] ). The fact that …
  • … do it if it ever can be done’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [4 June 1865] ); the hard work of …
  • … keep out of contact with him’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 4 May [1865] ). Darwin contributed …

Teachers notes: Offer of a lifetime

Summary

The Offer of a Lifetime?  Activities for: English Key Stage 3 and 4 When Darwin was 22 he received an exciting and unique opportunity to join HMS Beagle. The voyage changed his life but the letters show how close he came to not going at all! …

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Activities for: English Key Stage 3 and 4 When Darwin was 22 he received an exciting and …

Home learning: 7-11 years

Summary

Do try this at home! Support your children’s learning by downloading our free and fun activities for those aged between 7-11 and 11-14 years, using Darwin’s letters.  

Matches: 1 hits

  • … More  Darwin the Collector activities 4 How did Darwin develop his ideas on …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … published in Paris (in 2 vols.), so long ago as 1839 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. Said to …
  • … et anim: on sleep & movements of plants  £ 1 ..s  4. [Dutrochet 1837] Voyage aux …
  • … observations on increase & decrease of different diseases 4 to . 1801 [Heberden 1801] quoted …
  • … worth reading [Dampier 1697] Sportsman’s repository 4 to . [W. H. Scott 1820]— contains …
  • … Audubons Ornithol: Biography [Audubon 1831–9]— 4 Vols. well worth reading [DAR *119: 4v.] …
  • … 31 An analysis of British Ferns. G. W. Francis 4 s  [Francis 1837]— plates of every …
  • … of Rural Sports [Blaine 1840] (at Athenæum?) Book II Chapt. 4 on variation by  Blaine .— & on …
  • … Yak.— Steudel Botan. Nomenclature [Steudel 1821–4]. Synonym of every plant & country— …
  • … Paper on transmutation of shells [Haldeman 1843–4] already (1844) VI. vols. published Lib. …

New material added to the American edition of Origin

Summary

A ‘revised and augmented’ American edition of Origin came on the market in July 1860, and was the only authorised edition available in the US until 1873. It incorporated many of the changes Darwin made to the second English edition, but still contained…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … US ed., pp. i–xi) New material added to chapter 4 on ‘Natural selection’ ( ibid ., pp. …
  • … and bearing in mind, &c., &c. Page 169, 4 tenth line from top, after ‘ …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … on the Trichinae’ (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ). Darwin also worried that any …
  • … a new sketch for a petition (letter from T. H. Huxley, [4 April 1875] ). This was evidently …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … mammoth ( Correspondence vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 4 May [1860] and n. 3; Hutchinson 1914, …
  • … partly inspired by the controversies associated with it. 4 One area of controversy centred …
  • … admiration for Lubbock’s book ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [4 June 1865] ). A week later he sent …
  • … of the situation was succinct. In his letter to Hooker of [4 June 1865] he warned that no one …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … of  Descent , he wrote to Philip Lutley Sclater on 4 January , ‘Heaven knows, whether the book …
  • … produce physiological changes ( letter from Michael Foster, 4 June [1871] ). Pangenesis …
  • … can hardly sit up, so no more’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 4 August [1871] ). On 23 September he …
  • … good as twice refined gold’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 September [1871] ). The months …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 7 hits

  • 4 Ankum H.J. van (Hendrik Jan) Professor of Zoölogy …
  • … Groningen 7 December 1845 Groningen 4 July 1940 Zeist …
  • … Burghal School   Leeuwarden 4 July 1833 Den Haag 17 May 1890 …
  • … http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/retroboeken/nnbw/#source=4&page=276&view=imagePane …
  • … http://resources.huygens.knaw.nl/retroboeken/nnbw/#source=4&page=332&view=imagePane …
  • … High Burghal School.   Tilburg 4 December 1836 Werden am Ruhr …
  • … Shell collector; painter 65 Utrecht 4 December 1812 Den Haag …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … me’, Darwin wrote enthusiastically to Reginald Darwin on 4 April , declaring that reading it was …
  • … independent of him as possible’, Francis told Darwin on 4 July, after reporting that he had …
  • … with Ubba about your return’, Darwin wrote to Francis on 4 July , ‘He said “it is likely he will …
  • … neither cross nor ennuied’ (Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: 125)). Darwin …
  • … has opposed it’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: 125)). Nothing …
  • … ‘to be planted in my honour!’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 4 November [1879] ). While in Coniston, …
  • … frog be published in Nature ( letter to J. N. Lockyer, 4 and 6 March [1879] ). When Darwin’s …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … curs in London’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [4 February 1876] ). 'The heat of …
  • … as stemming a torrent with a reed’, he told Romanes on 4 June , but added, ‘Frank … who sputters …
  • … the previous year ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [after 4 September 1876] ). ...all sorts of …
  • … say is do not commit suicide’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [4 June 1876] ). By midsummer, Darwin …
  • … size of pollen grains & state of stigma’, he told Gray on 4 December. Darwin also adopted …

Climbing plants

Summary

Darwin’s book Climbing plants was published in 1865, but its gestation began much earlier. The start of Darwin’s work on the topic lay in his need, owing to severe bouts of illness in himself and his family, for diversions away from his much harder book on…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , 4 (1857-60): 98-9 ) by the Harvard …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … He expressed his views to his daughter Henrietta on 4 January : ‘I wd gladly punish severely …
  • … eyes of one variety into another ( Variation 2d ed. 1: 420–4, 2: 360). Darwin had encouraged …
  • … become wholly white’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [before 4 November 1874] ).   Testing …
  • … am very glad indeed of your work,’ Darwin replied on 4 November , ‘though I cannot yet follow all …
  • … occasions and finally arranged a visit to Down House on 4 May, but was not content with just one …
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