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To Robert Patterson   6 April [1854]

Summary

He has returned William Thompson’s MSS and, he believes, all his specimens of Cirripedia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Patterson
Date:  6 Apr [1854]
Classmark:  Praeger 1935, p. 713
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1565

To John Higgins   9 April [1854]

Summary

Discusses his investments.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Higgins
Date:  9 Apr [1854]
Classmark:  Lincolnshire Archives (HIG/4/2/1/79)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1566

To William Robert Grove   26 April [1854]

Summary

Is honoured by his election to the Philosophical Club [of the Royal Society].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Robert Grove
Date:  26 Apr [1854]
Classmark:  Royal Institution of Great Britain (Grove Papers)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1567

To Josiah Wedgwood III   1 May [1854]

Summary

About share transfers, involving JW as a trustee of CD/Emma marriage trust.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Josiah Wedgwood, III
Date:  1 May [1854]
Classmark:  V&A / Wedgwood Collection (MS W/M 1028)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1568

To S. P. Woodward   6 May 1854

Summary

CD expresses his inability to accept the view that the Hippuritidae are in any way a connecting link between the oysters and the barnacles.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  6 May 1854
Classmark:  Natural History Museum, Library and Archives (1909: 9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1570

From J. D. Hooker   [24 June 1854]

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Summary

Birth of JDH’s second child.

Asks CD’s view of "highness" and "lowness" in animals. Gives his own for plants; extent of deviation from type, e.g., floral parts deviating from leaf.

Reading B. C. Brodie’s Psychological inquiries [1854].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24 June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 104: 202–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1572

To J. D. Hooker   27 [June 1854]

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Summary

CD gives his definition of "highness" and "lowness" as "morphological differentiation" from a common embryo or archetype. JDH’s view, with which CD agrees when it can be applied, is the same as Milne-Edwards’, i.e., the physiological division of labour. There is little agreement among zoologists and CD admits his own lack of clarity.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  27 [June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 121
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1573

To Edward Sabine   28 June [1854]

Summary

Is unequal to taking chair as President of Natural History Section of BAAS meeting in Liverpool. Very little fatigue or excitement brings on swimming of head, nausea, and other symptoms.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Sabine
Date:  28 June [1854]
Classmark:  The Royal Society (Sa: 386)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1574

To J. D. Hooker   29 [May 1854]

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Summary

CD "lectures" JDH on taking care of his health.

CD’s pleasure in London trip.

CD and Emma have taken season tickets to Crystal Palace.

Edward Forbes’s "Introductory Lecture" is the best CD ever read.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  29 [May 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 122
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1575

From J. D. Hooker   [29 June 1854]

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Summary

JDH on "highness" of Coniferae: they are genuine Dicotyledons, not a link to cryptogams; that is a geologists’ fallacy. Thus they are highest plants in Carboniferous.

Does not agree with CD’s "elastic" species theory. Long correspondence with Lyell on this.

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [29 June 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 383
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1576

To J. D. Hooker   7 July [1854]

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Summary

CD’s view requires only that ancient organisms resemble embryological stages of existing ones. Thus "highness" in plants is difficult to evaluate because they have no larval stages. Would compare highest members of two groups, rather than archetype, to determine which group was higher. Against Forbes’s polarity and parallelism.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  7 July [1854]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 123
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1577

To Thomas Salt   12 July [1854]

Summary

Thanks for money paid into his account. Has not received interest payment from Lord Powis.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Salt
Date:  12 July [1854]
Classmark:  Rachel Salt (private collection); sold by Spink’s (dealers), July 2018
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1577F

To J. A. H. de Bosquet   13 August [1854]

Summary

Thanks JAHdeB for his present of two volumes [Description des Entomostracés fossiles des terrains tertiaires de la France et de la Belgique (1852) and "Les Crustacés fossiles du Limbourg" (1854)]. CD was interested in the remarks on geographical distribution of the Entomostraca.

CD’s second volume for the Ray Society [Living Cirripedia] is finished but not yet published.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Augustin Hubert de Bosquet
Date:  13 Aug [1854]
Classmark:  Lucy T. Eisenberg (private collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1578

To ?    16 August [1854–8]

Summary

Should like to examine the correspondent’s Madeira cirripedes but is too much occupied with other subjects of natural history.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Unidentified
Date:  16 Aug [1854-8]
Classmark:  DAR 224
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1578A

To Robert Patterson   21 August [1854]

Summary

Has found a half dozen [cirripede] specimens belonging to William Thompson and a few MS notes. Asks for instructions for sending them to RP.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert Patterson
Date:  21 Aug [1854]
Classmark:  Praeger 1935, p. 713
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1579

To Mrs Stutchbury    22 August 1854

Summary

Arranges to return a collection of cirripedes which belongs to her husband [Samuel Stutchbury].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Hannah Louisa Stutchbury
Date:  22 Aug 1854
Classmark:  Matthews 1982, p. 262
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1579A

To Albany Hancock   24 August [1854]

Summary

Can AH spare Alcippe specimens for British Museum?

C. S. Bate has found Alcippe off Plymouth.

Discusses returning specimens to AH.

Owes to AH the discussion of powers of excavation of Verruca in Living Cirripedia [vol. 2 (1854)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  24 Aug [1854]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden (Charles Finney Cox Collection)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1580

From J. D. Hooker   25 August 1854

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Summary

JDH and F. W. Binney identify Calamites specimens as pith casts. They are cryptogams related to, but higher than, Lycopodiaceae and contradict progression.

Insects found in coal.

Lyell says Stonesfield slate marsupials are actually placentals.

JDH reading Alexander Braun on individuality ["Das Individuum der Pflanze in seinem Verhältniss zur Species", Abh. K. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (Phys. Kl.) (1853): 19–122].

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Aug 1854
Classmark:  DAR 205.9: 384
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1581

To John Price   26 [August 1854]

Summary

Discusses specimen of Balanus crenatus.

Sorry JP’s children are ill.

Will come to Liverpool if well [for meeting of BAAS].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Price
Date:  26 [Aug 1854]
Classmark:  DAR 147: 272
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1582

To G. R. Waterhouse   29 August [1854]

Summary

Sends fossil cirripedes for the museum’s collection.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Robert Waterhouse
Date:  29 Aug [1854]
Classmark:  Natural History Museum, Library and Archives (Archives DF PAL/100/7/)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1583
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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again …
  • … series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was …
  • … indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far from disagreeing with …
  • … Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle …
  • … do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming …

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Letter 1587 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second …
  • … of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is …
  • … Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635 — Darwin, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Nott’s Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From …
  • … de la Boheme [Barrande 1852–1911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • … r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by …
  • … not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal …
  • … d’un Naturaliste A. de Quatrefages [Quatrefages de Bréau 1854]. (light reading) (??) read …
  • … Domestic animals. 94 Lloyd Scandinavian Adventures 1854 [L. Lloyd 1854]. praised in …
  • … sur les Migration des Vegetaux 4 to  Pamphlet [Godron 1854] (read) Journal of Asiatic Soc. …
  • … specially of central platform of France 8 fr. [Lecoq 1854–8] Read Journal de la Soc. Imp. d …
  • … Sir J. Lubbock. member Ferguson on Poultry [Ferguson 1854], recommended by M r  Brent, but …
  • … D r . Badham “Ancient & Modern Tattle” on Fish [Badham 1854]. M r  Tegetmeier says very …
  • … (read) From Nott & Gliddon [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] Roselini Monumenta [ …
  • … Carboniferous strata, translated in Bull. General [Heer 1854].— Hooker has it.— Very important …
  • … I ought to read Murchinson’s Siluria [Murchison 1854]— I  must  read it. & buy it.— …
  • … W. R. Wilde in Dublin University Magazine early month of 1854 on food of Irish. ( Pig ) [Wilde] …
  • … translated into French by Gaudin—with additions [Heer 1854]. Archives du Museum [ Archives …
  • … Himmalaya [T. Thomson 1852] [DAR 128: 7] 1854 Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, …
  • … 1848]. March 7 th . Hooker’s Himmalaya [Hooker 1854].— —— 23 Stansbury. Exploration …
  • … July 3 d . Sir B. B. Psychological Essays [Brodie] 1854] —— Duval Histoire du Pommier, …
  • … Isidore Geoffroy St. Hilaire [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1854–62] Tome I [DAR 128: 9] …
  • … Williams Missionary in T. del Fuego [Hamilton 1854] March 28 th . Sir G. Stephens Lectures …
  • … Richardson 1784] (poor) [DAR 128: 10] 1854.  Microscopical Journal [ …
  • … 1855. Wollastons Insecta Maderensia [Wollaston 1854] —— Johnston Physical Atlas [A. K. …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Lubbock, the principal landowner in Down, in a letter of 1854 in which he said, From all I have seen …
  • … [of the Poor Fund]’ (letter to J. W. Lubbock, 28 March [1854] ). Despite their differences, they …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … on the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on …
  • … in manuscript form to the Ray Society at the beginning of 1854 , where it took longer than the ‘ …
  • … to tell his friend Thomas Henry Huxley in early September 1854, ‘ My second volume on the …
  • … Society; the monograph itself was printed in 1854. This volume appears not to have been discussed …
  • … but he wrote to the Palaeontographical Society in February 1854 and the society confirmed that he …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … sub-class of Crustacea,  Living Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • … spermatozoa’ attached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out …
  • … from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 june 1854 Middelburg 13 october …
  • …   Deventer 11 september 1854 Deventer 8 march 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 july 1854 Batavia 8 march 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 april 1854 Amsterdam 4 january …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 august 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight …
  • … what he came to call his ‘big book’.   In March 1854, six months before he started sorting …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Dramatist 23 Middelburg 20 June 1854 Middelburg 13 October …
  • …   Deventer 11 September 1854 Deventer 8 March 1936 Haarlem …
  • … Phil.nat.cand   Leiden 18 July 1854 Batavia 8 March 1896 …
  • … University.   Utrecht 16 April 1854 Amsterdam 4 January 1928 …
  • … Phil.nat.cand.   Utrecht 16 April 1854 Amsterdam 4 January …
  • … Phil.nat.stud   Leiden 19 August 1854 Oud-Beijerland 23 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … his barnacle books ( Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) and  Living Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854)) …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … used in a strict sense. Thus a letter dated ‘after 8 July 1854’ is judged to have been written very …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1585 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • … a bit of red glass at the garden) 47v.  May 1854. Before tea Ch. asked Lenny P. Have you …
  • … give me a kiss if you like”. 48 [74] May 20— 1854.— I saw a pile of sand lying on the lawn …
  • … I could not help it awfully”.— 49  June 1854— About 9 months ago, Lenny defined being in …
  • … Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever & recovering (Dec 1854) used constantly to ask in the …

Charles Darwin’s letters: a selection 1825-1859

Summary

The letters in this volume span the years from 1825, when Darwin was a student at the University of Edinburgh, to the end of 1859, when the Origin of Species was published. The early letters portray Darwin as a lively sixteen-year-old medical student. Two…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … taxonomic study of the entire order. By this time, 1854, Darwin had become a family man. In …
  • … field notes exist that record the observations made between 1854 and 1861 by five of his children, …

Asa Gray

Summary

Darwin’s longest running and most significant exchange of correspondence dealing with the subjects of design in nature and religious belief was with the Harvard botanist Asa Gray.  Gray was one of Darwin’s leading supporters in America. He was also a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … consisting of about 300 letters written between 1854 and 1881, is now available for the first time. …

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Alfred Russel Wallace

Summary

Wallace was a leading Victorian naturalist, with wide-ranging interests from biogeography and evolutionary theory to spiritualism and politics. He was born in 1823 in Usk, a small town in south-east Wales, and attended a grammar school in Hertford. At the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … able to finance another extended voyage to Malaysia. Between 1854 and 1862, he travelled some 14,000 …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …
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