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Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 11 hits

  • cirripedes and culminated in  Living Cirripedia  (1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1854), again
  • in zoological matters, just as he did on Joseph Dalton Hookers in botany. Moreover, this circle of
  • series of letters pertaining to the Royal Society. In April 1854, when his cirripede study was
  • in his health was indicated by his comment in a letter to Hooker on 29 [May 1854] : ‘Very far
  • Back to species theory In September 1854, as soon as the final proofs of the last barnacle
  • also drawing the botanist Miles Joseph Berkeley, his friend Hooker, and various readers of the
  • such speculative, large-scale geological changes. As he told Hooker in a letter of 5 June [1855] …
  • arguments for the dispersal of animals and plants with Hooker who, with Charles Lyell and Edward
  • out his species essay in full. In 1850, he had written to Hooker ( Correspondence  vol. 4, …
  • do as I wish it Throughout the correspondence of 1854 and 1855, the overwhelming
  • is perverse & will not do as I wish it’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 7 May [1855] ). But, whether

Darwin and Down

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin, with their first two children, settled at Down House in the village of Down (later ‘Downe’) in Kent, as a young family in 1842.   The house came with eighteen acres of land, and a fifteen acre meadow.  The village combined the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … [24 July 1842] To P. G. King,  21 February 1854 : ‘I live in the country about 16 miles …

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 19 hits

  • Letter 1587Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 2 Sept [1854] Darwin mentions that the second
  • of creation in [ Br. & Foreign Med.-Chir. Rev. 13 (1854)], but notes that he himself is
  • Letter 1592Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] Letter 1635Darwin, …
  • Letter 4895Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 20 Sept [1865] Darwin thanks Müller for
  • thinks seems probable. Letter 5173Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 2 Aug 1866
  • to be dichogamous. Letter 5429Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 4 Mar 1867
  • of other species. Letter 5480Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr 1867
  • Letter 5551Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 26 May [1867] Darwin thanks Müller for
  • Letter 207Darwin, C. R. to Fox, W. D., 23 May 1833 Darwin tells Fox to buy a microscope. …
  • to geology. Letter 1018Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [6 Nov 1846] Darwin
  • full of observations on barnacles and he would like to meet Hooker in London. Letter 1166
  • Owen might discuss the topic [in his contribution to J. F. W. Herschel, ed., Manual of scientific
  • superior”. Letter 1174Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 10 May 1848 Darwin
  • result of applying it to cirripede sexual systems. He tells Hooker that he sent Owen an account of
  • book. Letter 1140Darwin, C. R. to Ross, J. C., 31 Dec 1847 Darwin asks Ross to
  • C. R. to Gould, A. A., 20 Aug [1849] Darwin thanks J. D. Dana for cirripede specimens. Darwin
  • This collection of letters, written between Darwin and Hooker whilst Darwin was preparing his
  • history. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] Darwin writes
  • name to specific name. Letter 1220Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 25 hits

  • 4  [Pierquin de Gembloux 1839]. Said to be good by D r  L. Lindsay 5 [DAR *119: 1v. …
  • … [A. von Humboldt 1811] Richardsons Fauna Borealis [J. Richardson 182937] …
  • Brown 1814] & at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read
  • on Annals of Nat. Hist. [Jenyns 1838] Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. …
  • Teneriffe. in Pers. Narr. [A. von Humboldt 181429] D r  Royle on Himmalaya types [Royle
  • reference to authors about E. Indian Islands 8 consult D r  Horsfield [Horsfield 1824] …
  • sheep [Youatt 1831, 1834, 1837]. Verey Philosophie dHist. Nat. [Virey 1835] read
  • Paper on consciousness in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on
  • Crawford Eastern Archipelago [Crawfurd 1820] Raffeles d[itt]o [T. S. B. Raffles 1817] …
  • to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie] ed. 1833] read 19  : …
  • what have they written.? “Hunt” [J. Hunt 1806] p. 290
  • He is Horticulturist in France. Michaux, according to Hooker has written on topography of N. …
  • chiefly on distribution of forms said to be Poor Sir. J. Edwards Botanical Tour [?J. E. Smith
  • Butler. 3. first sermons [Butler 1834] recommended by Sir. J. Mackintosh J. Long Moral Nature
  • … [Wellesley 1832] Sir. W. Notts Life [W. Nott 1854].— [DAR *119: 15v.] From
  • … ]. many very useful papers for me:— not in Hort. Soc. Hooker? Rogets Bridgewater Treatise
  • … —— Mauritius & C. of Good Hope Hooker recommends order [Backhouse
  • Decandolles Veg: Organ: } recommended by  Hooker . [A. P. de
  • C. Watson 1845]— gives up permanent species (alluded to by Hooker) Foreign & British Med. …
  • 43 Lindleys Vegetable Kingdom [Lindley 1846]. Hooker says very good for my purpose
  • Phytologist [ Phytologistmust be read . Hooker. read Fortunes Travels in China
  • de la Boheme [Barrande 18521911] must be deeply studied 1854 The Zoologist by E. Newman [ …
  • … [Pepys 1825] (Read).— Sir W. Notts life [W. Nott 1854] read [DAR *128: 177] …
  • r . Nott & Gliddon: Trübner & Co [J. C. Nott and Gliddon 1854] (read) A Lecture by
  • not published but reported fully in Literary Gazette Sept 30 1854 91 Agricult. Journal

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles

Summary

Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 17 hits

  • Darwin wrote to his friend and confidant Joseph Dalton Hooker: ‘I hope this next summer to finish my
  • my species-work’ ( Correspondence  vol. 3, letter to J. D. Hooker, [5 or 12 November 1845] ). …
  • sub-class of CrustaceaLiving Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851, 1854). …
  • Of special interest are the nine letters from Joseph Dalton Hooker written during his expedition in
  • and frequently dangerous travels through the mountains. Hooker writes of the complicated geology of
  • of the Sikkim Himalaya. In the midst of all this activity, Hooker responds to Darwins particular
  • other. Geology, and geological controversy Hookers letters illuminate the role of the
  • Herschel, to write the chapter on geology ( letter to J. F. W. Herschel, 4 February [1848] ). …
  • that such a monograph was adesideratum’ ( letter to J. L. R. Agassiz, 22 October 1848 ), was
  • are clearly expressed in his letters; he also pointed out to Hooker that it was his species theory
  • spermatozoaattached to the female (Living Cirripedia (1854): 23). Darwin had previously worked out
  • of the sexes from an ancestral hermaphrodite in his Notebook D ( Notebooks ) and had subsequently
  • or pistils ( Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from J. S. Henslow, 21 November 1840 ). The sexual
  • from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at another level, to
  • this importance comes through in his happy protestations to Hooker: ‘But I can hardly explain what I
  • you say, my species theory is all gospel.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 10 May 1848 ). Once
  • to H. E. Strickland, 29 January [1849] . As Darwin wrote to J. D. Hooker, who had warned him

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. …
  • … In both volumes of Living Cirripedia (1851 and 1854), Darwin devoted an introductory section to …
  • … was best placed among the Lepadidae ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 527–8).^1^1^    Both …
  • … segments are quite aborted . . . ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 562–3)    Indeed, …
  • … be the most natural arrangement. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 588)    The fact that the …
  • … with his figure of the mature animal ( Living Cirripedia (1854), Plate XXV).    Throughout …
  • … (1851): 37–8)    In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin ventured to suggest the possible …
  • … by a new and anomalous course. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 151–2)    Crisp (1983) has …
  • … from bisexuality to unisexuality. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 29)^16^    Darwin’s …
  • … to hermaphrodite cirripedes, for example,  Darwin informed Hooker of this interesting discovery and …
  • … merely varieties (Southward 1983). In Living Cirripedia (1854), Darwin clearly stated the …
  • … be found eminently variable. ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 155)    One of the first …
  • … Toward the end of his study of Balanus , in a letter to Hooker on 25 September [1853] ( …
  • … of his theory of evolution can be recognised. Indeed, both Hooker and Huxley believed that the …
  • … a very direct and curious manner’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 529). Modern systematists place …
  • … nature was demonstrated.’ ( Living Cirripedia (1854): 555). See also Rachootin 1984, pp. 235–6.   …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 10 hits

  • tapping into the networks of others, such as Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray, who were at leading
  • of face-to-face contact. His correspondence with Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray illustrates how close
  • The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. Hooker. The second is between Darwin
  • to conclusion that species are not immutable. He admits to Hookerit is like confessing a murder”. …
  • Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] Darwin catches up on personal
  • name to specific name. Letter 1220Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849 In
  • Letter 1260Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 12 Oct 1849 Darwin opens by discussing their
  • lamination of gneiss. Letter 1319Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 6 & 7 Apr 1850
  • Letter 1339Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 13 June [1850] Darwin writes to Hooker from his
  • Letter 1585Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he

Barnacles

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Darwin and barnacles Darwin’s interest in Cirripedia, a class of marine arthropods, was first piqued by the discovery of an odd burrowing barnacle, which he later named “Mr. Arthrobalanus," while he was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and wrote about barnacles on a daily basis from 1846 to 1854. Ultimately, Darwin's deep and …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 22 hits

  • his views of close friends like Charles Lyell, Joseph Dalton Hooker, and Thomas Henry Huxley, who
  • at the end of 1859, ‘I sometimes fancied that my book w  d  be successful; but I never even built
  • made on you (whom I have always looked at as chief judge) & Hooker & Huxley. The whole has  …
  • the load of curious facts on record.—’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 31 January [1858] ). In addition to
  • the interpretation of the statistics was still problematic. Hooker thought that Darwin was wrong to
  • up. With some trepidation, Darwin sent his manuscript off to Hooker for his comments. Darwins
  • that all was much alike, & if you condemned that you w d . condemn allmy lifes work—& …
  • … ‘Your words have come true with a vengeance that I sh  d . be forestalled’, he lamented to Lyell. …
  • some time away. On 16 May [1858], he arranged a meeting with Hooker to discuss his manuscript on
  • be dreadfully severe.—’ On 18 [May 1858], he again tells Hooker: ‘There is not least hurry in world
  • work. The story has often been told of how Lyell and Hooker suggested that Darwins years of
  • 1857. The correspondence between Darwin, Lyell, and Hooker contains all of the extant letters
  • Society on 1 July 1858, including a letter from Wallace to Hooker thanking him and Lyell fortheir
  • III and IV.) You will, & so will M rs Hooker, be most sorry for us when you
  • his material would require asmall volume’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 October [1858] ). Begun
  • Roy, and his monograph on  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) ( Quarterly Journal of the
  • appropriated the others ideas (see letters to J. D. Hooker, 2 March [1859] , 11 March [1859] …
  • Fox, ‘& I feel worse than when I came’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, [16 November 1859] ). It was
  • about the fine points of Darwins theory ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 6 May 1859 ). Among the
  • Priests at me & leaves me to their mercies’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 November 1859] ). …
  • sort of instinct to try to make out truth’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 24 [March 1859] ). Yet he
  • young & rising naturalists on our side.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1859] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 20 hits

  • specimens by the young botanist and traveller, Joseph Dalton Hooker. More than 1200 letters between
  • and Richard Owen shows. These friends, with the addition of Hooker, were important to Darwin for
  • Darwin discussed his ideas on species mutability with Hooker, Horner, Jenyns, Lyell, Owen, and
  • after their first exchange, early in 1844, Darwin told Hooker that he was engaged in avery
  • … (it is like confessing a murder) immutable’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [11 January 1844] ). Nine
  • heterodox opinions and later in the year both Jenyns and Hooker were invited to read a manuscript
  • In the event, it was not until the beginning of 1847 that Hooker was given a fair copy of the essay
  • attributed the book to him. But, as his letters to Hooker show, Darwin carefully considered and then
  • Forbes, and Owen were deleted, Henslows was queried, and J. D. Hookers was added. Much later, by
  • on species ( Natural selection ), he had decided that Hooker was by far the best man for the task
  • an argument against the French palaeontologist Alcide dOrbigny, insisting that the vast pampas
  • Journal of researches , and his species work. Joseph Hooker and the Beagle plant
  • and apparently relieved to handover Darwins plants to Hooker, who had just returned from
  • of the Southern Hemisphere. Darwin was quick to spot in Hooker a man he judged could become the
  • laws of creation, Geographical Distribution’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [10 February 1845] ) and
  • and European botanists. Darwins questions challenged Hooker to apply his particular knowledge to
  • that is not touched upon in their correspondence. Hookers observations on classification provided
  • that of Waterhouse with respect to the animal kingdom. Hooker was also ready to discuss contemporary
  • from each other. The letters also document aspects of Hookers life: his search for a paid position, …
  • … - Darwin's work on barnacles It was also Hooker who helped Darwin in the first stages of

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … an appointment as paleontologist to the Geological Survey in 1854. He moved quickly to the inner …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … subscribed to the RSPCA, payments being recorded from 1854 to 1861, in 1863 and 1864, from 1871 to …