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To John Lubbock   10 [September 1853]

Summary

Asks about source of paper on the metamorphosis of Pycnogonida for C. S. Bate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Lubbock, 4th baronet and 1st Baron Avebury
Date:  10 [Sept 1853]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.97)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1365

To Josiah Wedgwood III   25 [April 1853]

Summary

Discusses the [CD/Emma] marriage trust.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Josiah Wedgwood, III
Date:  25 [Apr 1853]
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 21
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1379

To E. A. Darwin   26 [April 1853]

Summary

Writes concerning marriage trust.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Erasmus Alvey Darwin
Date:  26 [Apr 1853]
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 19, 22
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1380

To [William Sharpey]   [1853–72?]

Summary

If Hooker [presumably Joseph Dalton Hooker] knows he is proposed [for something at the Royal Society?] he will enquire if he can attend.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Sharpey
Date:  [1853–1872?]
Classmark:  Duke University, Rubenstein Rare Book and Manuscript Library (letter album compiled by William Sharpey, secretary of the Royal Society of London)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-13892

To C. S. Bate   10 January [1853]

Summary

Asks if CSB can help him obtain specimen of Verruca.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Spence Bate
Date:  10 Jan [1853]
Classmark:  Cleveland Health Sciences Library
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1471

To T. H. Huxley   23 April [1853]

Summary

On THH’s paper on cephalous Mollusca [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 143 (1853) pt 1: 29–66]. Discovery of the type or "idea" (in THH’s sense, not Owen’s or Agassiz’s) is one of the highest ends of natural history.

Discusses anamorphism;

position of heart in Cleodora.

Variability within species;

cementing process in cirripedes.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Henry Huxley
Date:  23 Apr [1853]
Classmark:  Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine Archives (Huxley 5: 4)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1480

To Albany Hancock   10 January [1853]

Summary

Grateful for AH’s long letter and suggestions. Delighted at what he says about "complemental males". CD feared no one would believe in them but now that Owen, Dana, and AH accept them, he is content.

Agrees with AH on cross-impregnation; has collected facts on this head but has done nothing with them.

AH’s paper on Alcippe [Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 2d ser. 4 (1849): 305–14] caused him to lose sleep over its anomalous structure.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  10 Jan [1853]
Classmark:  Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1497

To Albany Hancock   29 January [1853]

Summary

Discusses Alcippe. Asks to borrow specimens. Would like to hire fishermen to collect specimens.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  29 Jan [1853]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1498

To W. D. Fox   29 January [1853]

Summary

Discusses education of his sons. Would like to see more diversity.

He is pleased that Richard Owen and others had a good opinion of his first volume [on Living Cirripedia].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  29 Jan [1853]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 82)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1499

To Thomas Salt   31 January [1853]

Summary

Asks if Thomas Salt can dispose of the £600 Shrewsbury Street mortgage.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Salt
Date:  31 Jan [1853]
Classmark:  Rachel Salt (private collection); sold by Spink’s (dealers), July 2018
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1499F

To Albany Hancock   10 February [1853]

Summary

Has found plenty of male Alcippe on specimens. Would eventually like more specimens. Did not recognise males at first. Has found Alcippe difficult to make out.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  10 Feb [1853]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1500

To Albany Hancock   12 February [1853]

Summary

Describes anatomy and growth stages of Alcippe in close detail.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  12 Feb [1853]
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1501

To Charles Lyell   15 February [1853]

Summary

Returns Lake Superior [1850], which he already has received from Agassiz. Thanks for pamphlets by C. B. Adams [on Mollusca, Contrib. Conchol. 10 (1851): 189–206; 11 (1852): 207–15].

Describes his dissection of an unusual cirripede [Alcippe lampas] with 12 males attached [see Living Cirripedia 2: 556, 558].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  15 Feb [1853]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.103)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1502

To Josiah Wedgwood III   18 February 1853

Summary

Sends his written consent regarding custody of the deeds of the Owen mortgage. Other financial matters.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Josiah Wedgwood, III
Date:  18 Feb 1853
Classmark:  DAR 210.10: 20
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1503

To Albany Hancock   25 February [1853]

Summary

Asks at what depth Alcippe is found and on what date the shell with Alcippe specimens that AH sent was taken.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Albany Hancock
Date:  25 Feb [1853]
Classmark:  J. Hancock 1886, p. 275
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1504

From Albany Hancock   25 February 1853

Summary

Discusses taxonomic relations of Alcippe.

Author:  Albany Hancock
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 Feb 1853
Classmark:  Archives of the New York Botanical Garden
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1505

To J. S. Henslow   8 March [1853]

Summary

CD has been reassured about his "speculation" in Mr Warren’s company. Thanks JSH for his advice and trouble.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  8 Mar [1853]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A21–A24
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1506

To Thomas Salt   15 March [1853]

Summary

Thanks for finding a purchaser for the Shrewsbury Street Act securities and encloses the Transfers.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Thomas Salt
Date:  15 Mar [1853]
Classmark:  Shropshire Archives (SA D3651/B/47/2/30)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1506F

From R. Carden   18 March 1853

Summary

Asks when the Transfer will be prepared, so he can have the money ready.

Author:  Robert Carden
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  18 Mar 1853
Classmark:  Shropshire Archives (SA D3651/B/47/2/30)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1506G

To Edwin Lankester, Ray Society   19 March [1853]

Summary

Objects to early deadline for submitting manuscript [of Living Cirripedia 2 (1854)]. Discusses illustrations by G. B. Sowerby [Jr].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edwin Lankester; Ray Society
Date:  19 Mar [1853]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.104)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-1507
Document type
letter (63)
Date
1853
01 (7)
02 (6)
03 (9)
04 (11)
05 (1)
06 (4)
07 (6)
08 (3)
09 (5)
10 (6)
11 (2)
12 (3)
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Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 1514 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 11 Apr [1853] Darwin offers to send zoologist T …
  • … Letter 1480 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 23 Apr [1853] Letter 1587 — Darwin, C …

Yokcushlu (Fuegia Basket)

Summary

Yokcushlu was one of the Alakaluf, or canoe people from the western part of Tierra del Fuego. She was one of the hostages seized by Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, after the small boat used for surveying the narrow inlets of the coast of Tierra del…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … about Yokcushlu was also shared with Simms Covington in 1853 . Yokcushlu was next heard of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Martineau [H. Martineau 1837] Layards Babylon [Layard 1853] Vol. V of Campbells …
  • … Land [Twamley 1852] Life of T. Moore [?T. Moore 1853–6] have read vol III. Mundy’s …
  • … relation to Köelreuter) in Revue Horticole No 9–11 89  1853 [Lecoq 1853]. Reviewed in Gardeners Ch …
  • … Leidy, a Flora & Fauna within living Animals [Leidy 1853]. (Read) Some paper or Review in …
  • … Principles of Commerce & Commercial Law: Lectures [Stephen 1853] Warrens Diary of a …
  • … Quincey 1822] The Devereux. Earls of Essex [Devereux 1853] M rs . Colin Mackenzie …
  • … [Hornschuch 1848] quoted in Braun Rejuvenescence [Braun 1853] p. 317 [DAR *128: 176] …
  • … W. Dunker in Zoolog. Proc. a paper on Limnea [Dunker 1853].— D r . Anthony will publish on F. W. …
  • … (read) Pictet Paleontologie new Edition [Pictet 1853–7] Pliny Nat History, translated …
  • … Generales 1851 120  [Milne-Edwards 1851]. 1853. Feb. 6. Schouw Bot. Geograph: in …
  • … to Vol XII. 1840 (not much) [DAR 128: 5] 1853. Jan. 27 th  Life of D …
  • … 2 & 3. } 20 th . Galtons Tour in S. Africa [Galton 1853] good Aug 23. Moore’s …
  • … Nov. 11. Sir Hudson Lowe’s life and letters [H. Low 1853] very good —— 28 Vol. IV. Moores …
  • … Society of London ] up to Vol II. Part IV. N.S. 1853 Sept. No s  I–IV of Microscopical …
  • … —— 5. Johnston Nat. History of E. Borders [G. Johnston 1853]. 20 Dana’s Crustacea [J. D. Dana …
  • … Jan 11 th . Pulsky Red, Black & White [Pulszky 1853] (moderate) [DAR 128: 8] …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … of the common barnacles (the Lepadidae and Balanidae) in 1853. Upon dissecting Alcippe and …
  • … of Balanus , in a letter to Hooker on 25 September [1853] ( Correspondence vol. 5), Darwin …
  • … received the Royal Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1853, even before completing the second …
  • … vol. 5, letter from J. D. Hooker, [4 November 1853] ), Hooker wrote: ‘The RS. have voted you the …
  • … printed in the Proceedings of the Royal Society 6 (1853): 355–6, mentioned both Coral reefs …
  • … conception of archetype in a letter to Huxley, 23 April [1853] ( Correspondence vol. 5), …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … larval-adult homologies in a letter to Dana in December 1853 . Preparing for publication …
  • … at first promised by the end of 1852 then the summer of 1853 was only sent in manuscript form …

Science, Work and Manliness

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters In 1859, popular didactic writer William Landels published the first edition of what proved to be one of his best-selling works, How Men Are Made. "It is by work, work, work" he told his middle class audience, …

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 1533 - Darwin to Dana, J. D., [27 September 1853] Darwin praises Dana’s latest …

Arthur Mellersh

Summary

Arthur Mellersh was a midshipman (promoted to mate during the voyage) serving on the Beagle at the time when Darwin was travelling around the world. One account suggests an inauspicious start to their friendship; apparently Mellersh introduced himself…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … HMS Rattler during the Burma Campaign in 1852, and in 1853 Darwin learned in a letter from Syms …
  • … go on shore’ ( Nautical magazine and naval chronicle (1853): 485-7). Following this …

Francis Galton

Summary

Galton was a naturalist, statistician, and evolutionary theorist. He was a second cousin of Darwin’s, having descended from his grandfather, Erasmus. Born in Birmingham in 1822, Galton studied medicine at King’s College, London, and also read mathematics…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … a natural historical narrative of the journey (Galton 1853). Darwin enjoyed and admired Galton’s …

Hermann Müller

Summary

Hermann (Heinrich Ludwig Hermann) Müller, was born in Mühlberg near Erfurt in 1829. He was the younger brother of Fritz Müller (1822–97). Following the completion of his secondary education at Erfurt in 1848, he studied natural sciences at Halle and Berlin…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … making his first of many trips to the Alps in the summer of 1853. He spent a probationary year …
  • … Müller had spent almost every summer since 1853 in different parts of the Alps and in 1881 published …

Darwin’s Photographic Portraits

Summary

Darwin was a photography enthusiast. This is evident not only in his use of photography for the study of Expression and Emotions in Man and Animal, but can be witnessed in his many photographic portraits and in the extensive portrait correspondence that…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … waited ten years before he sat for his next photograph. By 1853, Darwin’s life as a naturalist was …
  • … and made at least four different exposures of Darwin between 1853 and 1857. They took this …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 1536 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, J. W. (b), 11 Oct [1853] Darwin gives his opinion to Sir …

Conrad Martens

Summary

Conrad Martens was born in London, the son of an Austrian diplomat. He studied landscape painting under the watercolourist Copley Fielding (1789–1855), who also briefly taught Ruskin. In 1833 he was on board the Hyacinth, headed for India, but en route in…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … exhibited at the Victorian Fine Arts Society in Melbourne in 1853, the Paris Universal Exhibition in …

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … public recognition of his scientific achievements when, in 1853, he was awarded a Royal Medal by the …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle in 1831 Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington died in 1861 reportedly 47 years old, so he would have been 17; although if he was the Simon Covington born in Bedford on 30 January 1809,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … lived. In 1852 CD had asked about the gold rush and in 1853 he thanked Covington for his …

Before Origin: the ‘big book’

Summary

Darwin began ‘sorting notes for Species Theory’ on 9 September 1854, the very day he concluded his eight-year study of barnacles (Darwin's Journal). He had long considered the question of species. In 1842, he outlined a theory of transmutation in a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … introduction to Hooker’s Flora of New Zealand in October 1853, he discovered that it contained …

Thomas Henry Huxley

Summary

Dubbed “Darwin’s bulldog” for his combative role in controversies over evolution, Huxley was a leading Victorian zoologist, science popularizer, and education reformer. He was born in Ealing, a small village west of London, in 1825. With only two years of…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … with Huxley (see for example his letter of 23 April 1853), but he did not reveal his own theory of …

New material added to the American edition of Origin

Summary

A ‘revised and augmented’ American edition of Origin came on the market in July 1860, and was the only authorised edition available in the US until 1873. It incorporated many of the changes Darwin made to the second English edition, but still contained…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in 1844. In the last or tenth and much improved edition (1853, p. 155), the anonymous author says: ‘ …
  • … qui est pour lui sa raison d’être.’’ In 1853, a celebrated geologist, Count Keyserling …

Editorial policy and practice

Summary

Full texts are added to this site four years after the letter is published in the print edition of the Correspondence. Transcriptions are made from the original or a facsimile where these are available. Where they are not, texts are taken from the best…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the writing medium, except for the months of January-March 1853, when Darwin used bright blue ink, …

6248A_20488

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … genus Canna belonged to the family Marantaceae (Lindley 1853, p. 169); it now belongs to the …
  • … genus Canna belonged to the family Marantaceae (Lindley 1853, p. 169); it now belongs to the …

6248A_20488A

Summary

From Fritz Müllerf1   17 June 1868Itajahy, Sa. Catharina, Brazil,17. Juni 1868. .... . Sie werden schon aus meinem letzten Briefe ersehen haben, dass es mir sehr schmeichelhaft ist, wenn Sie meine…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … genus Canna belonged to the family Marantaceae (Lindley 1853, p. 169); it now belongs to the …
  • … genus Canna belonged to the family Marantaceae (Lindley 1853, p. 169); it now belongs to the …
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