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Darwin Correspondence Project
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To Charles Lyell   [5 July 1845]

Summary

Sends the first part of Journal of researches [2d ed.]. Explains his dedication of book to CL. Describes revisions.

Has received CL’s book [Travels in North America, 2 vols. (1845)].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [5 July 1845]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.43)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-882

From J. D. Hooker   [after 12 July 1845]

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Summary

Answers CD’s questions relating to the flora of the Galapagos. [See 889.]

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [after 12 July 1845]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 43–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-883

From J. D. Hooker   [mid-July 1845]

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Summary

The translation of Humboldt’s Kosmos [Cosmos (1846–58)] is delayed.

Gives instances of peculiar genera with several good species in very small islands. Scarcity of insects on islands.

JDH cannot prove that there is much hybridising, but does not see why there should not be. "Bother variation, development & all such subjects, it is reasoning in a circle I believe after all."

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [mid-July 1845]
Classmark:  DAR 100: 49–50
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-884

To John Murray   [3 July 1845]

Summary

Thanks JM for present of 12 copies [of first part of Journal of researches, 2d ed.]. MS [of second part] will be sent to printer Monday or Tuesday.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  [3 July 1845]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff. 27–28)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-885

From B. J. Sulivan   4 July 1845

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Summary

On marking and shipment of fossils.

Has met the artist, J. M. Rugendas.

Discusses British and French relations with Rosas government [of Argentina].

Author:  Bartholomew James Sulivan
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  4 July 1845
Classmark:  DAR 46.1: 87–8
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-886

From J. D. Hooker   5 July 1845

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Summary

Raises some points for revision of CD’s Journal of researches.

Southern island floras. "The more I ponder upon Insular Floras the less inclined I am to admit the mutation of species to any very great amount."

Author:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  5 July 1845
Classmark:  DAR 100: 51–4
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-887

To Ernst Dieffenbach   [before 9 July 1845]

Summary

"It is evident that you have not time now to pay me a visit, & indeed as Mrs Darwin is in daily expectation of her confinement I could hardly have asked you … When I saw your name & that of many other naturalists at Cambridge, I wished much to have been there; but my strength so often fails me, that I expected more mortification than pleasure …

I should have liked to have heard the Crater-of-Elevation discussion; after having read both sides, I cannot subscribe to that view; but I think there remains something unexplained about those many vast circular volcanic ruins …

I presume it is very unprobable [sic] that there will ever be a second German Edition of my Journal … I have largely condensed, corrected & added to the Second English Edition, & I am sure have considerably improved & popularised it".

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ernst Dieffenbach
Date:  [before 9 July 1845]
Classmark:  J. A. Stargardt (dealers) Cat. 574 1965.11.11–13
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-888

To J. D. Hooker   [11–12 July 1845]

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Summary

A son [George Howard Darwin] was born on Wednesday.

Sends queries on Galapagos flora.

Discusses JDH’s comments on [Journal of researches].

CD feels that with his views on descent "really Nat. Hist. becomes a sublimely grand result-giving subject".

"How differently people view the same subject, for I look at insular Floras … as leading to an opposite view to yours."

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [11–12 July 1845]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 36, 100: 43–7
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-889

From G. R. Waterhouse   [11 July 1845]

Summary

Notes the islands, where known, on which CD’s Galapagos beetles were found. Remarks that in none of the species whose place of origin is known, does he have specimens from more than one island.

Author:  George Robert Waterhouse
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [11 July 1845]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 19
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-890

To John Murray   16 [July 1845]

Summary

Sent MS [of second part of Journal of researches] to William Clowes [printer] on the 7th and has had only three sheets for correction. Asks JM to see to it that Messrs Clowes send a sheet a day, as CD’s health is uncertain, and he cannot do more at last moment if sheets accumulate.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  16 [July 1845]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.13–14)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-891

To J. D. Hooker   [22 July – 19 August 1845]

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Summary

Thanks for facts on solitary islands having several species of peculiar genera; "it knocks on the head some analogies of mine".

Has long been trying to discover in how many flowers crossing is probable, but finds it difficult to show "even a vague probability of this".

Will JDH proof-read Galapagos chapter of Journal of researches?

Gives information on his Galapagos collection; explains why it differs from others.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Joseph Dalton Hooker
Date:  [22 July – 19 Aug 1845]
Classmark:  DAR 114: 37
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-892

From Louis Fraser   23 July 1845

Summary

Informs CD about characteristics of certain species of Galapagos birds.

Author:  Louis Fraser
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  23 July 1845
Classmark:  DAR 164: 213
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-893

From Louis Fraser   [24? July 1845]

Summary

Discusses colour of Zenaida from the Galapagos.

Author:  Louis Fraser
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [24? July 1845]
Classmark:  DAR 164: 214
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-894

To J. S. Henslow   25 July 1845

Summary

CD has bought a farm in Lincolnshire. Criticises primogeniture and stamp laws on land purchase.

Announces birth of G. H. Darwin.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  25 July 1845
Classmark:  DAR 145: 59
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-895

To John Murray   [27 July 1845]

Summary

Sent last sheet [of second part of Journal of researches] to printer yesterday. Will send half of MS for next part in four or five days.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Murray
Date:  [27 July 1845]
Classmark:  National Library of Scotland (John Murray Archive) (Ms.42152 ff.15–16)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-896

From Hugh Cuming   28 July 1845

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Summary

Discusses names and distributions of Pacific shells. [Lists by CD and Edward Forbes record names and ranges of shells collected by HC in the Galapagos.]

Author:  Hugh Cuming
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  28 July 1845
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 267, 268
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-897

From William Yarrell   29 July 1845

Summary

Answers CD’s queries about the number and distribution of species in certain fish genera.

Author:  William Yarrell
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  29 July 1845
Classmark:  DAR 183: 1
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-898

To Charles Lyell   [30 July – 2 August 1845]

Summary

Comments extensively on CL’s book [Travels in North America (1845)]. Lyell’s views on slavery, the clergy, education, and coalfields. Has difficulty in tracing Lyell’s course. Comments on geological portions, especially CL’s comparisons of living and fossil organisms to those of South America and Tasmania; animal formation of carbonic acid and effects of vegetable decay; Indians’ use of lumber. Discusses water-borne transportation of wood, fruit, and seeds. Notes distribution of Arctic flora.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [30 July – 2 Aug 1845]
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.44)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-899
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7 Suffolk St, London

Summary

Recommending Darwin

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Henslow is asked to recommend a naturalist to accompany Fitzroy, and Darwin is invited on the …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Darwin, W.E. [7? April 1868] Southampton, England …
  • … Gaika, Christian 7 July 1867 Bedford [Cape of Good …
  • … Galton, Francis 7 Nov 1872 Rutland Gate, London, …
  • … Reade, Winwood W. 7 Sept 1872 11 St Mary Abbot' …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … in the shape of an arch ( Movement in plants , pp. 96–7). As usual, staff at the Royal Botanical …
  • … my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two weeks later he wrote: …
  • … Francis reported ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ): ‘The oats have only just …
  • … the bedded out one’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was …
  • … are here & all adoring Bernard’, he wrote to Francis on 7 July . ‘Bernard is very sweet & …
  • … to refuse,’ he wrote to William Spottiswoode on 7 July . Pinker later made a statue of Darwin for …
  • … generations’ ( enclosure to letter to T. H. Farrer, 7 March 1878 ). In the end, the attempt to …
  • … from a person unknown to him. The benefactor wrote on 7 December : ‘I consider that you, more …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to …
  • … folly & nonsense to try anyone’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). He particularly …
  • … to his publisher, John Murray, ‘Of present book I have 7 chapters ready for press & all others …
  • … bear the expense of the woodcuts ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). After sending the …
  • … and Darwin summarised them in  Variation  2: 106–7, concluding, ‘it follows from Mr. Scott’s …
  • … of real improvement in health’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). All the children …

Darwin on marriage

Summary

On 11 November 1838 Darwin wrote in his journal ‘The day of days!’. He had proposed to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, and been accepted; they were married on 29 January 1839. Darwin appears to have written these two notes weighing up the pros and cons of…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin and his correspondents. First note [after 7 April 1838][1] Work finished …
  • … near Regents Park—keep horse—take Summer tours Collect[7] specimens some line of Zoolog: …
  • … on the three blank pages of the letter from Leonard Horner, 7 April [1838]. [2] Presumably CD …

British Association meeting 1860

Summary

Several letters refer to events at the British Association for the Advancement of Science held in Oxford, 26 June – 3 July 1860. Darwin had planned to attend the meeting but in the end was unable to. The most famous incident of the meeting was the verbal…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … and Thomas Henry Huxley that occurred during the Saturday, 7 July, meeting of Section D (zoology and …
  • … preceded by their precise attribution. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, p. 19: Introduction to the …
  • … uncommonly lively during the week. Athenæum , 7 July 1860, pp. 25–6: Thursday session of …

Frank Chance

Summary

The Darwin archive not only contains letters, manuscript material, photographs, books and articles but also all sorts of small, dry specimens, mostly enclosed with letters. Many of these enclosures have become separated from the letters or lost altogether,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in 1873, a discovery was made.  This letter 31 July–7 August 1873 also tackled the issue of hair …
  • … \quite white\ (Letter from Frank Chance, 31 July–7 August 1873 ) The pony hair …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, & if he …
  • … can make several parts clearer,’ Darwin reiterated on 7 November , ‘I believe (though I hope I am …
  • … ancestry. ‘You know better than anybody’, he wrote on 7 January , ‘how infinitely great is the …
  • … the Duke of Wellington on art (Max Müller 1875, pp. 305–7). The debate between Max Müller and …
  • … Down with Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It was Thiselton-Dyer …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … the public in this way ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 May 1863] , and Appendix VII). He also …
  • … [1863] , and letter from Julius von Haast, 21 July [–7? August] 1863 ). Darwin was subsequently …
  • … paper with satisfaction ( see letter to John Scott, 7 November [1863] ). Scott had referred …
  • … he could send him to the war ( see letter from Asa Gray, 7 July 1863 ). Darwin shared this letter …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … (1) Asher, G. M. (7) Ashley, Miss (1 …
  • … (4) Aubertin, J. J. (7) Aussant-Carà, Paul …
  • … (1) Aveling, E. B. (7) Axon, W. E. A. …
  • … (16) Balfour, J. H. (7) Ball, John …
  • … (36) Baxter, William (7) Baynes, H. M. …
  • … (1) Blair, R. A. (7) Blair, R. H. (4 …
  • … (3) Boott, Francis (7) Boott, Mary …
  • … (1) Chambers, Robert (7) Chance, Frank …
  • … (3) Clarke, R. T. (7) Clarke, T. W. …
  • … (6) Darwin, V. H. (7) Darwin, Violetta …
  • … (1) Dowie, Annie (7) Down Friendly Society …
  • … (2) Farr, William (7) Farrar, F. W. …
  • … (28) Fitzgerald, R. D. (7) Fitzmaurice, Edmond …
  • … (2) Forel, Auguste (7) Forster, L. M. …
  • … (3) Gordon, George (b) (7) Goschen, G. J. …

Interview with Randal Keynes

Summary

Randal Keynes is a great-great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and the author of Annie’s Box (Fourth Estate, 2001), which discusses Darwin’s home life, his relationship with his wife and children, and the ways in which these influenced his feelings about…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … nature and religion. Date of interview: 7 August 2008 Transcription …
  • … Randal Keynes: Yes. 7. How, and what, do we know of Darwin's opinions …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … at the end of Congo voyage [R. Brown 1818]. (Hooker 923) 7  read Decandolle Philosophie …
  • … 1835] read Marcel de Serres Cavernes d’Ossements 7 th  Ed. 10  8 vo . [Serres 1838] …
  • … de S t  Hilaire 1832 [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1832–7] contains all his fathers views Quoted by …
  • … 3 vols. 8vo. et atlas de 20 planches. ibid, 1832–36. £1 7 s . 25  [I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire …
  • … of Agriculture by Loudon [Loudon 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. …
  • … Vestiges of Nat: Hist: of Creation. Churchill: 1844. 7 s  ” 6 d . [Chambers] 1844] in which …
  • … Birds of Himalaya [Gould 1834] (& of Europe?) [Gould 1832–7] & of Australia [Gould 1848]; …
  • … Campbells Lives of Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] last vol. Ludlows Memoirs …
  • … 1849] (read) Knox. Ornithological Ramble in Sussex. 7. 6. [A. E. Knox 1849] J. Lubbock has …
  • … Gresly Mem. of Helvetic Soc. of Neuchatel on Jura. 1846, or 7, or 8 [?Marcou 1845]. 46   Morris …
  • … Vol. V of Campbells Chancellors [J. Campbell 1845–7] Lives of the Lindsays [Lindsay 1849] …
  • … Scott’s life [Lockhart 1837–8] 1 st  2 nd  & 7 th  vols. Abercrombie on the …
  • … ] Oct 3 Lavater’s Phisiognomy [Lavater 1806–7] Malthus on Population [Malthus 1826] …
  • … added notes from 2 d  Edit [Holland 1840].— Feb 7 th . Lord Brougham Dissertation …
  • … 1687 to 1766 inclusive, and from beginning to 1674 7 th  Skimmed Burn’s Poems [Burns 1786]. …
  • … Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar ]. Vol 1— to 7. M.S. Translat.— from 1740. 2 d . vol …
  • … S. Romilly’s Memoirs [Romilly 1840]. moderate Feb. 7 th  Sartor Resartus [Carlyle 1834] …
  • … Essays [Bacon 1825–36]— dull, & crabbid style May 7 th  Skimmed a little of Tucker’s …

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 1 hits

  • … as if confessing a murder. DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have been …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … father when he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). Although Darwin did …
  • … to break through the trammels.’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  7 March [1852] ). A more modern and …
  • … for a game of Billiards’. (Darwin to his son William,  7 July [1859] ). Whole family outings were …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … Darwin was clearly impressed by Lewes’s reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote him a lengthy letter …
  • … undergoing vaccination ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 April 1868] ). Francis was also drafted into …
  • … desire to penetrate Truth’ ( letter from Ernest Faivre, 7 April 1868 ). Armand de Quatrefages, who …

The Lyell–Lubbock dispute

Summary

In May 1865 a dispute arose between John Lubbock and Charles Lyell when Lubbock, in his book Prehistoric times, accused Lyell of plagiarism. The dispute caused great dismay among many of their mutual scientific friends, some of whom took immediate action…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … taking a clear position on the transmutation of species. 7 Later, he wrote to Lyell himself, …
  • … 1863a are discussed in Bynum 1984, pp. 154–9. 7. See Correspondence vol. 11, letter …
  • … vol. 11, letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] and n. 7. 9. See Correspondence …
  • … 14, doc. 183–4). 15. Letter from T. H. Huxley, 7 March 1865, in BL MSS ADD 49641. …

Charles Harrison Blackley

Summary

You may not have heard of Charles Harrison Blackley (1820–1900), but if you are one of the 15 million people in the UK who suffer from hay fever, you are indebted to him. For it was he who identified pollen as the cause of the allergy. Darwin was…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the upper regions of the atmosphere.  Blackley wrote on 7 July 1873 that his high altitude …

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … privilege to offer” ( letter from E. F. Lubbock, [before 7 April 1873] ). Hooker added: “I have …
  • … but he is a deal too sharp” ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 April 1873] ). A group of Huxley …
  • … than species are permanent” ( letter from John Farr, 7 July 1873 ). Further thoughts on the …
  • … past memories” ( letter to A. A. L. P. Cochrane, [after 7 June 1873] ). Darwin did accept …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … politics of women’s biology , (Rutgers, 1997),  chapter 7: Have only men evolved? , pp. 87 – 106. …

'An Appeal' against animal cruelty

Summary

The four-page pamphlet transcribed below and entitled 'An Appeal', was composed jointly by Emma and Charles Darwin (see letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [29 September 1863]). The pamphlet, which protested against the cruelty of steel vermin…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … 1863], and letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [7 December 1863]). Although none of the replies …
  • … single design fitted the requirements (Moss 1961, pp. 146–7). During the early 1870s the RSPCA …
  • … the campaign had little direct effect (Moss 1961, pp. 146–7, Emma Darwin 2: 200). …
  • … the possible alternatives (see letter from E. L. Darwin, 7 September 1863, letter from Emma Darwin …
  • … his sisters during his boyhood ( Autobiography , pp. 26–7). As an adult, he took pains to prevent …
  • … and family who enjoyed the sport (see Autobiography , pp. 78–9, Correspondence vol. 7, letter …
  • … categories of wild birds by sportsmen (Sheail 1976, pp. 22–7, Allen 1994, p. 177), and which some …
  • … pp. 60–2, 124–128, Worster 1985, pp. 179–80, 184–7). An appeal It is a …
  • … A. B., 6 Mr. Strong, Printer, Bromley, Kent. 7   or to Mrs C. Darwin | Downbar …
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