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To Ernst Dieffenbach   19 July [1843]

Summary

Says Colburn will allow German publisher to use copperplate and woodcuts [for Journal of researches]. Has been delayed in corrections owing to death of a relative [Josiah Wedgwood II].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ernst Dieffenbach
Date:  19 July [1843]
Classmark:  Historical Society of Pennsylvania (Gratz collection, case 12, box 7)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-682

From R. B. Hinds   19 July [1843]

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Summary

CD will be gratified to learn that RBH has recognised a species of Cactornis as a native of Bow Island [Hao, Tuamotu Archipelago].

Author:  Richard Brinsley Hinds
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  19 July [1843]
Classmark:  DAR 205.3: 276
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-683

To G. R. Waterhouse   [26 July 1843]

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Summary

Classification consists of grouping beings according to descent from common stocks. Analogies are resemblances between forms not inherited from common stocks. Neither number of species nor grade of organisation should be considered in classification. Admits that caution is necessary in admitting a few species to form a group of rank equal to one containing many species.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Robert Waterhouse
Date:  [26 July 1843]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 68
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-684

To G. R. Waterhouse   [31 July 1843]

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Summary

Has no objection to uniting Monotremata and other marsupials but would object to doing so solely on ground that Monotremata consists of only two species. Members of a natural group need not share common character so long as they are linked with those which do. Believes that if every organism that ever lived were collected, a perfect series would be presented. What are reasons that unite Aptera and Diptera?

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  George Robert Waterhouse
Date:  [31 July 1843]
Classmark:  DAR 185: 69
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-685

From G. R. Waterhouse   [c. 2 August 1843]

Summary

Discusses classification of animals. Degree of affinity different for different taxonomic groups. Discusses affinity of Ornithorhynchus or Echidna to reptiles.

Brain of whale is highly developed; on differences among brains of Quadrumana.

Author:  George Robert Waterhouse
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [c. 2 Aug 1843]
Classmark:  DAR 181: 12
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-686

From J. S. Henslow   [5 August 1843]

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Summary

Calls CD’s attention to an article about William Herbert’s hybrid Narcissus.

Author:  John Stevens Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [5 Aug 1843]
Classmark:  DAR 205.7: 282
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-687

From G. R. Waterhouse   9 August 1843

Summary

Explains what he means when he attempts a "natural classification", defining his words and using man as a standard; gives examples. Classification of Aptera and Diptera.

Discusses his discharge from the Zoological Society. Is to see Robert Brown about the British Museum position.

Author:  George Robert Waterhouse
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 Aug 1843
Classmark:  DAR 181: 13
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-688

To Ernst Dieffenbach   15 August [1843]

Summary

CD sends off his notes [corrections and additions to his Journal of researches] which he hopes ED will introduce [in German translation].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ernst Dieffenbach
Date:  15 Aug [1843]
Classmark:  J. A. Stargardt (dealers) (Catalogue 574 11–13 November 1965)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-689

From John Lindley   [before 2 September 1843]

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Summary

Much interested in CD’s communication [about W. Kemp] and seeds sent; does not know the species; has sent seeds to Henslow.

Describes a monstrous plant found near Ely.

Author:  John Lindley
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [before 2 Sept 1843]
Classmark:  DAR 50: A21–2
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-690

To J. S. Henslow   [2 September 1843]

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Summary

Tells how W. Kemp found the seeds of Atriplex, which Lindley sent to JSH for identification.

Asks about monstrous plant mentioned by Lindley [see 690].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  [2 Sept 1843]
Classmark:  DAR 93: A8–10
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-691

To William Kemp   [8 September 1843]

Summary

Seeds sent by Kemp have germinated and been identified by Lindley as Rumex acetosella and an Atriplex which has been sent on to J. S. Henslow.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Kemp
Date:  [8 Sept 1843]
Classmark:  Cambridge University Library (MS Add. 10252/23) (gift of Ruth Cramond and David Cramond)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-691F

To W. D. Fox   [4 September 1843]

Summary

Comments on his visit to N. Wales and the evidence of glaciation, of which he feels certain.

His marine theory [of the parallel roads of Glen Roy] has revived after Louis Agassiz’s "ice work" knocked it on the head.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  William Darwin Fox
Date:  [4 Sept 1843]
Classmark:  Christ’s College Library, Cambridge (MS 53 Fox 67)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-692

To Gardeners’ Chronicle    [late August 1843]

Summary

Sends some examples of Gentiana that he thinks may shed light on the origin of double flowers. Since specimens grew in sterile soil their double flowering cannot be attributed to excess food. CD advances the hypothesis that some change in natural conditions causes sterility, which then causes compensatory development of petals, the organs closest in morphology to those whose functions have been checked.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Gardeners’ Chronicle
Date:  [late Aug 1843]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, no. 36, 9 September 1843, p. 628
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-693

To John Edward Davis   15 September [1843]

Summary

Thanks him for specimens collected.

Comments on JED’s voyage [on H.M.S. Terror, 1839–43].

Mentions activities of old Beagle crew.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Edward Davis
Date:  15 Sept [1843]
Classmark:  DAR 143: 374
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-695

To Charles Lyell   [15 or 22 September 1843]

Summary

Mentions expected birth of child [Henrietta Emma].

BAAS meeting.

Comments on letters from G. R. Waterhouse and William Lonsdale.

Describes survival of apparently "fossil" seeds sent by W. Kemp.

Is at work on MS [of Volcanic islands].

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Lyell, 1st baronet
Date:  [15 or 22] Sept 1843
Classmark:  American Philosophical Society (Mss.B.D25.32)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-696

To S. P. Woodward   29 [September 1843]

Summary

Says he will call tomorrow to examine indicated specimens and books at Geological Society.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Samuel Pickworth Woodward
Date:  29 [Sept 1843]
Classmark:  The British Library (Add MS 42579: 228–9)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-697

To Ernst Dieffenbach   2 October 1843

Summary

On ED’s planned edition [German] of CD’s Journal of researches.

Informs him of his forthcoming volume, Volcanic islands.

"I am well acquainted with your paper on Chatham Island ["An account of the Chatham Islands", J. R. Geogr. Soc. 11: 195–215], & … those passages on the very curious fact of the apparent specific differences of the birds there & at New Zealand".

Thanks ED for recognition of his "small labours in Natural History… . praise from men, like yourself, is the only, though quite sufficient, reward I ever expect or wish to obtain for my works. – I have lately had the extreme satisfaction of hearing that Hooker speaks highly of the accuracy … of my statements". Refers to Humboldt and Owen.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Ernst Dieffenbach
Date:  2 Oct 1843
Classmark:  J. A. Stargardt (dealers) (Catalogue 574 11–13 November 1965)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-698

From William Kemp   2 October 1843

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Summary

Describes germination of seeds found in sand-pit and the geological setting of the sand-pit.

Postulates existence of ancient lake along the course of the River Tweed. Notes evidence of glaciation.

Author:  William Kemp
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  2 Oct 1843
Classmark:  DAR 50: A8–11
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-699

To J. S. Henslow   [before 7 October 1843]

Summary

Has seen fields of clover near Down affected with clover dodder.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  [before 7 Oct 1843]
Classmark:  Gardeners’ Chronicle, 7 October 1843, p. 694
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-699F

To Syms Covington   7 October 1843

Summary

A new ear trumpet has been sent to SC as a present.

Sends news of his publications, health, and other developments since SC left for Australia.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Syms Covington
Date:  7 Oct 1843
Classmark:  Sydney Mail, 9 August 1884, p. 254
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-700
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Darwin's works in letters

Summary

For the 163rd anniversary of the publication of Origin, we've added a new page to our Works in letters section on Cross and self fertilisation. These complement our existing pages on the 'big book' before Origin, Origin itself, the…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … my works. ( letter to Ernst Dieffenbach, 2 October 1843 ) Darwin published over …

Syms Covington

Summary

When Charles Darwin embarked on the Beagle voyage in 1831, Syms Covington was ‘fiddler & boy to Poop-cabin’. Covington kept an illustrated journal of his observations and experiences on the voyage, noting wildlife, landscapes, buildings and people and,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … at Stroud, New South Wales, 130 miles north of Sydney. By 1843 Covington was working for the …
  • … in Covington’s welfare, even so far removed.  In 1843 Darwin dispatched a new ear-trumpet  for him …

George Robert Waterhouse

Summary

George Waterhouse was born on 6 March 1810 in Somers Town, North London. His father was a solicitor’s clerk and an amateur lepidopterist. George was educated from 1821-24 at Koekelberg near Brussels. On his return he worked for a time as an apprentice to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … their ‘ descent from common stock’ in a letter of 1843 .   In the same year, Darwin …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … correspondence with George Robert Waterhouse. On [26 July 1843] ( Correspondence vol. 2), for …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … [DAR *119: 13v.] Yarrel’s Birds [Yarrell 1843] (1 Vol read) Last Edit of Malthus …
  • … 1825–36] Prescott. Hist. of Mexico [W. H. Prescott 1843], strongly recommended by Lyell (read …
  • … Travels into the interior of New Zealand [Dieffenbach 1843]. Capt. Porter, Journ of Cruize in …
  • … Prichards. Nat: History of Man. Bailliere. 1.10 [Prichard 1843]  must be studied . London Library …
  • … Essay on serpent (1844). 6 s . 6 d . Edinburgh [Schlegel 1843]. Geograph. Distrib &c &c. …
  • … “Scenes in Sandwich Isl d  & Central America [Jarves 1843] contains good account of Silkworm, …
  • … } Much Botany & [Backhouse 1843] Nat: Hist.— …
  • …  be read. Paper on transmutation of shells [Haldeman 1843–4] already (1844) VI. vols. …
  • … . 42  [P. Miller 1724] Life of Wilkie [Cunningham 1843] & Chantry [G. Jones 1849]. …
  • … 1833] (Boot) Leslie life of Constable [Leslie 1843]. (Emma) (read) M rs  Fry’s Life …
  • … 1847].— Cunningham Life of Wilkie [Cunningham 1843] [DAR *119: 23v.] …
  • … 3 d  Part of Clarendons History [Hyde 1704]. 1843 Jan 10. Last Vol of Clarendons …
  • … 1842–6] Mar 1. Lieut. Eyres Narrative [?V. Eyre 1843].— May 7 th . F. Horner’s life …
  • … Bremer [Bremer 1843a].— [DAR 119: 13a] 1843 Feb 20 th . L. Jenyns notes …
  • … d[itt]o. —— 26 Hinds Regions of Vegetation [Hinds 1843]. June 10 th . Linnæan Trans. …
  • … of London ] to end of Vol: XVIII & Part I. of V. 19 (1843) 25. Murray Domestic Poultry.— …
  • … Nov 30. Dieffenbach’s New Zealand [Dieffenbach 1843] 1844 Wiegman on Hybrids—German— …
  • … Phillips 1822] (very poor) [DAR 119: 13b] 1843 May 20 th  Carlyle’s Past …
  • … 1844 Jan 7 th  Borrow’s Bible in Spain [Borrow 1843]. 22. Hallam Constitu History …
  • … 30 1. Vol of Prescotts Hist of Mexico [W. H. Prescott 1843] /Oct 1 st / 2 d  & 3 d  Vol …
  • … July 5 th  Owens Lectures on Invertebrata [R. Owen 1843–6] Aug 1 Bradley’s Husbandry 3. …
  • … —— d[itt]o Salmon Fishing in Tweed [Scrope 1843]. (d[itt]o) 20 th  Reflections on the Study …
  • … Nov. 20 Liebig’s familiar letters on Chemistry [Liebig 1843] —— Ranke’s Popes of Rome 3 vols …
  • … 3 d . 25 th  Forbes Alps [J. D. Forbes 1843] —— Crawfords Embassy to Siam …
  • … Philadelphia ]; skimmed. 24 th . Report. Zoolog. 1843. 1844. Ray Soc. [Ray Society 1847] …
  • … —— 10 Neander’s Life of St Bernard [Neander 1843] interesting —— Feuerbachers Trials …
  • … 27 Abbott Travels from Khiva to Heraut [James Abbott 1843] (very good) Nov. 7 th  Leslie’s …

Darwin & Glen Roy

Summary

Although Darwin was best known for his geological work in South America and other remote Beagle destinations, he made one noteworthy attempt to explain a puzzling feature of British geology.  In 1838, two years after returning from the voyage, he travelled…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … October 1842] To William Darwin Fox, [4 September 1843] To Charles Lyell, 8 …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 8 hits

  • … of the living species he had collected. By the end of 1843 he had also completed the writing of a …
  • … the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle  from February 1838 to October 1843. The correspondence provides a …
  • … in articles on  Sagitta , finished during the autumn of 1843, and  Planariae, described in 1844 …
  • … unless they went to some other authority. Towards the end of 1843, he increasingly hoped that …
  • … thinking during this period and in his letters of 1843, Darwin was clearly testing his evolutionary …
  • … I am looking for' ( Letter to G. R. Waterhouse, [26 July 1843] ).  It is interesting to …
  • … twelve letters from Darwin to Kemp in the years 1840 to 1843 have come to light; they were published …
  • … flowers’ to the  Gardeners’ Chronicle , [late August 1843], expresses his interest in ‘unity of …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … 714 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [13 or 20 Nov 1843] Darwin knows Cambridge botanist J. …

Joseph Dalton Hooker

Summary

The 1400 letters exchanged between Darwin and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) account for around 10% of Darwin’s surviving correspondence and provide a structure within which all the other letters can be explored.  They are a connecting thread that spans…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … spans forty years of Darwin’s mature working life from 1843 until his death in 1882 and bring into …
  • … lives of the two men.  Their correspondence began in 1843 when Hooker, just returned from …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 4 hits

  • … University   Utrecht 14 november 1843 Leipzig 20 may 1909 …
  • … School   Dordrecht 22 january 1843 Franeker 28 december 1896 …
  • … Publisher   Amsterdam 18 oktober 1843 Dordrecht  30 march …
  • …     Amsterdam 3 october 1843 Amsterdam 29 march 1913 …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Murray, who followed his father as head of the business in 1843, had spent a year studying geology …

Henrietta Darwin born

Summary

Daughter, Henrietta Emma, born

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Daughter, Henrietta Emma, born …

Meets Joseph Hooker

Summary

Darwin begins a 40-year friendship with Joseph Dalton Hooker.  In November Hooker begins work on Darwin's Beagle plant specimens.

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin begins a 40-year friendship with Joseph Dalton Hooker.  In November Hooker begins work on …

Suggested reading

Summary

  Contemporary writing Anon., The English matron: A practical manual for young wives, (London, 1846). Anon., The English gentlewoman: A practical manual for young ladies on their entrance to society, (Third edition, London, 1846). Becker, L. E.…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … domestic influence and social obligations ,  (London, 1843). Somerville, M.,  On …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … University   Utrecht 14 November 1843 Leipzig 20 May 1909 …
  • … School   Dordrecht 22 January 1843 Franeker 28 December 1896 …
  • … Publisher   Amsterdam 18 October 1843 Dordrecht  30 March …
  • …     Amsterdam 3 October 1843 Amsterdam 29 March 1913 …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 717  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [28 November 1843] Hooker thanks Darwin for his …

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 1 hits

  • …  vol. 2, letter to A. Y. Spearman, 9 October 1843, n. 1). Darwin's inner circle: first …

John Lort Stokes

Summary

John Lort Stokes, naval officer, was Charles Darwin’s cabinmate on the Beagle voyage – not always an enviable position.  After Darwin’s death, Stokes penned a description of their evenings spent working at the large table at the centre, Stokes at his…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … command in 1841, and eventually returned to England in 1843. Shortly after, he unwittingly involved …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … in exact manner of grown up person.— March 1 st . 1843. Annie shows no signs of skill in …
  • … was natural acting & deceit. 39v. [54] Jan. 20 1843 Willy 3 years & a month. …
  • … to something he used to say when a baby. 40  Feb 1843. Willy says “No” in the fiercest way …
  • … later; Anne Elizabeth was born in 1841 and Henrietta Emma in 1843. Mrs Locke was probably the …
  • … name and address of a Mrs Locke are noted in Emma Darwin’s 1843 diary. [16] The following …

George James Stebbing

Summary

George James Stebbing (1803—1860) travelled around the world with Charles Darwin on board HMS Beagle and helped him with measuring temperature on at least one occasion. However, Stebbing barely registers in Darwin’s correspondence. The only mention omits…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … instrument maker George Stebbing (1774—1847). By 1843, he was established enough in the town to be …
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