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From F. W. Hope   15 January 1834


Acknowledges CD’s letter about alpine entomology of Tierra del Fuego; discusses geographical distribution; urges CD to make a chart of vegetable and geological distribution of insects. Advises him on species to collect and assures him of all assistance in describing his captures on his return.

Tells of founding of Entomological Society, and enrolls CD.

News of J. F. Stephens’ lawsuit and continuation of his Illustrations of British entomology [1827–46]. Praises general state of zoological science in England.

Author:  Frederick William Hope
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  15 Jan 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 127
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-235

From Catherine Darwin   27–30 January 1834


News of family and friends: W. D. Fox will marry in the spring; private theatricals at Eaton house-party.

Author:  Emily Catherine (Catherine) Darwin; Emily Catherine (Catherine) Langton
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  27-30 Jan 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 91
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-236

From Susan Darwin   12[–28] February 1834


Writes on CD’s 25th birthday.

Points out "errors in orthography" in his journal.

News of family and friends, visits, and other social events.

Author:  Susan Elizabeth Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  12[–28] Feb 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 102
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-237

To J. S. Henslow   March 1834


On fossils ([Megatherium], etc.), plants, shells sent and new ones found; geological observations. Asks for help in understanding cleavage and planes of deposition.

A new species of ostrich. Cites differences in size, colour, nidification, and geographical distribution.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  Mar 1834
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Henslow letters: 21 DAR/1/1/21)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-238

From Caroline Darwin   9–28 March [1834]


They learn from a garbled report in the Times that CD’s specimens have arrived in Cambridge.

William Clift, at Royal College of Surgeons, delighted by CD’s letter about the bones that were sent to Plymouth.

Strange coincidence that Royal College of Surgeons has the front portion and CD has sent home the remainder of a skull, of which a drawing can now be completed.

Other news of family and friends.

Author:  Caroline Sarah (Caroline) Darwin; Caroline Sarah (Caroline) Wedgwood
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  9 & 28 Mar [1834]
Classmark:  DAR 204: 80
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-239

From J. M. Herbert   [28 March] 1834


A letter full of news of Cambridge and friends: the BAAS meeting at Cambridge; charges of corruption in the University; the Cambridge petition on behalf of Dissenters.

Author:  John Maurice Herbert
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [28 Mar] 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 126
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-240

To Edward Lumb   30 March 1834


CD asks the time of shipment and vessel in which the [Megatherium] bones were conveyed.

Patagonia swarms with guanaco, but few other creatures.

Hopes to be able to draw up a tolerable sketch of the geology of the east side of S. America.

Saw Jemmy Button, who is married and will stay in Tierra del Fuego. Mentions Falkland uprising.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Edward Lumb
Date:  30 Mar 1834
Classmark:  Profiles in History (dealers) (2006)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-241

To Catherine Darwin   6 April 1834


Describes Patagonia and its inhabitants.

Writes of his pleasure in geology.

Predicts that Falklands will become an "important halting place". Outlines Beagle’s future itinerary.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Emily Catherine (Catherine) Darwin; Emily Catherine (Catherine) Langton
Date:  6 Apr 1834
Classmark:  DAR 223
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-242

From William Owen Sr   10 April – 1 May 1834


Writes a cordial letter with family and local news. Hopes CD will see his two sons in India.

P.S. by Catherine Darwin says no letter was written this month as all is well at home.

Author:  William Owen
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  10 Apr–1 May 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 129
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-243

From Edward Lumb to J. S. Henslow   2 May 1834


On CD’s instructions EL has forwarded a case containing part of the head of [Megatherium].

Author:  Edward Lumb
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  2 May 1834
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-244

From Edward Lumb   8 May 1834


Responds to CD’s queries: the bones were received from Mr Keen and shipped to Henslow; expects another collection which he will forward.

Adds news that has arrived at Buenos Aires since CD left.

Author:  Edward Lumb
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  8 May 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 128
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-245

From Susan Darwin   [23] May 1834


News of family and friends.

Author:  Susan Elizabeth Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [23] May 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 103
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-246

To Catherine Darwin   20–9 July 1834


In the past six months he has done much geology and natural history. His geological pursuits are a source of high pleasure. Has lately determined to work chiefly on corals.

Spent three weeks going up the Santa Cruz with a party; they ran out of provisions 20 miles from the Cordilleras. Winter at present prevents his doing much natural history.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Emily Catherine (Catherine) Darwin; Emily Catherine (Catherine) Langton
Date:  20–9 July 1834
Classmark:  DAR 223
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-248

From J. S. Henslow   22 July 1834


CD’s cargo is safe; the fossils have been sent to William Clift.

JSH asks for dried plants (those sent were all of greatest interest).

Sends news of Cambridge and mutual friends.

Author:  John Stevens Henslow
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  22 July 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 125
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-249

To Charles Whitley   23 July 1834


Would welcome hearing Cambridge news. Impossible not to regret friends and pleasures in England, but

has much solid enjoyment and never-failing interest in geology. Tells of his first sight of a savage.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Charles Thomas Whitley
Date:  23 July 1834
Classmark:  National Library of Australia (MS 4260)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-250

To J. S. Henslow   24 July – 7 November 1834


CD is excited by JSH’s high opinion of his collections.

Discusses his notes and some new discoveries. Summary of events since leaving Falklands.

Geology of Patagonia.

Corallines at Tierra del Fuego convince him of artificiality of arrangement of their families by Lamarck and Cuvier.

Geological expedition in Andes, ending with serious illness. Specimens being sent.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  John Stevens Henslow
Date:  24 July & 28 Oct & 7 Nov 1834
Classmark:  Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Henslow letters: 22 DAR/1/1/22)
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-251

From H. S. Fox   25 July 1834


Thanks CD for letter of 5 April and specimens; did not know the Falklands and Patagonia were so interesting geologically.

Will answer CD’s queries about S. Brazil in another letter. Names Friedrich Sellow, A. Saint-Hilaire, and Andrew Mathews as naturalists who travelled there. Directs CD to Alexander Caldcleugh in Santiago.

Author:  Henry Stephen Fox
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  25 July 1834
Classmark:  DAR 204: 123
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-252

To Caroline Darwin   9–12 August 1834


Thanks for her letter of March, which gave him his first explanation of the interest in the [Megatherium] head he had sent.

Wants E. A. Darwin to tell William Clift not to remove numbers or markers on any specimens. The British Museum has first claim on any of his specimens; CD cannot at present say where any should go.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Caroline Sarah (Caroline) Darwin; Caroline Sarah (Caroline) Wedgwood
Date:  9–12 Aug 1834
Classmark:  DAR 223
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-253

To Robert FitzRoy   [28 August 1834]


Recounts his trip [from Valparaiso] to Santiago. His meeting with Claude Gay, Thomas Sutcliffe, and others. Geology of tour uninteresting.

Author:  Charles Robert Darwin
Addressee:  Robert FitzRoy
Date:  [28 Aug 1834]
Classmark:  DAR 144: 115
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-254

From Thomas Sutcliffe   [28 August – 5 September 1834]


Gives a map of part of Chile between Santiago and San Fernando. Suggests places and people that CD might profitably visit [en route].

Author:  Thomas Sutcliffe
Addressee:  Charles Robert Darwin
Date:  [28 Aug – 5 Sept 1834]
Classmark:  DAR 35: 405
Letter no:  DCP-LETT-255
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Titus Coan


In 1874, when Darwin was preparing the second edition of Descent of Man, he received letters from all over the world in reply to his queries about human behaviour; one in particular would have stirred up unexpected memories of his own time among the native…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … in Chile) on 14 November 1833, and left again on 25 January 1834. Just one day later, the twenty-two …
  • … their diaries were published in the Missionary Herald in 1834 and 1835 , and a complete …

Darwin’s earthquakes


Darwin experienced his first earthquake in 1834, but it was a few months later that he was really confronted with their power. Travelling north along the coast of Chile, Darwin and Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle, were confronted with a series of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … happened Darwin to his sister Catherine, 8 November 1834 Darwin experienced …
  • … FitzRoy repeated a survey he had made of the coastline in 1834 and demonstrated that the surface of …

Darwin’s reading notebooks


In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 29 hits

  • … of useful knowledge Horse, cow, sheep [Youatt 1831, 1834, 1837]. Verey Philosophie d’Hist. …
  • … d[itt]o [T. S. B. Raffles 1817] Buffon Suites [Buffon 1834–74]. Much on Geograph. Distrib. …
  • … of quadrupeds of the Dekhan [Sykes 1832a] & Birds [Sykes 1834]. Zoolog. Proceedings & …
  • … Hunt 1806] p. 290 “Thacker” [Thacker 1834–5] p. 291 …
  • … Physiolog. & treats on origin & formation of Varieties [Lord 1834] Royle on Indian …
  • … 1825–36].— Butler. 3. first sermons [Butler 1834] recommended by Sir. J. Mackintosh J. …
  • … 1835]: Lacordaire Introduction Entomologique [Lacordaire 1834–8]: Reptiles [Duméril and Bibron 1834
  • … 1784] Duke of Wellington’s Dispatches [Wellesley 1834–9] Carlyles Oliver Cromwell …
  • … Vol. on  Peacocks  &  Pheasants  [Jardine ed. 1834] read Vol. (2 d ) on Dogs [C. H. …
  • … Hort. Soc. Hooker? Rogets Bridgewater Treatise [Roget 1834]: very good, abortive organs read …
  • … der Königlichen Akad: der Wissen: Aus dem Jahre 1834.— Berlin 1836.— “Vergleich: Anat der Myxinoiden …
  • … Kangaroos [Gould 1841–2]— Birds of Himalaya [Gould 1834] (& of Europe?) [Gould 1832–7] & of …
  • … Bernhardi Ueber den Begriff der Pflanzenart [Bernhardi 1834] (M. Gerard. experiments on species …
  • … lettered, (pub. at 6 s  per vol.) reduced to 5 s  1834–43 1. Humming Birds, Vol. 1 …
  • … Life of Wesley [R. Southey 1820].— The Doctor [R. Southey 1834–47]. The Book of the Church [R. …
  • … Reference at end D r  Lang’s Australia [Lang 1834]— Trash skimmed Macleay’s Hora …
  • … 1792] —Rev. A. Wells Lectures on Instinct [Wells 1834] Cline on the breeding of …
  • … 10 th . Blackwalls Researches in Zoology [Blackwall 1834]— d[itt]o d[itt]o d[itt]o. d[itt]o. …
  • … th . Cattle. Library of Useful Knowledge—Youatt [Youatt 1834] References at end April 13 th …
  • … [Boswell 1831] Philip Van Artevelde [H. Taylor 1834]. reread Macaulay Art. on Bacon in …
  • … moderate Feb. 7 th  Sartor Resartus [Carlyle 1834] excellent March 5 Hume Hist. Engl …
  • … Meyens Reisen in Chile [Meyen 1834–5] Dec 1 st . Jesse Gleanings [Jesse 1832 …
  • … 15b] 1844 & 5 Burne’s Bokhara (3. vols) [Burnes 1834] Nov. 20 Liebig’s familiar …
  • … in Norway [Laing 1836] —— Burnes Cabool [Burnes 1834] —— Southeys Thaleba [R. W. …
  • … Oct. 20 th  Lewis Journal in W. Indies [M. G. Lewis 1834] Nov 7. Life of Lavater [?Heisch …
  • … 14 th  Wellington Despatches Vol I. II. III [Wellesley 1834–9] Dec 12 th  The Emigrant by …
  • … of Crustacea 3 d  Tom. of Suite de Buffon [Milne-Edwards 1834–40]. March 5 th  St. John’s …
  • … [Sageret 1830] 19 th  Abhand. Konig. Ak. Berlin. 1834. Müller on Myxine [Müller 1837] …
  • … Feb 8 IV, V & VI vols of Wellington Despatches [Wellesley 1834–9] —— 17 th  Arts & …

Conrad Martens


Conrad Martens was born in London, the son of an Austrian diplomat. He studied landscape painting under the watercolourist Copley Fielding (1789–1855), who also briefly taught Ruskin. In 1833 he was on board the Hyacinth, headed for India, but en route in…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Beagle crew in July 1833; he stayed with them until July 1834, when FitzRoy sold the Beagle & …
  • … are dated, and the book remained in use until early February 1834. Sketchbook I measures …
  • … most part the right hand page. The sketches begin in April 1834, with the exception of the very …
  • … of a set made after their arrival in Valparaiso in August 1834. …

Dining at Down House


Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Letter 259 —Charles Darwin to Caroline Darwin, 13 October 1834 Darwin’s ill health began …

Books on the Beagle


The Beagle was a sort of floating library.  Find out what Darwin and his shipmates read here.

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle  3 (1834): 84–115. (DAR 37.1: 677v.; letter to J. …
  • … Cambridge, 1833.  (Letter to Charles Whitley, 23 July 1834). ‘Philosophical tracts’, Darwin …
  • … 1832 . London, 1833.  (Letter to J. S. Henslow, March 1834 and letter from J. S. Henslow, 31 …
  • … 77) Greenough, George Bellas. Anniversary address (1834).  Proceedings of the Geological …
  • … 30.1: 13v.; letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 July – 7 November 1834). Darwin Library–CUL †. La …
  • … Darwin’; letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 July – 7 November 1834). Darwin Library–CUL † (vols. 1 and 2). …
  • … 1826. (DAR 31.2: 319; letter to Robert Fitzroy, 28 August 1834). Darwin Library–CUL †. Milton …
  • … 2. Madrid, 1795. (Inscription: ‘Charles Darwin Valparaiso 1834’). Darwin Library–CUL ††. * …
  • … 1694. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 July – 7 November 1834). §  New Testament  (Greek). ( …
  • … . . .  London, 1816. (Letter from J. S. Henslow, 22 July 1834;  Red notebook , p. 89). Darwin …
  • … 209–17. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, 24 July – 7 November 1834). ‡ Syme, Patrick.  Werner’s …
  • … performed in H.M. Sloop Chanticleer . . .  2 vols. London, 1834. (DAR 32.1: 7;  Red notebook , p. …
  • … 123 (1833): 147–236. (Letter to J. S. Henslow, March 1834;  Narrative  2 (Appendix): 227). …
  • … Proceedings of the Geological Society of London  1 (1834): 21–6. (DAR 35.2: 357). Carne, …
  • … Transactions of the Royal Society of London 126 (1834): 365–88. ( Red notebook , p. 24; CD refers …
  • … United Service Journal and Naval and Military Magazine  3 (1834): 215–26. ( Red notebook , p. 27) …

Scientific Networks


Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … Letter 249 — Henslow, J. S. to Darwin, C. R., 22 July 1834 Henslow notes that Darwin’s cargo …
  • … Darwin, C. R. to Henslow, J. S., 24 July & 28 Oct & 7 Nov 1834 Darwin is excited by …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'


The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … early years occur after a serious illness at Valparaiso in 1834, when he was incapacitated for …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album


Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Apothecary   Rotterdam 30 may 1834 Utrecht 16 september 1888 …
  • … the Arnhem Museum   Arnhem 7 june 1834   23 december 1879 …
  • … University.     24 oktober 1834 Boskoop 7 july 1907 …
  • … Illustre”.   Amsterdam 16 august 1834 Amsterdam 29 September …
  • … the Dutch Royal Navy.     7 august 1834 Amsterdam 11 Feb …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album


List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … Apothecary   Rotterdam 30 May 1834 Utrecht 16 September 1888 …
  • … the Arnhem Museum   Arnhem 7 June 1834   23 December 1879 …
  • … University.     24 October 1834 Boskoop 7 July 1907 …
  • … Illustre”.   Amsterdam 16 August 1834 Amsterdam 29 September …
  • … the Dutch Royal Navy.     7 August 1834 Amsterdam 11 Feb …



The Beagle arrives at the island of Chiloé, Chile

Matches: 1 hits

  • … The Beagle arrives at the island of Chiloé, Chile …

Bibliography of Darwin’s geological publications


This list includes papers read by Darwin to the Geological Society of London, his books on the geology of the Beagle voyage, and other publications on geological topics.  Author-date citations refer to entries in the Darwin Correspondence Project’s…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … and west coasts of South America, in the years 1832, 1833, 1834, and 1835, with an account of a …

The Andes


Darwin goes on a geological expedition in the Andes

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Darwin goes on a geological expedition in the Andes …

Richard Henry Corfield


Richard Henry Corfield was in his final year at Shrewsbury School when Darwin started there. It’s hard to say how well they knew each other, but fifteen years later Corfield appeared again in Darwin’s life as a surprisingly familiar face on the other side…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … the world. For when Darwin arrived in Valparaiso, Chile, in 1834, Corfield was living there and …

Robert FitzRoy


Robert FitzRoy was captain of HMS Beagle when Darwin was aboard. From 1831 to 1836 the two men lived in the closest proximity, their relationship revealed by the letters they exchanged while Darwin left the ship to explore the countries visited during the…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … was putting in long hours preparing charts at Valparaiso in 1834. This hydrographic work, combined …
  • … secretary of the Geological Society of London.  In 1834, Darwin had reported that FitzRoy’s ‘ most …

Thomas Burgess


As well as its complement of sailors, the Beagle also carried a Royal Marine sergeant and seven marines, one of whom was Thomas Burgess. When the Beagle set sail he was twenty one, having been born in October 1810 to Israel and Hannah Burgess of Lancashire…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Cruz in Argentina, which took place from 18 April to 10 May 1834, and reminded Darwin that they had …

Edward Lumb


Edward Lumb was born in Yorkshire. According to the memoirs of his daughter Anne, Lady Macdonell, he travelled to Buenos Aires aged sixteen with his merchant uncle, Charles Poynton, and after some fortunate enterprises set up in business there. In 1833…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … from the 22 nd to the 26 th November 1833. In March 1834 Darwin wrote from the Falkland …

Charles Thomas Whitley


Born in Liverpool in 1808, Charles Thomas Whitley, like Darwin, attended Shrewsbury School and then Cambridge University where they were clearly very close, exchanging letters during the summer holidays. Whitley was a mathematician, a subject that held…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … when he in turn married a cousin two years later. In 1834 he published Outlines of a New Theory of …

George Robert Waterhouse


George Waterhouse was born on 6 March 1810 in Somers Town, North London. His father was a solicitor’s clerk and an amateur lepidopterist. George was educated from 1821-24 at Koekelberg near Brussels. On his return he worked for a time as an apprentice to…

Matches: 1 hits

  • … following his marriage to Elizabeth Ann Griesbach in 1834. His son, Charles Owen Waterhouse (whose …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia


Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 3 hits

  • … years later by Karl Hermann Konrad Burmeister (Burmeister 1834), first revealed the developmental …
  • … cephalic, thoracic, and abdominal somites (Milne-Edwards 1834–40; Appel 1987, pp. 218–19). Darwin …
  • … of retrograde development.   ^3^ Milne-Edwards 1834–40.   ^4^ Ornithorhynchus , the …
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