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Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 15 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • wrinkles one all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879
  • itself, or gone some other way round?’ At least the last letter of 1879 contained a warmer note and
  • with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as Francis Darwin reported from Germany that
  • the children correctly’, mentioning in particular that Francis Galton was the son of one of Erasmus
  • to contradict false statements that had been published by Francis Galtons aunt, Mary Anne
  • for Captain Robert FitzRoy on the Beagle voyage, Francis Beaufort of the Admiralty described the
  • and poet’ ( Correspondence vol. 1, letter from Francis Beaufort to Robert FitzRoy, 1 September
  • perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 12 July [1879] ). It was
  • in plants. Over the previous two years, he and his son Francis had worked together on the
  • of radicles, the embryonic roots of seedlings ( letter to Francis Darwin, 16 June [1879] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments …
  • … of most advanced plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … Hooker, ‘or as far as I know any scientific man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1878] ). …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … or arched.… Almost all seedlings come up arched’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … (see Movement in plants , pp. 112–13). He explained to Francis on 2 July : ‘I go on maundering …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … when he finds out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] …
  • … the bassoon & apparently more by a high than a low note.’ Francis apparently played the musical …
  • Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my blunder’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 22 December [1878] ). …
  • … on plant movement were intensely collaborative, with Francis playing a more active role than ever. …
  • … exchanged when they were apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in …
  • … accursed German language: Sachs is very kind to him’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June …
  • … to talk to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two …
  • … is horrid not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers

Summary

In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

Matches: 22 hits

  • In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began
  • a very old man, who probably will not last much longer.’ Darwins biggest fear was not death, but
  • sweetest place on this earth’. From the start of the year, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He
  • provision for the dividing of his wealth after his death. Darwins gloominess was compounded by the
  • and new admirers got in touch, and, for all his fears, Darwin found several scientific topics to
  • Evolution old and new when revising his essay on Erasmus Darwins scientific work, and that Darwin
  • memory in Kosmos and sent Darwin a separate letter for publication in the Journal of Popular
  • of the false accusation’. Other friends rallied round. Francis Balfour translated Krauses account
  • had been a major undertaking for both Darwin and his son Francis, who assisted in the many
  • publishers decided to print500 more, making 2000’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 ) …
  • the animal learnt from its own individual experience ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 7 March 1881 ). …
  • whether observations of their behaviour were trustworthy ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 March [1881] …
  • about the sale of books beinga game of chance’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 12 April 1881 ). On 18
  • July, sending the pages to Germany for further checks by Francis Darwin, who was spending the summer
  • Ruskin, who lived there. Sending the last two chapters to Francis on 27 May , Darwin wrote, …
  • to begin any new subject requiring much work’, he told Francis Darwin on 30 May . ‘I have been
  • case.’ An additional motivation may have been to support Francis Darwins published research on
  • Darwin tried a variety of plants and reagents, telling Francis on 17 October , ‘I have wasted
  • up the job; but I cannot endure to do this’, Darwin told Francis on 9 Novemberand writing
  • Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company led Darwin to chide Francis for giving a klinostat designed
  • supporters, and rejoiced in his election. Promoting Franciss own botanical research was as
  • on 27 January for not commending papers presented by Francis at the Linnean Society the previous

Francis Darwin

Summary

Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

Matches: 8 hits

  • Known to his family asFrank’, Charles Darwins seventh child himself became a distinguished
  • but then transferring to natural sciencesFrancis completed his studies at Cambridge, …
  • into debt and had kept the matter secret for some months. Darwin was very stern in his advice: ‘I
  • so bothersome an old fellow as I daresay I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin18 October
  • engaged to Amy Ruck in 1872; the couple married in 1874. Francis was already living in Down. and
  • a laboratory run by Julius von Sachs in WurzburgFrancis Darwin was elected to the Royal
  • his father had not been knighted, although in 1877 Charles Darwin was awarded an honorary degree
  • … ( The Power of Movement in Plants, 1880). Perhaps Francis Darwin, whom the family regarded as a

Power of movement in plants

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during his children's youth, involving them in his experiments and even occasionally using them as observational subjects. When his children…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … | Experiment Family experiments Darwin was an active and engaged father during
  • Man (1872). This teaching module focuses on work done by Darwin with his son Francis on
  • and his role as an attentive and affectionate father. Darwin's letters to Francis mix advice on
  • notice that although they come from the last decade of Darwins life, he is still interested in his
  • move In The Power of movement in plants Darwin continued his experiments with and
  • in behavioral responses. In the conclusion of the book Darwin argues that gradual modifications in
  • SOURCES Books Darwin, C.R. The power of movement in plants. 1880. London: …
  • its transmitted effects Letters Letter Pack: Power of movement in plants
  • are in danger of compromising their character. Letter 10517 - Darwin to Francis
  • been made, but that they would be worth making. Letter 11628 - Francis Darwin to
  • remarking that he wastoo floppy to work”. Letter 12152 - Francis Darwin to Darwin, …

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • to artificially fertilise plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to
  • Darwin, [9 January 1871] Darwins brother-in-law, Francis, reports on the appearance and
  • tells her eldest son, William, that her third eldest son, Francis, is receiving help with his plant
  • February 1857] Darwins nephew, Edmund, writes to Francis with the results of his
  • in his home. Letter 10517  - Darwin to Francis, F., [29 May 1876] Darwin
  • Letter 10517  - Darwin t o Francis, F., [29 May 1876] Darwin gives his son, Francis

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 19 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • the first member of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amys child expected in
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his
  • quantity of workleft in him fornew matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • to a reprint of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February
  • … & I for blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. …
  • provided evidence for theadvantages of crossing’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising
  • year to write about his life ( Correspondence vol. 23, letter from Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, 20
  • Darwin reassured his close friend Joseph Hooker that he and Francis would attend the meeting. Darwin
  • subject takes an opposite line’. Although he conceded that Francis had the best of an argument with
  • to propose the young rising star of Cambridge morphology, Francis Maitland Balfour, for fellowship
  • of the earliest available commercial models of typewriter. Francis Darwin and his wife, Amy, …
  • point, and he was reliant on his son George and cousin Francis Galton for the calculations. ‘I have
  • in their research. He revelled in the praise heaped on Francis by George Henry Lewes for an article
  • chemical pycrotoxine in vivisection experiments ( letter to Francis Darwin, [1 May 1876] ). Darwin

Dipsacus and Drosera: Frank’s favourite carnivores

Summary

In Autumn of 1875, Francis Darwin was busy researching aggregation in the tentacles of Drosera rotundifolia (F. Darwin 1876). This phenomenon occurs when coloured particles within either protoplasm or the fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster…

Matches: 23 hits

  • By John SchaeferHarvard University* Charles Darwins enthusiasm for carnivorous plants -- …
  • …  than the origin of all the species in the world. ’ Darwins rigorous experimentation with these
  • plants in the scientific and public imagination. Darwins son, Francis, carried on his father
  • experience with his father's thorough experiments, Francis sought to elaborate on the books
  • fluid in the cell vacuole (the cell sap) cluster together. Darwin senior had theorized in
  • protoplasm . Inspired by his investigation of  Drosera , Francis set out to examine the cup-like
  • The Loves of the Plants  (1789) his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, wrote that each dew-filled cup
  • to prevent insects from creeping up to devour its seed.’ Francis, however, expected to find that the
  • sent to his father from Kew Gardens by Joseph Dalton Hooker, Francis began growing his own specimens
  • into deciphering plant carnivory. On 28 May 1876, Francis wrote to his father that he had
  • emphatically exclaimingHooray theory. Blow facts. ’ Francis drew comparisons tothe absorption
  • article on aggregation in  D. rotundifolia  tentacles, Francis had to  delay further examinations
  • investigation and suggested further observations, imploring FrancisI would work at this subject
  • … ‘Seed-bearingexperiments with  Dipsacus . While Darwin wascurious if the movements of the
  • golden eggs. ’ With his father's encouragement, Francis recordedsplendid
  • After witnessing thisgrand discoveryhimselfDarwin excitedly described the protoplasmic
  • feeding on solid particles of decaying insects. ’ Francis  consulted with William Thiselton
  • for the rest of the summer. Although it can be surmised that Francis privately carried on with his
  • Darwins' first grandchild. However, tragedy soon struck the Darwin householdFranciswife, …
  • would weaken his will to pursue scientific endeavours, Darwin gently yet consistently  encouraged
  • … ‘ I can declare that I have hardly ever received [a letter] in my life which has given me more
  • Darwins request, Cohn agreed to allow an excerpt of his letter to be published in  Nature , …
  • August 1877, p. 339). Although, as Darwin pointed out in a letter to G.J. Romanes, Cohn was hesitant

Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 21 hits

  • evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost
  • … (1875) and  Cross and self fertilisation  (1876). Darwins son Francis became increasingly
  • career to become his fathers scientific secretary. Darwin had always relied on assistance from
  • the previous year. As was typical, readers wrote to Darwin personally to offer suggestions, …
  • some of which were incorporated in a later edition. Darwin also contributed to discussions in the
  • in animals. The subject was brought closer to home by Francis Galtons work on inherited talent, …
  • Station at Naples. Plants that eat and feel? Darwin had resumed experiments on the
  • I omitted to observe, which I ought to have observed” ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 12 January [1873] …
  • and alkaloids, and even electrical stimulation. On sending Darwin a specimen of the carnivorous  …
  • work your wicked will on itroot leaf & branch!” ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 12 January 1873 ) …
  • to bend inward, so that the plant closed like a fist. Darwin was fascinated by this transmission of
  • Poisons and electrocution . . . His son Francis was assisting the histologist Edward Emanuel
  • of medical research in London. On the advice of Klein, Francis obtained a new microscope for his
  • parts of the flower would become modified & correlated” ( letter to T. H. Farrer, 14 August
  • it again, “for Heaven knows when it will be ready” ( letter to John Murray, 4 May [1873] ). …
  • on botany, he drew more on assistance from his son Francis. While visiting his fiancée, Amy Ruck, in
  • we take notes and take tracings of their burrows” ( letter from Francis Darwin, 14 August [1873] ) …
  • in importance; and if so more places will be created” ( letter to E. A. Darwin, 20 September 1873
  • … [1873] ).  Shortly afterwards, it was arranged for Francis to rent a house in the village (Down
  • to H. E. Litchfield, 20 February 1873 ). The surgeon Francis Stephen Bennet Francois de Chaumont, …
  • of instinct and inheritance when he was asked by his cousin Francis Galton to participate in a study

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • anything more on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • worms , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new
  • begun many years before. In his private life also, Darwin was in a nostalgic frame of mind, …
  • The last word on Origin The year opened with Darwin, helped by his eldest son William, …
  • on 30 January , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of
  • and sixth editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final
  • condition as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September
  • translation remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November
  • to bring out the new edition in the United States, Darwin arranged with Murray to have it
  • had to be resetThe investment in stereotype reinforced Darwins intention to make no further
  • to the comparative anatomist St George Jackson Mivart ( letter to St GJMivart,  11 January
  • objections to the theory of natural selection’, Darwin refuted point by point assertions published
  • comparison of Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ) …
  • Although Mivart was among those who wrote in January to wish Darwin a happy new year, before the
  • critical and anonymously published review of  Descent . Darwins supporters had rallied to his
  • a person as I am made to appear’, complained Darwin ( letter to St GJMivart, 5 January 1872 ). …
  • drawings shortly afterwards ( letter from Samuel Butler to Francis Darwin, [before 30 May 1872] , …
  • the claims of spiritualists, and Darwin, through his cousin Francis Galton, had with some interest
  • however, incorporated in the second edition, produced by Francis Darwin after his fathers death. …
  • new name on the list of volunteers: by the beginning of May, Francis Darwin, the Darwinsthird son, …

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 22 hits

  • 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • research being pursued by other naturalists who, like Francis, had come to this centre for the study
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • copied but also improved on some of the apparatuses that Francis had been introduced to at Würzburg. …
  • plant physiology, but it was at its core informed by Darwins theory of evolution, particularly by
  • early 1860s, at a time when his health was especially bad, Darwin had taken up the study of climbing
  • reproduced as a small book, giving it a much wider audience. Darwin was not the first naturalist to
  • which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a much longer work,  …
  • about the nature of movement, so much so, that at one point Darwin had considered combining the
  • digestive processes. With his final great botanical work, Darwin would attemptto bring all the
  • from all over Europe and beyond. When Darwins son Francis worked in this laboratory in the summers
  • had also asked Horace to discuss the point with his friend Francis Balfour(258). Darwin promised to
  • of any success. '. Just two months later, Darwin put Francis in charge of this aspect of the
  • … , a plant that exhibited all three types of movement ( letter from RILynch, [before 28 July
  • more familiar with the research in Sachss laboratory as Franciss departure for Würzburg was
  • to Wurzburg, & work by myself will be dull work’ . Francis was in Würzburg until early August. …
  • good instruments were never far from Darwins thinking. Francis viewed the new instruments he was
  • the woodblock using photography for scientific accuracy ( letter from JDCooper13 December
  • lost colour, withered, and died within a couple of days ( letter from A. F. Batalin28 February
  • how their observations could have been so much at odds ( letter to Hugo de Vries 13 February 1879
  • the botanist Gaetano Durando, to find plants and seeds ( letter to Francis Darwin, [4 February8

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 26 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was
  • during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously
  • work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material
  • to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals
  • he istorn to piecesby people wanting copies’, Darwin wrote to his son Francis on 28 February
  • do to talk about it, which no doubt promotes the sale’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ) …
  • to her liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). …
  • and had forsaken his lunch and dinner in order to read it ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 19
  • they believe to be the truth, whether pleasant or not’ (letter from W. W. Reade, 21 February 1871). …
  • and OldhamThey club together to buy them’ ( letter from W. B. Dawkins, 23 February 1871 ). …
  • ones n th . ancestor lived between tide-marks!’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 February 1871 ). …
  • habits, furnished with a tail and pointed ears”  (letter from Asa Gray, 14 April 1871) …
  • liberal or orthodox. The American philosopher and journalist Francis Ellingwood Abbot incorporated
  • man & we were the best of friends’, he wrote to his son Francis on 28 February . However, …
  • Darwin had been receiving regular reports from his cousin Francis Galton on the progress of
  • in order to facilitate cross-circulation ( letter from Francis Galton, 13 September 1871 ). …
  • science ( letter to Horace Darwin, [15 December 1871] ). Francis was now studying medicine at St
  • of Trinity College, planned a trip to America, and invited Francis and two Cambridge friends. Darwin
  • …  be almost superhuman virtue to give it up’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 16 May [1871] ). Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 20 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • inferred that he was well from his silence on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October
  • by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too
  • in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] …
  • had cost twenty-four shillings.) Murrays partner, Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the
  • … (see G. B. Airy ed. 1881). Darwins third son Francis married Amy Ruck, the sister of a
  • work on insectivorous plants. Amy drew a plant and Francis was disappointed that they seemed not to
  • from Cornwall, but Darwin was unwell when it arrived, so Francis worked on the tiny bladders under
  • 1874 , and  Correspondence  vol. 21, letter from Francis Darwin,  [11 October 1873] ). …
  • work’ ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 18 September [1874] ).Franciss new wife, Amy, drew the plant ( …
  • After his wife read  Expression , the military surgeon Francis François de Chaumont sent
  • a donation of £100, and £10 each from his sons George and Francis ( letter to Anton Dohrn, 7 March
  • a photograph of the station to be sent to Darwin by Francis Maitland Balfour; Darwin offered to try

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 24 hits

  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was increasingly a
  • assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his sons own
  • The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of
  • and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term
  • as dimorphic without