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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … child of God" (1) Abberley, John (1) …
  • … Adams, A. L. (1) Addison, John (1) …
  • … Allen, J. A. (b) (1) Allen, John (1) …
  • … Balfour, J. H. (7) Ball, John (5) …
  • … Becher, A. B. (1) Beck, John (2) …
  • … Beckhard, Martin (1) Beddoe, John (3) …
  • … (1) Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte …
  • … C. H. (8) Blackwall, John (4) …
  • … J. A. H. de (11) Bostock, John (1) …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his
  • on a paper on  Verbascum (mullein) by CDs protégé, John Scott, who was now working in India. …
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • in the  GardenersChronicleAt the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of
  • year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend of
  • in August. There was also a serious dispute between two of Darwins friends, John Lubbock and
  • Appendix II). In May, he invited a new doctor, John Chapman, to Down and began a course of Chapmans
  • Variation . In March Darwin wrote to his publisher, John Murray, ‘Of present book I have 7
  • forward, except the last & concluding one’ ( letter to John Murray, 31 March [1865] ). In
  • will be ready for the press in the autumn’ ( letter to John Murray, 4 April [1865] ). In early
  • … ‘I am never idle when I can do anything’ ( letter to John Murray, 2 June [1865] ). It was not
  • Darwin had received a copy of Müllers bookFür Darwin , a study of the Crustacea with reference
  • questions and suggesting new lines of research. John Scott A similar, though not so
  • effort took place in the beginning of the year when John Scott, a protégé of Darwins whom Darwin
  • varieties (see  Correspondence  vol. 10, letter to John Scott, 19 November [1862] ). Darwin had
  • in 1863 (see Correspondence  vol. 11, letter from John Scott, 21 September [1863] ), and wrote
  • 1864, despite suffering from sea-sickness ( letter from John Scott, 21 July 1865 ). This may have
  • … … inheritance, reversion, effects of use & disuse &c’, and which he intended to publish in
  • the end of May, the dispute between Charles Lyell and John Lubbock over alleged plagiarism by
  • in Correspondence vol. 13, Appendix V. In 1865, Lubbock published  Prehistoric times , …
  • He wrote to Hooker, ‘I doubt whether you or I or any one c d  do any good in healing this breach. …
  • Hookers behalf, ‘He asks if you saw the article of M r . Croll in the last Reader on the
  • … ‘As for your thinking that you do not deserve the C[opley] Medal,’ he rebuked Hooker, ‘that I

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 16 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844] …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 1674Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1855] Darwin
  • species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled
  • flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin
  • information exchange. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • Mentors Darwin's close relationship with John Stevens Henslow, the professor of botany
  • he mentored. The first is between Darwin and his neighbour, John Lubbock and the second is between
  • Letter 1585Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, [Sept 1854] Darwin sends Lubbock a beetle he
  • Letter 1720Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 19 [July 1855] Darwin congratulates Lubbock on
  • Letter 1979Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, John, 27 Oct [1856] Darwin provides detailed
  • expert William Bernard Tegetmeier and the Scottish gardener John Scott, illustrate how the rigid
  • him to publish in his journal. The debate about John Scott Letter 3800 — …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 24 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • Quarterly Review  discussing works on primitive man by John Lubbock and Edward Burnett Tylor. It
  • of anonymous reviews. Its proprietor was none other than John Murray, Darwins publisher. So
  • to review me in a hostile spirit’ ( letter to John Murray, 11 August 1874 ). Darwin was
  • number of the Review & in the same type’  ( letter from John Murray, 12 August 1874 ). George
  • anonymous reviews. While staying with Hooker over Christmas, John Tyndall, professor at and
  • asthe natural outflow of his character’ ( letter from John Tyndall, 28 December 1874 ). …
  • to purchase the wooded land, which he had been renting from John Lubbock, led to a straining of
  • with lawyers over a doubt that it may have been included in Lubbocks marriage settlements, the sale
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • printed appeal for funds, raising £860 ( Circular to John Lubbock, P. L. Sclater, Charles Lyell, W. …
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration &c always bother me & make everything less
  • Tyndall, 12 August [1874] ). Hooker reported thatLubbocks Lecture went off admirablybut

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • of scientific admirers at Down, among them Robert Caspary, John Traherne Moggridge, and Ernst
  • all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwins theory of transmutation
  • regime led to Darwins being teased by his neighbour, John Lubbock, about the prospect of riding to
  • with our beagles before the season is over’ ( letter from John Lubbock, 4 August 1866 ). More
  • On 21 February Darwin received notification from John Murray that stocks of the third edition of  …
  • Henry Walter Batess article on mimetic butterflies, Lubbocks observations of diving Hymenoptera
  • you go on, after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèewhich I dreamed of 2 nights
  • George Henslow, the son of his Cambridge mentor, John Stevens Henslow, stayed for two days in April
  • In June, Darwin was visited by the orchid specialist John Traherne Moggridge, whose work on the self
  • so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). Henriettas
  • teleological development ( see for example, letter to C. W. Nägeli, 12 June [1866] ). Also in
  • common broom ( Cytisus scoparius ) and the white broom ( C. multiflorus ) in his botanical
  • and June on the subject of  Rhamnus catharticus  (now  R. cathartica ). Darwin had become
  • of separate sexes. William gathered numerous specimens of  R. catharticus , the only species of  …
  • replied with a modified list, adding Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin , and a recent fossil discovery in
  • selection, and with special creation ( letter from W. R. Grove, 31 August 1866 ). Hooker later
  • out, ‘business would be totally paralysed’. Similarly, John Murray gave as a reason for his decision
  • indeed at poor Susans loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 26 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical
  • letter-writing dwindled considerably. The correspondence and Darwins scientific work diminished
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwins preoccupation with the
  • to mans place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwins species theory and on the problem
  • detailed anatomical similarities between humans and apes, Darwin was full of praise. He especially
  • in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwins concern about the popular
  • Lyells and Huxleys books. Three years earlier Darwin had predicted that Lyells forthcoming
  • first half of 1863 focused attention even more closely on Darwins arguments for species change. …
  • sentence from the second edition of  Antiquity of man  (C. Lyell 1863b, p. 469), published in
  • were himself, Hooker, Huxley, Alfred Russel Wallace, and John Lubbock. Honours abroad
  • of the Royal Society ( see letter from Edward Sabine to John Phillips, 12 November 1863 ). …
  • year with the Hertfordshire nurseryman Thomas Rivers. John Scott Darwin had found a
  • of hybridity and sterility at the end of the previous year. John Scott, a gardener at the Royal
  • the results of which were published in 1868 ( see letter to John Scott, 25 and 28 May [1863] ). …
  • hoped would counteract Huxleys criticism ( letter from John Scott, 23 July [1863] ). Darwin
  • Darwin had also encouraged him to write ( see letter to John Scott, 12 April [1863] ). In this
  • that your paper will have permanent value’ ( letter to John Scott, 31 May [1863] ). Scott received
  • theOriginis not at all palatable!’ ( letter from John Scott, [3 June 1863] ). Darwins
  • a position offered in Darjeeling, India ( see letter from John Scott, 22 May 1863 , and letter
  • 1860; it continued to capture his attention ( see letter to John Scott, 12 April [1863] ). …
  • to Malvern the following week. Three letters in August from John Goodsir, professor of anatomy at
  • very slowly recovering, but am very weak’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [29 September? 1863] ). …
  • Thomass Hospital, London ( letter from George Busk, [ c. 27 August 1863] ). Brinton, who

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • pig and her nieces ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John Scott responds to Darwins queries
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • …  - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] John Weir describes experiments he is undertaking
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • J., [5 April 1859] Darwin asks his publisher, John Murray, to forward a manuscript copy of
  • Letter 7858 - Darwin to Wa llace, A. R., [12 July 1871] Darwin tells Wallace that
  • writing. Letter 3001  - Darwin to Lubbock, J., [28 November 1860] Darwin
  • …  - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] John Weir describes experiments he is undertaking

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July [1872] ). …
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • worms , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new
  • begun many years before. In his private life also, Darwin was in a nostalgic frame of mind, …
  • The last word on Origin The year opened with Darwin, helped by his eldest son William, …
  • to spread my views’, he wrote to his publisher, John Murray, on 30 January , shortly after
  • set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12 February 1872 ). …
  • remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November 1872 ). …
  • Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). I
  • … `chiefly perhaps because I do it badly’ ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  …
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Hookers cause was taken up by his friends, in particular John Lubbock and John Tyndall, as one
  • to Gladstone a week later ( enclosure to letter from John Lubbock to WEGladstone, 20 June 1872
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • … & new views which are daily turning up’ ( letter to ARWallace, 28 August [1872] ).  …
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • photographic plates with his overseas publishers, and with John Murrays assistant, the excitable
  • you agreed to let them have it for love!!!’ ( letter from RFCooke, 1 August 1872 ). It
  • …  & have not taken care of ourselves’ ( letter from RFCooke, 20 November 1872 ). A
  • of the booksellers, encouraged an originally cautious John Murray to gamble on the books success: & …
  • attractive dishes in his `Literary Banquet’ (letters from John Murray, 6 November [1872] and 9
  • gift, although he doubted he would ever use it ( letter to CLDodgson, 10 December 1872 ). …
  • to supply comparative observations, and Darwins protégé John Scott, now employed as a curator in
  • try `with straight blunt knitting needle’ ( letter to LCWedgwood, 5 January [1872] ) to
  • to which any scientific man can look’ ( letter to FCDonders, 29 April [1872] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1856-1857: the 'Big Book'

Summary

In May 1856, Darwin began writing up his 'species sketch’ in earnest. During this period, his working life was completely dominated by the preparation of his 'Big Book', which was to be called Natural selection. Using letters are the main…

Matches: 24 hits

  • On 14 May 1856, Charles Darwin recorded in his journal that heBegan by Lyells advice  writing
  • more for the sake of priority than anything elseDarwin was reluctant to squeeze his expansive
  • Natural selection . Determined as he was to publish, Darwin nevertheless still felt cautious
  • specialist in Madeiran entomology, Thomas Vernon Wollaston. Darwin also came to rely on the caustic
  • in London. Natural Selection Not all of Darwins manuscript on species has been
  • of pigeons, poultry, and other domesticated animals. As Darwin explained to Lyell, his studies, …
  • can William Bernhard Tegetmeier continued to help Darwin acquire much of the material for
  • on domestic animals in India and elsewhere. William Darwin Fox supplied information about cats, dogs
  • mastiffs. The disparate facts were correlated and checked by Darwin, who adroitly used letters, …
  • can.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 8 February [1857] ). Darwin also attempted to test ideas
  • garden species with their wild congeners. Many of Darwins conclusions about the variation of
  • these chapters are not extant. It seems likely that Darwin used the manuscript when compiling  The
  • or lost during the process. Before the publication of Darwin's correspondence from these years, …
  • light on the role that these ideas were intended to play in Darwins formal exposition. …
  • selection could not act without varieties to act upon, Darwin wanted to know where, how, and in what
  • Making the fullest possible use of his botanical friends, Darwin cross-examined them on different
  • and conditions of existence? One useful example that Darwin intended to include in his book was the
  • relatives. But a last-minute check with Hooker revealed that Darwin was mistaken: ‘You have shaved
  • acknowledged when told by his neighbour and young protégé John Lubbock that his method of
  • using a statistically valid method explained to him by Lubbock. The origin of sex Such
  • …  not a bird be killed (by hawk, lightning, apoplexy, hail &c) with seeds in crop, & it would
  • Athenæum Club. Several letters touch on the publication of John Tyndalls theory concerning the
  • phenomenon of cleavage, still unresolved in 1856, with John Phillips and entered into a useful
  • and the preparation of his manuscript ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 1 May 1857 ) seem innocuous and

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 24 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwins fluid intake; this treatment
  • the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum
  • he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his
  • to the surgeon and naturalist Francis Trevelyan Buckland, Darwin described his symptoms in some
  • November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Societys Copley Medal; …
  • been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William
  • of a paper by another of his orchid correspondents, John Traherne Moggridge, who in June sent him
  • of insect pollinators in 1864 and following years. John Scott again Much of Darwins
  • plight of another of Darwins fellow orchid-experimenters, John Scott. Their correspondence had been
  • five years. Scott felt that his superiors, James McNab and John Hutton Balfour, no longer treated
  • indomitable perseverance, and his knowledge’ ( letter to John Scott, 10 June 1864 ). Hooker met
  • supporton the grounds of science’ ( letter to John Scott, 9 April 1864 ), but Scott declined
  • 5 September 1864 ). Fritz Müeller sent his bookFür Darwin , and Darwin had it translated by a
  • 1864 ). A notably rambling and long letter arrived from John Beck, a Shrewsbury schoolfellow of
  • by a merciful deity for the use of humankind ( letter from John Beck, 6 October 1864 ). …
  • his brother Erasmus told him of a subscription fund for John William Colenso, bishop of Natal, South
  • but Lyell says when I read his discussion in the Elements [C. Lyell 1865] I shall recant for fifth
  • that a Neanderthal race once extended across Europe. John Lubbock mentioned his forthcoming volume
  • on intellectual &ampmoral  qualities’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). …
  • of the Royal Society, Edward Sabine, to the geologist John Phillips revealed Sabines fears that in
  • ever so little degree the Councils award’ ( letter to John Lubbock, 21 December [1864] ). In

Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers

Summary

In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

Matches: 24 hits

  • In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began
  • a very old man, who probably will not last much longer.’ Darwins biggest fear was not death, but
  • sweetest place on this earth’. From the start of the year, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He
  • provision for the dividing of his wealth after his death. Darwins gloominess was compounded by the
  • and new admirers got in touch, and, for all his fears, Darwin found several scientific topics to
  • Evolution old and new when revising his essay on Erasmus Darwins scientific work, and that Darwin
  • eager to send his draft to the printers without delay, asked John Murray, his publisher, to make an
  • the sale of books beinga game of chance’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 12 April 1881 ). On 18 May
  • laboratory. The Lake District may have reminded Darwin of John Ruskin, who lived there. Sending the
  • he would feelless sulky in a day or two’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 July 1881 ). The degree of
  • falls at this late period of the season’ ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 30 July 1881 ). Darwin gave in
  • with you’, a Swedish teacher told him ( letter from C. E. Södling, 14 October 1881 ), while H. M. …
  • to possibilities for women, judging from her organization &c’. When Darwin replied the following
  • … ‘bread-winners’ ( Correspondence vol. 30, letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). …
  • publication & to acknowledge any criticism’ ( letter to C. G. Semper, 19 July 1881 ). He
  • … ). His scientific friends, however, did not agree. Both John Lubbock and Hooker asked for Darwins
  • about the year 1840(?) on all our