skip to content

Darwin Correspondence Project

Search: contains ""

400 Bad Request

Bad Request

Your browser sent a request that this server could not understand.


Apache Server at dcp-public.lib.cam.ac.uk Port 443
Search:
in keywords
10 Items

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • any way he can. Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] …
  • of hillside worm casting ridges. Letter 8169 - Wedgwood, L. to Darwin, [20 January, …
  • on the common. Men: Letter 385  - Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10
  • E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • 5254  - Hildebrand, F. H. G. to Darwin, [23 October 1866] German botanist Friedrich
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • is a great critic”, thought the article worth reprinting, Emma was less convinced. Letter

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and natural selection. …
  • … Letter 5140 — Wallace, A. R. to Darwin, C. R., 2 July 1866 Wallace writes a lengthy analysis …
  • … members of his own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov …
  • … conscientious doubts”. Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] …
  • … Letter 5303 — Boole, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., 13 Dec 1866 In this letter marked “private”, …
  • … Letter 5307 — Darwin, C. R. to Boole, M. E., 14 Dec 1866 Darwin believes he is unable to …
  • … Letter 5003f — Shaw, James to Darwin, C. R., [6--10 Feb 1866] James Shaw transcribes a …
  • … Letter 5004 — Darwin, C. R. to Shaw, James, 11 Feb [1866] Darwin thanks James Shaw for the …
  • … Letter 5060 — Shaw, James to Darwin, C. R., 19 Apr 1866 James Shaw fills a letter to Darwin …

What did Darwin believe?

Summary

What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of his theory of evolution for religious faith? These questions were asked again and again in the years following the publication of Origin of species (1859). They are…

Matches: 24 hits

  • What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of
  • rhetoric of crusading secularists, many of whom take Darwin as an icon. But Darwin was very
  • Letters became an important medium through which Darwins readers sought to draw him out on matters
  • the religious implications of his work. Letters written to Darwin by persons unknown to him became
  • their own. Mary Booles letter In December 1866 Darwin received a letter from Mary
  • See the letter Boole, like a number of Darwins readers, found a way of reconciling the
  • with some form of religious belief. But when Boole asks Darwin about specific points of belief, such
  • See the letter In his response to Boole, Darwin implies that certain questions are beyond
  • into such territory in this letter to a stranger. Emma Darwin In what is
  • matters many years earlier with his cousin and fiancée, Emma Wedgewood. In their correspondence, …
  • but we gain a sense of what the couple discussed from Emmas words to him: My reason
  • It is clear from other correspondence that one of Emmas most cherished beliefs was in an afterlife. …
  • she means so in eternity. There is a marked tension in Emmas letter between reason and feeling, and
  • to himself, and allowed his differences of belief with Emma to remain for the most part submerged. …
  • members of the Darwin family, offer a fuller perspective on Emmas religious beliefs. The documents
  • over Scriptural or doctrinal authority, as a foundation for Emmas views. They also show that Emmas
  • was another important religious tradition in the Darwin and Wedgwood families. Josiah Wedgwood, who
  • Unitarian school in Shrewsbury. The circle with whom he and Emma socialised when in London included
  • were regular guests of Darwins brother Erasmus, and of Emmas brother, Hensleigh Wedgwood and his
  • liturgy. But we know, from Francis Darwins comments, that Emma used to make the family turn round
  • to recite the creed, with its Trinitarian formula. Emmas copy of the New Testament, …
  • to have been inauthentic, or added by later authors. Emmas Bible also contains some
  • as practical’. Some of the Biblical commentary that Emma and Charles read in this period
  • writer. Wallace, Alfred Russel. Naturalist. Wedgwood, Josiah. Master potter and

1.2 George Richmond, marriage portrait

Summary

< Back to Introduction Few likenesses of Darwin in his youth survive, although more may once have existed. In a letter of 1873 an old Shrewsbury friend, Arthur Mostyn Owen, offered to send Darwin a watercolour sketch of him, painted many years…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … &lt; Back to Introduction Few likenesses of Darwin in his youth survive, although more
  • old Shrewsbury friend, Arthur Mostyn Owen, offered to send Darwin a watercolour sketch of him, …
  • is unknown.   Thus the surviving portraits of Darwin as a young manother than cartoon
  • House, celebrated his marriage in January 1839 to his cousin Emma Wedgwood; the one of Darwin is
  • work can be gauged from a letter which Hooker wrote to Darwin some years later, complaining, with
  • But despite this tendency to prettify, Richmond registered Darwins receding hairline, and the
  • theories.   As early as February 1839, Elizabeth Wedgwood had written to her sister Emma: ‘My
  • Italyor would a portrait by Holmes be preferable?’ Emma in response promised, ‘I will go and get
  • not return from Italy until August or September 1839. Josiah Wedgwood himself wrote to his daughter
  • portraits dating from 1840 which is now at Down House had a Darwin family provenance. After Susan
  • arrangingto send you Richmonds pictures of self and Emma’: ‘selfpresumably means Charles, and
  • and from this he established the dates of various Darwin family commissions. In 1840 there were
  • Erasmus was entered separately at £31 10 s .) andMrs. Darwin’, and this must be the Down House
  • was being assembled, so that both the Darwin and the Wedgwood families would have one. It is
  • after they were removed from Susan Darwins house in 1866 is also confusing. On the occasion of the
  • lent Richmonds watercolour drawings of Charles and Emma, with a note that the one of Charles had an
  • … – the only one she knew aboutto 1840. However, in Emma Darwin: A Century of Family Letters
  • … (DCP-LETT-3474). Erasmus Darwin, letter to Charles, 11 Oct. [1866] (DCP-LETT-5238). Arthur Mostyn
  • Murray, 1887), vol. 3, p. 371. Henrietta Litchfield (ed.), Emma Darwin: A Century of Family
  • University Press, 1933), frontispiece. Barbara and Hensleigh Wedgwood, The Wedgwood Circle 1730
  • conflicts with the indications in Erasmuss letter of 1866, quoted above.   
   …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 19 hits

  • Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke
  • on live animals in Britain. In December 1874, Darwin was asked to sign a memorial by the
  • draft legislation that would protect animals from suffering. Darwin was sympathetic to the cause, …
  • … (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ). Darwin also worried that any bill passed by a
  • to T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875 ). In the event, Darwin became closely involved with the
  • for assistance in preparing a bill for Parliament. Darwin almost never involved himself in
  • recent research on insectivorous plants. Indeed, some of Darwins plant experiments, such as
  • and because it failed to mention anaesthetics. Darwins indebtedness and allegiance to
  • Correspondence vol. 14, letter to a local landowner, [1866?] ). A regular subscriber to the
  • to put an end to any suffering before his eyes’. Darwin was clearly disturbed by the prospect
  • to E. R. Lankester, 22 March [1871] ). In the same year, Darwin had published Descent of man , …
  • some animals possessed social sympathies akin to conscience. Darwin even described an animal
  • 1: 40).  Vivisection was a sensitive subject within Darwins family. In his letter of 14
  • of a network of reformers and philanthropists that included Darwins brother, Erasmus, and his
  • … (men of course) or I might get one or two’ (letter from Emma Darwin to F. P. Cobbe, 14 January
  • after night, prepares and sets instruments of torture’ ( Emma Darwin (1904) 2: 201). …
  • … (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 12 February 1875 ). Darwin was in London from 31 March to 12
  • to Burdon Sanderson, who drafted a memorial, sending it to Darwin on 7 April (letter from J. S. …
  • was prepared with the legal assistance of Lushington and Darwins son-in-law Richard Buckley

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 25 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwins fluid intake; this treatment
  • the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum
  • he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his
  • to the surgeon and naturalist Francis Trevelyan Buckland, Darwin described his symptoms in some
  • November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Societys Copley Medal; …
  • been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William
  • it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin also wrote to Fox that he was
  • progressin Britain. Challenging convention Darwins concern about the acceptance of
  • …  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The only approach to work
  • …  produce tendrils However, the queries that Darwin, describing himself asa broken-down
  • tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwins excitement about his
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] ). When Darwin asked Oliver whether the tendrils of
  • for his teacherly tone, explaining that he had felt that Darwin had misunderstood some accepted
  • … ( letter from Daniel Oliver, [17 March 1864] ). Though Darwin replied with his typical humility
  • habits of climbing plants’ (‘Climbing plants’), which Darwin submitted to the Linnean Society in
  • was often the case, he was interested in transitional forms. Darwin came to think, for example, that
  • and tendril-bearers. At the end of his paper, Darwin used species from the genus  Lathyrus
  • garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • household news, were sometimes written by Darwins wife, Emma, or by Henrietta. Darwins own replies
  • case of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20
  • by this case to add it to future publications, including the 1866 edition of  Origin . He
  • he saw few people outside the family and, according to Emma Darwins diary and his ownJournal’, …

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 20 hits

  • When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations
  • ease of distribution sometime in late 1867 or early 1868. Darwin went over his questions, refining
  • was the collection of observations on a global scale. Darwin was especially interested in peoples
  • cultural and conventional, or instinctive and universal. Darwin used his existing correspondence
  • and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?” Darwins questionnaire was an extension of
  • was also carefully devised so as to prevent the feelings of Darwins remote observers from colouring
  • and not the susceptibilities of a moral nature.” Darwin did not typically countenance such
  • the collection of information to its display in print. After Darwin received all of the replies to
  • exceptyesorno.” “The same state of mindDarwin would later assert in Expression of the
  • uniformity.” Table of Correspondence about Darwins Questionnaire (click on the letter
  • could available online ahead of schedule as part of theDarwin and Human Natureproject, funded by
  • Southampton, England letter to W.E. Darwin shrugging/pouting of
  • blushing Darwin, Francis 20 June 1867
  • Bartlett and S. Sutton Darwin, Francis
  • pouting Darwin, W.E. [after 29 March 1868] …
  • blushing in blind students Darwin, W.E. [7
  • blushing Darwin, W.E. [22? April 1868] …
  • Abbey Place, London, England letter to Emma Darwin baby expression
  • Penmaenmawr, Conway, Wales letter to Emma Darwin infant daughter
  • astonishment Wedgwood, F.J. [1867-72] …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 15 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his
  • protégé, John Scott, who was now working in India. Darwins transmutation theory continued to
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • in the  GardenersChronicleAt the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of
  • year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend of
  • in August. There was also a serious dispute between two of Darwins friends, John Lubbock and
  • jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to submit his paper on
  • a sudden illness. Falconer was 56, almost the same age as Darwin himself. Falconer had seconded
  • supported his candidacy, and had tried hard to persuade Darwin to accept the award in person (see  …
  • the award ( see letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus Alvey Darwin, 3 January 1865 ). Erasmus
  • instalment of Friedrich Rolles  Der Mensch  (Rolle 1866), a study of the development of human
  • attending school, and spent some time travelling in Europe (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242),  Emma
  • people werent so foolish’;. In November, Darwin and Emma visited Erasmus in London ( …

Discussion Questions and Essay Questions

Summary

There are a wide range of possibilities for opening discussion and essay writing on Darwin’s correspondence.  We have provided a set of sample discussion questions and essay questions, each of which focuses on a particular topic or correspondent in depth.…

Matches: 11 hits

  • of possibilities for opening discussion and essay writing on Darwins correspondence.  We have
  • start researching and writing an essay that centres on Darwins letters, narrowing the field to a
  • Why was correspondence so important for Darwin? How did Darwin encourage people he did not
  • material did letters contain? How much knowledge does Darwin assume when he writes to
  • and class, matter in scientific exchange? What does Darwin do when he wants to introduce a
  • internet today? Essay writing How was Darwins early species theory discussed
  • What ethical implications did readers draw from Darwins theories?[Mary Boole (1864), F. E. Abbot
  • on inheritance theory (pangenesis) (1870-1)] How did Darwin involve his family in his research
  • Gray (1861-8), Wallace (1869-70), Mivart (1871-4)] Did Darwin believe in progress? [Lyell
  • debates over design in the natural world conducted? [F. J. Wedgwood, Asa Gray, J. F. W. Herschel, …
  • selection, e.g. coloured seeds and fruit (Fritz Müller, 1866)] …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the second reading notebook. Readers primarily interested in Darwins scientific reading, therefore, …
  • editorsidentification of the book or article to which Darwin refers. A full list of these works is
  • page number (or numbers, as the case may be) on which Darwins entry is to be found. The
  • in the bibliography that other editions were available to Darwin. While it is likely that Darwin
  • where we are not certain that the work cited is the one Darwin intended, we have prefixed the
  • mark. Complete or partial runs of journals which Darwin recorded as having read or skimmed
  • to the journal appear, and the location of abstracts in the Darwin archive and journals included in
  • 1833] (Boot) Leslie life of Constable [Leslie 1843]. (Emma) (read) M rs  Frys Life
  • Distrib. Price William &amp; Norgate 2126 [A. Murray 1866] Wollaston Coleoptera
  • Public Library. 3  ‘BooksReadis in Emma Darwins hand. 4  “”Traité …
  • 6  The text from page [1v.] to page [6] is in Emma Darwins hand and was copied from Notebook C, …
  • to old Aristotle.’ ( LL 3: 252). 10  Emma Darwin wrote7 thinstead of3 d “ …
  • 12  A mistranscription forEntozoaby Emma Darwin. See Notebook C, p. 266 ( Notebooks ). …
  • wroteTransactto replaceJournalwritten in Emma Darwins hand. 16  Emma Darwin
  • … (Liebig 1851). 50  Probably Elizabeth Wedgwood. 51  This note is a
  • …  The text from page [1a] to half way down page [5a] is in Emma Darwins hand and is a copy of CDs
  • in ink by CD. 73  This entry was written by Emma Darwin. 74  “8 … …
  • 18091.]  *119: 22v.; 119: 22a Murray, Andrew. 1866The geographical distribution of   …