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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 19 hits

  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwins niece, Margaret, …
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • 1868] Darwins nephew, Edmund, writes to Emma Darwins sister, Sarah, with observations of
  • Darwins nephews, Edmund and Charles, write to Emma Darwins sister, Sarah, with observations of
  • in a marble tablet”. Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John
  • Men: Letter 385  - Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] …
  • at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February
  • The experiments were carried outat the suggestion of Dr Hookerand what little he has ascertained
  • Women: Letter 2345 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [20 October 1858] Darwin
  • of style. Letter 2461  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] Darwin
  • Letter 2475  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [2 July 1859] Darwin returns the manuscript of

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … and was no longer able to take his daily strolls (Henrietta Emma Litchfield, ‘Charles Darwin’s death …
  • … E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March 1882 (DAR 245: 319)) Emma wrote ten days later: ‘You will …
  • … been a good deal plagued with dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 …
  • … benefit & he escaped pain entirely yesterday’ (letter from Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, 6 April …
  • … wrote to George, who had visited Down on 11 April (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). ‘Father was taken …
  • … H. Darwin, [19 April 1882] (DAR 245: 320)). It was left to Emma to convey the sorrowful news to his …
  • … which I hope were never very violent’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [20 April 1882 …
  • … they were the most overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882 …
  • … was eagerly awaited by his family, including his cousin Emma Wedgwood. In long letters to her sister …
  • … plied him with questions without any mercy’ ( letter from Emma Wedgwood to F. E. E. Wedgwood, [28 …
  • … he attracted many admirers in German-speaking countries. In 1869, his birthday was celebrated by an …
  • … vol. 17, letter from F. M. Malven, 12 February [1869] ). An extract from Darwin’s reply to Malven …
  • … with his’ ( letter to F. M. Malven, [after 12 February 1869] ). Accompanying this extract was the …
  • … some of whom drew substantially on his theory. In 1869, Hermann Müller (brother to Fritz) sent …
  • … theory to flowers and flower-visiting insects; H. Müller 1869)). Darwin was full of admiration and …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 19 hits

  • by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). …
  • of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences
  • looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). I
  • hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin
  • to believe in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18
  • the publishers, he applied first to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker, and finally borrowed one from
  • for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did
  • generous Darwin by his previous anonymous attacks ([Mivart] 1869; 1871c). In his review, Mivart
  • … ‘Im a grown man now’, he reminded Darwin, ‘& sh d . stand on my own footing, & if it is
  • Mivart (see  Correspondence  vol. 20, letter to St G. J. Mivart, 11 January [1872] ). To Darwin
  • views. In December, he sought advice from Huxley and Hooker, sending them a draft letter that
  • Mivart had written the article ( enclosure to letter from J. D. Hooker, 21 December 1874 ). Huxley
  • to write to Mivart directly after he knew the full result of Hookers and Huxleys representations ( …
  • or adviseable’. On Christmas Eve, Darwin wrote to Hooker that they were still in a dilemma
  • 15 th  he published that shabby rejoinder’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1874] ).  On
  • satisfaction. Assisted in the wording by his wife, Emma, and daughter Henrietta, he finally wrote a
  • a comfortable cabin ( see letter from Leonard Darwin to Emma Darwin, [after 26 June -- 28 September
  • to become Darwins secretary. They rented Down Lodge and Emma Darwin wrote, ‘They have . . . made
  • the average in prettiness & snugness’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 9 hits

  • … be well abused’, he wrote to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker on 21 January , ‘for as my son Frank …
  • … for a US edition had been in place since December 1869, while German, Russian, French, and Dutch …
  • … the proof-sheets, rather than waiting for the bound copies. Hooker suggested one of the reasons …
  • … tell heavily against natural selection’, Darwin wrote to Hooker on 21 January . Darwin read the …
  • … arrogant, odious beast that ever lived,’ Darwin wrote to Hooker on 16 September . Darwin …
  • … laughing. crying grinning pouting &c. &c’, he wrote to Hooker on 21 March . Darwin …
  • … home, Leith Hill Place in Surrey, and CD’s niece Lucy Wedgwood collected and weighed the dried …
  • … in June, and was married on 31 August. Darwin remarked to Hooker on 23 July , ‘her loss will be …
  • … & sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin, [5 November 1871] ). Her …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 21 hits

  • the accursed Index-maker’, Darwin wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 6 January . Darwin had sent
  • … ). Darwin sympathised, replying on 14 January , ‘I sh d  have a very bad heart, as hard as
  • to read a few pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). But such
  • awaythat sparked the most discussion. Darwin wrote to Hooker on 23 February , ‘did you look at
  • thought it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, …
  • editor of the  London and Westminster Review . When Hooker later tried to refute the claims of the
  • a scamp & I begin to think a veritable ass’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 1 September [1868] ). …
  • on 17 April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently
  • … (from ?, 6 April 1868). On 21 May , Darwin complained to Hooker, ‘I am bothered with heaps of
  • kind almost heroic, in you to sacrifice your hair and pay 3 d  in the cause of science
  • information on colour changes in the canary (letters from J. J. Weir, [26] March 1868 and 3
  • added, ‘for it is clear that I have none’ ( letter to J. J. Weir, 30 May [1868] ). Sexual
  • role of colour, sound, and smell in attracting females. J. J. Weir reported on 14 April 1868
  • at Cambridge, George Robert Crotch, writing to his mother Emma in a letter dated [after 16 October
  • Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing
  • Wallace that he had begun the previous year, writing to Hooker on 21 May , ‘I always distrust
  • circulated to remote parts of the world. A correspondent of Hookers distributed it in Japan ( …
  • and received a number of reports from family members. Emma Darwins niece, Cicely Mary Hawkshaw, …
  • old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February [1868] ). Darwins
  • paper was read before the Linnean Society on 4 February 1869, but remained unpublished until it
  • other national papers, and within a few days Darwin and Emma were receiving letters of

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 21 hits

  • exclaimed to his close friend, the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker: ‘Hurrah! I have been 52 hours
  • 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The only approach to work which
  • by which  leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwins
  • …  peduncles to test sensitivity, and in his request to Hooker for another specimen: ‘I want it
  • plant morphology. Many of his other correspondents, such as Hooker and Gray, had grown accustomed to
  • the  Lythrum  paper was published, Darwin remarked to Hooker in a letter of 26 November [1864] …
  • letter of 22 October [1864] , Darwin triumphantly wrote to Hooker: ‘I will fight you to the death, …
  • garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • household news, were sometimes written by Darwins wife, Emma, or by Henrietta. Darwins own replies
  • case of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20
  • and 249). When Darwin requested orchid specimens from Hooker in November, he said that he did
  • on them. Nevertheless, his work in 1864 contributed to his 1869 paper focusing on the role of
  • with his stipend being paid by Darwin himself ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [1 April 1864] ). …
  • often at odds with one another: ‘Gardeners are the very dl, & where two or three are gathered
  • enough to play your part  over  them’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [2 April 1864] ). …
  • … … they do require very careful treatment’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 8 April 1864 ). Nevertheless
  • that in giving I am hastening the fall’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 20 April 1864 ). In his
  • a first-class cabin for the journey ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [15 August 1864] ). Darwin
  • he thought himsanguine & unsafe’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 February 1864 ). Hooker
  • correct if they contradicted the Bible ( see letter from J. D. Hooker, [19 September 1864] ). When
  • he saw few people outside the family and, according to Emma Darwins diary and his ownJournal’, …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] Darwin sends a manuscript copy of
  • of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] Darwin
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her eldest son, …
  • tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to
  • to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Becker tells Darwin that
  • Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. L. B., [8 November, 1869] Darwin writes to feminist
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslows daughter, Anne, responds to
  • to an asylum with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., …
  • be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • patience and care. Letter 6110 - Samuelson, J. to Darwin, [10 April 1868] …
  • Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] Suffragist and
  • is a revelation. Letter 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] …