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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a …
  • … community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women …
  • … Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin …
  • … peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October …
  • … garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwin’s …
  • … 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] Darwin’s …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • … her niece’s ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen …
  • … insects. Men: Letter 2221 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [22 February 1858] …
  • … New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • … on the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 …
  • … Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] Darwin’s niece, Lucy, …
  • … knitting needles. Letter 4235 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [8 July 1863] …
  • … Himalaya and Tibet. Letter 4139  - Darwin, W. E. to Darwin, [4 May 1863] …
  • … detail. Family letter: Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma …
  • … and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) …
  • … over. Letter 8153  - Darwin to  Darwin, W. E., [9 January 1872] Darwin …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … it had been proofread and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 …
  • … readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] Ann Cupples asks …
  • … readership Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February 1867] …
  • … Society . Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] …
  • … Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] Frances Wedgwood …
  • … might be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • … Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February 1873] Henrietta’s …
  • … contained in the work. Letter 5861 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [11 February 1868] …
  • … the second edition. Letter 6040 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, [23 March 1868] …
  • … of variation”. Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • … of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674 …
  • … have in simple truth been of the utmost value to me.” Darwin believes species have arisen, like …
  • … or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants. Darwin discusses fertilisation in the bud …
  • … exchange This collection of letters between Darwin and Hooker, while Darwin was writing his …
  • … forms of address and acknowledgement. Darwin and W. B. Tegetmeier Letter 1751 — …
  • … . Letter 4260a — Darwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia …
  • … Letter 115 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, S. E., [4 Sept 1831] Darwin writes to his sister Susan. …
  • … Letter 7124 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin writes to his …
  • … Letter 5585 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., 26 July [1867] Darwin writes to his daughter …
  • … and corrections. Letter 5745 — Barber, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., [after Feb 1867] In …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1876 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wife … poor creature, has won …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … a serious concussion from a riding accident, and George Darwin’s ill-health grew worse, echoing …
  • … once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his …
  • … and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and …
  • … had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his …
  • … When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwin’s three volumes of the geology of …
  • … single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at …
  • … meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the …
  • … to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second …
  • … concentrated on the ‘means of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self …
  • … return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in his ‘little Autobiography’ ( …
  • … holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a …
  • … for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August …
  • … dimittis.”’ (‘Recollections’, pp. 418–19). Darwin remained firm in his resolution to …
  • … we have & you are one of the best of all’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 11 September [1876] ). …
  • … she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • … herself & is so tender’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6 …
  • … completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6: …
  • … horticulturists and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and natural selection. …
  • … He can give me.” Letter 5303 — Boole, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., 13 Dec 1866 In this …
  • … Letter 5307 — Darwin, C. R. to Boole, M. E., 14 Dec 1866 Darwin believes he is unable to …
  • … Letter 8070 — Darwin, C. R. to Abbot, F. E., 16 Nov [1871] Darwin explains why he must …
  • … Letter 12757 — Darwin, C. R. to Aveling, E. B., 13 Oct 1880 In this letter marked “private”, …
  • … Future Plans Letter 182 — Darwin, E. A. to Darwin, C. R., 18 Aug [1832] Darwin’s …
  • … regarding the Church. Letter 297 — Darwin, S. E. to Darwin, C. R., 12 Feb 1836 …
  • … Letter 1536 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, J. W. (b), 11 Oct [1853] Darwin gives his opinion to …
  • … Darwin, Sir John Lubbock, Ellen Frances Lubbock, and S. E. Wedgwood, petition the Board to grant …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1878 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … moisture, and various chemical and nutritive substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained …
  • … instrument to various plants. To confirm the results, Darwin borrowed a siren from Tyndall, who had …
  • … ill-luck to them, are not sensitive to aerial vibrations’, Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my …
  • … 8 August. ‘Alas Frank is off tomorrow to Wurzburg,’ Darwin wrote to Thiselton-Dyer on 2 June , ‘ …
  • … him of the soundness of London property ( letter from W. E. Darwin, 13 December [1878] ). ‘This is …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from 1875 on this website.  The full texts of the …
  • … Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwin’s theorising about species, and …
  • … his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend …
  • … way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving …
  • … bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript …
  • … coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of …
  • … zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated …
  • … chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwin’s son George, in an anonymous …
  • … on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair …
  • … Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwin’s friends had to find ways of …
  • … pp. 16–17). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also …
  • … in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up …
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwin’s ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • … in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the …
  • … to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial …
  • … Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral …
  • … could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbe’s memorial inflammatory …
  • … memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • … medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It …
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Klein’s testimony …
  • … in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 and 10 …
  • … day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   …
  • … plants (Carus trans. 1876a). The German publisher E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagshandlung began to …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1877 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The …
  • … of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwin’s botany was increasingly a …
  • … assisted his father’s research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his son’s own …
  • … The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums …
  • … from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of …
  • … sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • … no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of …
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of …
  • … and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term …
  • … as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton …
  • … measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual …
  • … primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other …
  • … dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March …
  • … copies of Kosmos covering the German debate (letters to W. E. Gladstone, 2 October 1877 and …
  • … of form and of motion was exact and lively’ ( letter from W. E. Gladstone, 23 October 1877 ). …
  • … found him as soft & smooth as butter’ ( letter to C. E. Norton, 16 March 1877 ). Hooker was …
  • … the gospel of dirt the order of the day’ ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 27 January [1877] ).  Carlyle …
  • … study of medical monstrosity ( letter from C. T. E. Siebold, 10 October 1877 ). An American banker …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwin’s son George dominated the second …
  • … and traveller Alexander von Humboldt’s 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt …
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwin’s cousin, William Darwin Fox, to …
  • … Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that …
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in …
  • … 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of …
  • … the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwin’s cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those …
  • … imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it was ‘all imposture’ …
  • … stop word getting to America of the ‘strange news’ that Darwin had allowed ‘a spirit séance’ at his …
  • … the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwin’s enterprises in the 1870s, were family …
  • … all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The book …
  • … artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon …
  • … try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April …
  • … nephew, the fine-art specialist Henry Parker ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He …
  • … Julius Victor Carus, and his publisher, Eduard Koch of E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, …
  • … could not weary the German public ( letter to H. E. Litchfield,  21 [March 1874] ). …

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwin’s neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In …
  • … all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • … hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwin’s theory of transmutation …
  • … alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwin’s American publisher for a …
  • … for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwin’s work was given by Hooker in an …
  • … frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwin’s sisters died, Emily Catherine …
  • … after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèe—which I dreamed of 2 nights running. …
  • … on those terms so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). …
  • … Georg Bronn, had been published in 1860 and 1863 by the firm E. Schweizerbart’sche …
  • … species was ‘merely ordinaryly diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 May – 11 June 1866] ). On …
  • … is a case of dimorphic becoming diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, 20 June [1866] ). …
  • … I am well accustomed to such explosions’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 22 June [1866] ). He urged …
  • … indeed at poor Susan’s loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7 …
  • … a ‘personal and Infinitely good Being’ (letter from M. E. Boole, 13 December 1866 ). Darwin …
  • … than from the direct intervention of God’ ( letter to M. E. Boole, 14 December 1866 ). But …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 15 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • … set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication …
  • … throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • … anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November …
  • … Nevill is referenced by name for her “kindness” in Darwin’s Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • … as “friends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • … B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] Darwin’s …
  • … in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - …
  • … in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868 …
  • … baby in Mary Barton. Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E., [13 May …
  • … at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwin’s …
  • … Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 July 1872] Darwin thanks Henrietta for …
  • … . Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin …
  • … Mould . Letter 12760 - Wedgwood, K. E. S. to Darwin, [15 October 1880] …
  • … Letter 13037 - Darwin to Darwin, W. E., [5 February 1881] Darwin discusses …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwin’s time for the rest of the year was devoted …
  • … way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from …
  • … offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be …
  • … a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwin’s evolutionary account of the …
  • … taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases …
  • … year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the …
  • … also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwin’s eldest daughter Henrietta was …
  • … during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously …
  • … work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material …
  • … to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwin’s aim of  showing kinship with animals …
  • … he is “torn to pieces” by people wanting copies’, Darwin wrote to his son Francis on 28 February …
  • … letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ). The profits for Darwin were considerable. After …
  • … man.’ Promoting the book As usual, Darwin did his best to obtain a wide and favourable …
  • … (see Correspondence vol. 19, Appendix IV). Four of Darwin’s five sons received a copy, and his …
  • … received a special acknowledgment in the form of a gift. Darwin credited her for whatever he had …
  • … liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction …
  • … a high aesthetic appreciation of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). …
  • … most deep and tender religious feeling’ ( letter from F. E. Abbot, 20 August 1871 ). The Anglican …
  • … who was ‘as good as twice refined gold’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 September [1871] ). …
  • … up to the last with quinine & sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin …

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Abberley, John (1) Abbot, F. E. (17) …
  • … Alice (2) Alison, R. E. (2) Allen, …
  • … Vienna (1) Appleton, C. E. C. B. (2) …
  • … Austin, C. F. (1) Aveling, E. B. (7) …
  • … Bacon, Booth (1) Badger, E. W. (3) …
  • … Frédéric (1) Baumhauer, E. H. von (2) …
  • … T. B. (1) Bearpark, G. E. (1) …
  • … Beck, John (2) Becker, L. E. (16) …
  • … Joseph (2) Bessey, C. E. (1) …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 11 hits

  • Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific …
  • … Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin …
  • … on insufficient grounds. Letter 3934 - Darwin to Scott, J., [21 January 1863] …
  • … material worthy of publication. Letter 4185 - Darwin to Scott, J., [25 & 28 May …
  • … worker you are!”. Letter 7605 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [20 March 1871] …
  • … “lucid vigorous style”. In consultation with Emma, Darwin offers Henrietta “some little memorial” in …
  • … so many observations without aid. Letter 8146 - Darwin to Treat, M., [5 January 1872] …
  • … scientific journal”. Letter 8171 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L., [21 January 1872] …
  • … stooping over holes for hours which “tried my head”. Darwin notes that Lucy is worth her weight in …
  • … he had repeated the experiment. Letter 9580 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H. D., [1 August …
  • … be submitted to the publisher. Letter 9613 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [30 August 1874 …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the …
  • … in relation to Sex’. Always precise in his accounting, Darwin reckoned that he had started writing …
  • … gathered on each of these topics was far more extensive than Darwin had anticipated. As a result,  …
  • … and St George Jackson Mivart, and heated debates sparked by Darwin’s proposed election to the French …
  • … Finishing Descent; postponing Expression Darwin began receiving proofs of some of the …
  • … ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on parts of the …
  • … of style, the more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had …
  • … , the latter when she was just eighteen years of age. Darwin clearly expected her to make a …
  • … have thought that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta …
  • … so unimportant as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). …
  • … philanthropist Frances Power Cobbe. At Cobbe’s suggestion, Darwin read some of Immanuel Kant’s  …
  • … ( letter to F. P. Cobbe, 23 March [1870?] ). Cobbe accused Darwin of smiling in his beard with …
  • … as animals: ears Despite Cobbe’s plea, most of Darwin’s scientific attention in 1870 was …
  • … 1870, Darwin made a note on the shape of human ears: ‘W. has seen the tips in women & men. When …
  • … to criticise them? No one but yourself’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 20 May 1870 ). Darwin very …
  • … attending college lectures for the time being ( letter to [E.W. Blore], [October 1870 or later] ). …
  • … horse that had thrown him (letter from G. H. Darwin to H. E. Darwin, [21 – 2 February 1870] (DAR 251 …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been …
  • … 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • … prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwin’s fluid intake; this treatment …
  • … the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum …
  • … he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his …
  • … to the surgeon and naturalist Francis Trevelyan Buckland, Darwin described his symptoms in some …
  • … November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Society’s Copley Medal; …
  • … been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William …
  • … it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin also wrote to Fox that he was …
  • … progress’ in Britain. Challenging convention Darwin’s concern about the acceptance of …
  • …  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The only approach to work …
  • … tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwin’s excitement about his …
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] ). When Darwin asked Oliver whether the tendrils of …
  • … for his teacherly tone, explaining that he had felt that Darwin had misunderstood some accepted …
  • … ( letter from Daniel Oliver, [17 March 1864] ). Though Darwin replied with his typical humility …
  • … habits of climbing plants’ (‘Climbing plants’), which Darwin submitted to the Linnean Society in …
  • … was often the case, he was interested in transitional forms. Darwin came to think, for example, that …
  • … and tendril-bearers. At the end of his paper, Darwin used species from the genus  Lathyrus …
  • … the tendrils then revert to leaves, as in  L. nissolia . Darwin wrote (‘Climbing plants’, p. 115): …
  • … Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20 May 1864] ), or his …
  • … circulating with the 1864 subscription fund ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 1 February [1864] ). …
  • … … & too light to turn into candlesticks’ ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 1 December 1864 ). …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate…

Matches: 17 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any …
  • … he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The …
  • … and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 87–90, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of …
  • … process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection was ‘the …
  • … 12, letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as …
  • … to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on …
  • … his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his …
  • … which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for …
  • … in January 1868. A final delay caused by the indexing gave Darwin much vexation. ‘My book is …
  • … 1867 and had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwin’s request, he modified his …
  • … the text. This increased the amount of work substantially. Darwin asked Murray to intervene, …
  • … … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … as stone, if it were not quite mollified by your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  …
  • … and descent in the  Fortnightly Review , and asked Darwin for comments. Darwin was clearly …
  • … and had himself watched elephants cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April …
  • … screaming in patients undergoing vaccination ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 April 1868] ). Francis …
  • … veins, and the action of his platysma muscle ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [15 April 1868] ). The …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of …
  • … markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters …
  • … am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical …
  • … letter-writing dwindled considerably. The correspondence and Darwin’s scientific work diminished …
  • … of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • … the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwin’s preoccupation with the …
  • … to man’s place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwin’s species theory and on the problem …
  • … detailed anatomical similarities between humans and apes, Darwin was full of praise. He especially …
  • … in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwin’s concern about the popular …
  • … Lyell’s and Huxley’s books. Three years earlier Darwin had predicted that Lyell’s forthcoming …
  • … first half of 1863 focused attention even more closely on Darwin’s arguments for species change. …
  • … ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later letter that it …
  • … letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin did not relish telling Lyell of his …
  • … ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwin’s regret was profound that the …
  • … the ‘brutes’, but added that he would bring many towards Darwin who would have rebelled against …
  • … from Charles Lyell, 11 March 1863 ). The botanist Asa Gray, Darwin’s friend in the United States, …
  • … off ( see letter from Asa Gray, 20 April 1863 ). In May, Darwin responded to Gray that Lyell’s and …
  • … or   Modification, ’. Faction fighting Darwin was not alone in feeling disaffected …
  • … that he had contributed to the proofs of human antiquity. Darwin and Hooker repeatedly exchanged …
  • … seen how indignant all Owen’s lies and mean conduct about E. Columbi made me… . The case is come to …
  • … Copley Medal had been unsuccessful ( see letter from E. A. Darwin to Emma Darwin, 11 November [1863 …
  • … on the bookcase and around the head of the sofa ( letter to W. E. Darwin, [25 July 1863], and …

The death of Anne Elizabeth Darwin

Summary

Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at the age of ten in 1851.   Emma was heavily pregnant with their fifth son, Horace, at the time and could not go with Charles when he took Annie to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully.…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … lost the joy of the Household Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at …
  • … to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully. Darwin wrote a memorial of his daughter …
  • … her own reactions in a poignant set of notes, which Emma Darwin kept. Links to a longer …
  • … and illness follow the transcriptions. Charles Darwin’s memorial of Anne Elizabeth …
  • …  ‘y. 4 An interlineation in pencil in Emma Darwin’s hand reads: ‘Mamma: what shall we do …
  • … to me looking very much distressed in the afternoon E. Mamma what can I do to be a good girl? …
  • … she had better pray to God to help her to be good: E. Shall I pray to God now? She …
  • … made her so unhappy when she thought of being good E. I am afraid of going to hell. I …
  • … Come to me & I will try to help you as much as I can. E. But you are always with somebody …
  • … Progress as I had suspected which had alarmed her. E. Do you think you shall come to Heaven …
  • … & happy. & I hope her fears are passed. Feb. 1852. E’s mind seems to have developed …
  • … ] From Emma Darwin, [ 19 April 1851 ] To E. A. Darwin,  19 April 1851 To …
  • … To Fanny Wedgwood, [ 24 April 1851 ] From S. E. Wedgwood, [ 24 April 1851 ] From E

Darwin in letters, 1867: A civilised dispute

Summary

Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work, The variation of animals and plants under domestication (Variation). The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly apparent in his work on expression in…

Matches: 23 hits

  • …   Charles Darwin’s major achievement in 1867 was the completion of his large work,  …
  • … couple of months were needed to index the work, a task that Darwin handed over to someone else for …
  • … and animals  ( Expression ), published in 1872. Although Darwin had been collecting material and …
  • … A global reputation The importance of Darwin’s network of correspondents becomes vividly …
  • … who might best answer the questions, with the result that Darwin began to receive replies from …
  • … Variation  would be based on proof-sheets received as Darwin corrected them. Closer to home, two …
  • … Charles Fleeming Jenkin, challenged different aspects of Darwin’s theory of transmutation as …
  • … orchids are fertilised by insects  ( Orchids ). While Darwin privately gave detailed opinions of …
  • … capable hands of Alfred Russel Wallace. At the same time, Darwin was persuaded by some German …
  • … were becoming counterproductive. Throughout the year, Darwin continued to discuss now …
  • … in Germany, and Federico Delpino in Italy, who provided Darwin with the collegial support and …
  • … tedious dull work’ Thomas Henry Huxley sent Darwin the New Year’s greeting, ‘may you be …
  • … number of copies to be printed, and by the end of the month Darwin promised to send the revised …
  • … to John Murray, 31 January [1867] ). A week later, Darwin had sent the manuscript to the …
  • … Descent  and  Expression . In the same letter, Darwin revealed the conclusion to his newly …
  • … As the year progressed, the book continued to consume Darwin’s time. The first proof-sheets arrived …
  • … Russian, German, and French translations had been arranged. Darwin had now found sympathetic …
  • … was made by a young naturalist equally devoted to Darwin’s work, Vladimir Onufrievich Kovalevsky. …
  • … brother’s embryological papers with his first letter to Darwin of 15 March 1867 , although he …
  • … concerned with finding a good translator for his book, Darwin was always on the lookout for evidence …
  • … link between invertebrates and vertebrates. Finally, Darwin had made sure that Julius Victor …
  • … pooh-poohed her, & as it seems very unjustly’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 27 [March 1867] ). …
  • … are excellent, excellent, excellent’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 26 July [1867] ). The year ended as …
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