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The death of Anne Elizabeth Darwin


Charles and Emma Darwin’s eldest daughter, Annie, died at the age of ten in 1851.   Emma was heavily pregnant with their fifth son, Horace, at the time and could not go with Charles when he took Annie to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully.…

Matches: 14 hits

  • lost the joy of the Household Charles and Emma Darwins eldest daughter, Annie, died at
  • to Malvern to consult the hydrotherapist, Dr Gully. Darwin wrote a memorial of his daughter
  • her own reactions in a poignant set of notes, which Emma Darwin kept. Links to a longer
  • and illness follow the transcriptions. Charles Darwins memorial of Anne Elizabeth
  • expired at Malvern at 1  Midday on the 23 d . of April 1851.— I write these few pages, as I
  • her dear joyous face. Blessings on her.— April 30. 1851. Notes: 1
  • …  ‘y. 4 An interlineation in pencil in Emma Darwins hand reads: ‘Mamma: what shall we do
  • to me looking very much distressed in the afternoon E. Mamma what can I do to be a good girl? …
  • she had better pray to God to help her to be good: E. Shall I pray to God now? She
  • made her so unhappy when she thought of being good E. I am afraid of going to hell. I
  • Come to me & I will try to help you as much as I can. E. But you are always with somebody
  • Progress as I had suspected which had alarmed her. E. Do you think you shall come to Heaven
  • … & happy. & I hope her fears are passed. Feb. 1852. Es mind seems to have developed
  • Letters related to Annie's illness and death To W. D. Fox, [ 27 March 1851 ] To

Darwin’s reading notebooks


In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished
  • pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the second (DAR 128) continues the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the University of Cambridge. These works, catalogued by H. W. Rutherford ( Catalogue of the library
  • Prichard; a 3 d . vol [Prichard 183647] Lawrence [W. Lawrence 1819] read Bory S t
  • 1822] Falconers remark on the influence of climate [W. Falconer 1781] [DAR *119: 2v. …
  • 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian Islands 8 consult D r
  • … [Dampier 1697] Sportsmans repository 4 to . [W. H. Scott 1820]— contains much on dogs
  • of variation in animals in the different isl ds  of E Indian Archipelago— [DAR *119: 6v.] …
  • … [DAR *119: 8v.] A history of British Birds by W. Macgillivray [W. Macgillivray 183752].— I
  • The Highlands & Western Isl ds  letter to Sir W Scott [MacCulloch 1824] at Maer? W. F. …
  • 2 vols. 8vo. avec 2 atlas 4to. ibid, 181823. £1 2 s  [E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 181823] …
  • said to be Poor Sir. J. Edwards Botanical Tour [?J. E. Smith 1793] Fabricius (very old
  • at Maer.— Lives of Kepler & Galileo. Drinkwater [J. E. Drinkwater] 1833]— Prof. …
  • on Aurochs [Weissenborn 1838] Smiths grammar [J. E. Smith 1821] & introduct of Botany [J. …
  • from Parent to offspring of some Forms of Disease. 1851 [Whitehead 1851]. Packard. A Guide to
  • … [Malcolm 1836] H. Dixon Life of Pen [W. H. Dixon 1851].— Southeys Life of Wesley [R. …
  • Humboldt 1849]. Liebigs Lectures on Chemistry [Liebig 1851]. Sir John Davies. China
  • Steenstrup on Hermaphroditismus [Steenstrup 1846]. 1851. Jan. 6 th . Pickering Races
  • 1850].— April 5 Manual of Geology Lyell [Lyell 1851] —— 30 Annales des Sc. Phys. de  …

Darwin in letters, 1847-1850: Microscopes and barnacles


Darwin's study of barnacles, begun in 1844, took him eight years to complete. The correspondence reveals how his interest in a species found during the Beagle voyage developed into an investigation of the comparative anatomy of other cirripedes and…

Matches: 22 hits

  • Species theory In November 1845, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend and confidant Joseph
  • confusing sub-class of CrustaceaLiving Cirripedia  (1851, 1854) and  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851
  • group. Light is shed on the close relationship between Darwins systematic descriptive work and the
  • often frustrating taxonomical maze. Throughout these years, Darwin was also struggling with a
  • explained in detail in letters to friends and relatives, Darwin felt sufficiently restored in health
  • Nevertheless, it is evident from his correspondence that Darwins two hours at the microscope did
  • Phillips, and Daniel Sharpe, demonstrating the extent of Darwins continued involvement in
  • and naturalists, most notably James Dwight Dana, Henry Darwin Rogers, and Bernhard Studer, and the
  • In the midst of all this activity, Hooker responds to Darwins particular queries and sends
  • British government in scientific research during the period. Darwin also contributed to these
  • scientific work of naval officers and travellers in general. Darwin was asked by the editor, Sir
  • zoology between them. Owen included in his chapter notes by Darwin on the use of microscopes on
  • the leading questions and wide views spelt out by Darwin in the Admiralty  Manual  are also those
  • Inverness, in which he maintained that the terraces, which Darwin believed to be of marine origin, …
  • of Glen Roy had produced a lake and the consequent beaches. Darwin carefully re-examined his own
  • editor of the  Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal , Darwin asked for it to be destroyed. Only the
  • … ). Other letters to colleagues at this time indicate that Darwin was beginning to feel that the Glen
  • 8 [September 1847] ). The second geological theory Darwin felt the need to defend had to do
  • dioecious plants from monoecious forms (Living Cirripedia (1851): 214; (1854): 29, 528 n.) and, at
  • both had served ( Correspondence  vol. 2, letters to H. E. Strickland). Darwins task was
  • rule of priority for the sake of expedience ( letter to H. E. Strickland, [4 February 1849] ), but
  • he justified in a lengthy footnote (Living Cirripedia (1851): 293 n.). The problem that bothered

People featured in the Dutch photograph album


Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 5 hits

  • … list of people that appeared in the  photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 …
  • …   Yokohama (Japan) 19 january 1851 Nijkerk 1 july 1915 …
  • … Leyden University.   Leiden 16 june 1851 Giethoorn 27 …
  • … School   Roermond 11 december 1851 Utrecht 1 may 1902 …
  • … School.   Utrecht 3 june 1851 Amsterdam 24 September 1933 …

Darwin’s observations on his children


Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 23 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • 1848; Leonard, born 15 January 1850; and Horace, born 18 May 1851. It appears to have been Emma who
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • all the notes until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwins later entries, like Emmas, …
  • Transcription: 1 [9W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10During first week. …
  • morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet of C. Langton,[52W. instantly observed it knew whose it was
  • leaves, stuck them in the ground to observe if the Bees, w d  look at them.[53Willy across whole
  • remonstrating with him on telling such a Burster (as he w d . call it), he answered, “Well then I
  • written in pencil by CD and subsequently overwritten by Emma Darwin. The transcription throughout
  • … [15] ‘Annie . . . fortnightwas written by Emma Darwin on the verso of page 3 and opposite the
  • The name and address of a Mrs Locke are noted in Emma Darwins 1843 diary. [16The following
  • books that she could recall encountering as a child (H. E. Litchfield papers, CUL). [60] …
  • E. Litchfield papers, CUL). [71Horace Darwin, born 1851. [72Leonard Darwins

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings


‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 26 hits

  • Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwins theorising about species, and
  • his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend
  • way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving
  • bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript
  • coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of
  • zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated
  • chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwins son George, in an anonymous
  • on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair
  • Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwins friends had to find ways of
  • pp. 1617). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also
  • in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwins ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the
  • to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial
  • Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral
  • could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbes memorial inflammatory
  • memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Kleins testimony
  • agree to any law, which should send him to the treadmill.’ Darwin had become acquainted with Klein
  • in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 and 10
  • day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   …
  • getting more precise details about an operation performed in 1851 on her sister. He had described
  • plants (Carus trans. 1876a). The German publisher E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagshandlung began to
  • agreed to see him at Down with Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life


1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 24 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his
  • and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwins three volumes of the geology of
  • single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at
  • volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was neverthelessfirmly resolved not
  • meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the
  • to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second
  • concentrated on themeans of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self
  • return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in hislittle Autobiography’ ( …
  • holiday after finishing Cross and self fertilisation , Darwin took up the suggestion made by a
  • for his family only. Writing for an hour every afternoon, Darwin finished his account on 3 August
  • been cast by thepoorest curs in London’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [4 February 1876] ). …
  • of illness & misery there is in the world’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 26 May [1876] ). A
  • his oldest daughter Annie, who died at the age of 10 in 1851, but William, who was 11 years old at
  • we have & you are one of the best of all’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 11 September [1876] ). …
  • she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • herself & is so tender’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6
  • completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6: …
  • horticulturists and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin


The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 24 hits

  • 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwins life. From a quiet rural existence
  • Russel Wallace. This letter led to the first announcement of Darwins and Wallaces respective
  • the composition and publication, in November 1859, of Darwins major treatise  On the origin of
  • …  exceeded my wildest hopes By the end of 1859, Darwins work was being discussed in
  • at the end of 1859, ‘I sometimes fancied that my book w  d  be successful; but I never even built
  • Charles Lyell, 25 [November 1859] ). This transformation in Darwins personal world and the
  • The 'big book' The year 1858 opened with Darwin hard at work preparing hisbig
  • his ninth chapter, on hybridism, on 29 December 1857, Darwin began in January 1858 to prepare the
  • appropriate. The correspondence shows that at any one time Darwin was engaged in a number of
  • The chapter on instinct posed a number of problems for Darwin. ‘I find my chapter on Instinct very
  • celebrated as a classic example of divine design in nature. Darwin hypothesised that the instinct of
  • of construction as it took place in the hive. As with Darwins study of poultry and pigeons, …
  • founder and president of the Apiarian Society, provided Darwin with information and specimens. His
  • For assistance with mathematical measurements and geometry, Darwin called upon William Hallowes
  • from the  Beagle voyage; on his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin; and his son William. Even his
  • bees and bee-hives. Variation and reversion Darwin also continued the botanical work
  • of smaller genera? The inquiry was of great importance to Darwin, for such evidence would support
  • for on this view wherever many closely related species, (i.e. species of the same genus) have been
  • of the statistics was still problematic. Hooker thought that Darwin was wrong to assume that
  • myself that all was much alike, & if you condemned that you w d . condemn allmy lifes work— …
  • of Glen Roy, and his monograph on  Fossil Cirripedia  (1851 and 1854) ( Quarterly Journal of the
  • to Fox, ‘& I feel worse than when I came’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, [16 November 1859] ). It was
  • required a fresh act of intervention to supply the lacunas w h . he himself had made’ ( letter
  • got much more larky since we run two horses’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 6 October [1858] ). …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album


List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … List of people appearing in the  photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in …
  • … Died just a few months after the album was sent to Charles Darwin at the age of 53 …
  • …   Yokohama (Japan) 19 January 1851 Nijkerk 1 July 1915 …
  • … Geologist, Economist an Darwinist. Corresponded with Darwin and translated The descent of Man in …
  • … Leyden University.   Leiden 16 June 1851 Giethoorn 27 …
  • … School   Roermond 11 December 1851 Utrecht 1 May 1902 …
  • … School.   Utrecht 3 June 1851 Amsterdam 24 September 1933 …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad


At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 27 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical
  • letter-writing dwindled considerably. The correspondence and Darwins scientific work diminished
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwins preoccupation with the
  • to mans place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwins species theory and on the problem
  • detailed anatomical similarities between humans and apes, Darwin was full of praise. He especially
  • in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwins concern about the popular
  • Lyells and Huxleys books. Three years earlier Darwin had predicted that Lyells forthcoming
  • first half of 1863 focused attention even more closely on Darwins arguments for species change. …
  • … ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later letter that it
  • of creation, and the origin of species particularly, worried Darwin; he told Hooker that he had once
  • letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin did not relish telling Lyell of his
  • … ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwins regret was profound that the
  • thebrutes’, but added that he would bring many towards Darwin who would have rebelled against
  • from Charles Lyell, 11 March 1863 ). The botanist Asa Gray, Darwins friend in the United States, …
  • off ( see letter from Asa Gray, 20 April 1863 ). In May, Darwin responded to Gray that Lyells and
  • or   Modification, ’. Faction fighting Darwin was not alone in feeling disaffected
  • in the subject. ‘The worst of it is’, Hooker wrote to Darwin, ‘I suppose it is virtually Huxleys
  • seen how indignant all Owens lies and mean conduct about E. Columbi made me… . The case is come to
  • this subject seems to get rarer & rarer’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 18 April [1863] ), …
  • for the Natural History Review  ( see letter to H. W. Bates, 12 January [1863] ). Darwin added
  • Copley Medal had been unsuccessful ( see letter from E. A. Darwin to Emma Darwin, 11 November [1863
  • on the bookcase and around the head of the sofa ( letter to W. E. Darwin, [25 July 1863], and
  • … ). The Darwinsdaughter, Annie, had died at Malvern in 1851, and Hookers news was a powerful
  • was hidden by overgrown trees and shrubs ( see letter from W. D. Fox, 7 September [1863] ). Emma

New material added to the American edition of Origin


A ‘revised and augmented’ American edition of Origin came on the market in July 1860, and was the only authorised edition available in the US until 1873. It incorporated many of the changes Darwin made to the second English edition, but still contained…

Matches: 21 hits

  • Introduction Soon after Origin was published, Darwin received a letter from Asa Gray
  • book and to secure the author a share in possible profits. Darwin responded favourably to Grays
  • the new Edit to be reprinted, & not the old.— Darwin was motivated by more than
  • editionand were preparing for distribution. Acting on Darwins behalf, Gray duly contacted D. …
  • the second English edition, transmitting their response to Darwin (see letters from Asa Gray, [10
  • States law to honour foreign copyright, they agreed to grant Darwin a share of the profits from
  • preparing a new edition at some future date and asked Darwin to provide them with any changes he
  • of species (two letters to Baden Powell, 18 January 1860), Darwin subsequently changed his mind. On
  • espousing favourable views of the transmutation of species; Darwin sent this off to Gray enclosed in
  • A month later, in his letter of 8 March [1860], Darwin sent Gray several more substantive
  • Cottrell Watson in his letter of [3? January 1860]) that Darwin wanted inserted at the conclusion of
  • edition in the letter to Lyell, 18 [and 19 February 1860]. Darwin suggested to Gray that the title
  • augmentedAmerican edition. Most of the emendations that Darwin had sent were incorporated into the
  • edition, yet it incorporated many of the other changes Darwin made to the second edition; it also
  • prise sur lui.’’ In England, the Hon. and Rev. W. Herbert, afterwards Dean of Manchester, in
  • a Résumé appeared in the Revue et Mag. de Zoolog., Jan. 1851), briefly gives his reasons for
  • animaux sauvages démontre déjà la variabilité limitée des espèces. Les expériences sur les
  • of finality, ‘‘puissance mystérieuse, indéterminée; fatalité pour les uns; pour les autres, volonté …
  • de lexistence du monde, la forme, le volume et la durée de chacun deux, en raison de sa destinée
  • … * It is curious how completely my grandfather, Dr. Erasmus Darwin,  anticipated these erroneous
  • the world. Hooker has recently shown that in the S. E. corner of Australia, where apparently there

Darwin in letters, 1861: Gaining allies


The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwin’s work. He had weathered the storm that followed the publication of Origin, and felt cautiously optimistic about the ultimate acceptance of his ideas. The letters from this year provide an…

Matches: 25 hits

  • The year 1861 marked an important change in the direction of Darwins work. By then, he had
  • propagation, hybridism, and other phenomena that, as Darwin said in his  Autobiography , he had
  • provide an unusually detailed and intimate understanding of Darwins problem-solving method of work
  • 1860 that a new edition of  Origin  was called for, Darwin took the opportunity to include in the
  • of natural selection. With this work behind him, Darwin took steps to convince those who
  • … ( letter to Asa Gray, 267 Februrary [1861] ). Darwin drew up a carefully thought-out list of
  • pamphlet (see Correspondence vol. 9, Appendix III). However, Darwin himself remained unconvinced by
  • …  began to decline later in the year, scientific interest in Darwins views continued unabated and
  • the third edition and the comments of naturalists with whom Darwin corresponded, showed that a
  • the theory of natural selection for their particular fields. Darwin relished these explorations, …
  • the  Zoologist  by George Maw, for example, singled out Darwins explanation of the numerous
  • remained notable instances of design in nature. Although Darwin, in his subsequent correspondence
  • letter to Charles Lyell, 20 July [1861] ). One reason for Darwins interest in this piece may have
  • and embryological relationships between organisms. Darwin also found the review by the young
  • … ( see second letter to J. D. Hooker, 23 [April 1861] ). Darwin continued to stress to his
  • Gaining allies It is not surprising, then, that Darwin was pleased that the methodology
  • maintaining that nature offered more evidence of design than Darwin was willing to admit. With the
  • Nature manufactures her new species’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 28 March [1861] ). Mimicry
  • from which the other set is free’ ( letter from H. W. Bates, 30 September 1861 ). As Peter Bowler
  • valuable contribution to Nat. History.—’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 4 April [1861] ). He also
  • andMonkeys,—our poor cousins.—’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 3 December [1861] ). Darwin volunteered
  • … ‘large distributionfor the work ( letter to H. W. Bates, 25 September [1861] ). Nevertheless