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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 6 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … (1) Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … Darwin, E. L. (1) Darwin, Elizabeth (9) …
  • … James (a) (5) Drysdale, Elizabeth (1) …
  • … Charlotte (2) Wedgwood, Elizabeth (11) …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 14 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May 1865] …
  • asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • to state that the information wasreceived through Sir C. Lyellor received fromMiss. B”. …
  • in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - …
  • in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868
  • infants identified by name in Expression was novelist Elizabeth Gaskell for her description
  • at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwins
  • near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Charles Darwins daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and
  • 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound notebook now in the Darwin Archive of Cambridge University
  • excised within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwins letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • scepticism; many of her arguments are reminiscent of Darwins own discussion of religious belief in
  • of the theory of natural selection. Snow occasionally sent Darwin information relating to his
  • of emotion (see letters from F. J. Wedgwood to H. E. and C. R. Darwin, [186772],  letter   nos. …
  • one of  Descent  (see letter from Charles and Emma Darwin to F. J. Wedgwood, [March 1871?], and
  • period of their courtship. We are grateful to William Darwin for permission to publish the
  • amongst whom of course was Lena had any knowledge of it. M r . W. spoke or preached as u like to
  • Father who w d  be waiting for herwhen down came M r . W. on his knees between them & said, …
  • worship of humanitythis I hope is only in its budI c d  conceive a life wh. was filled & …
  • 13 Katherine Euphemia Wedgwood . 14 Hope Elizabeth Wedgwood . …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 24 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection wasthe
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his
  • which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for
  • in January 1868. A final delay caused by the indexing gave Darwin much vexation. ‘My book is
  • 1867 and had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwins request, he modified his
  • the text. This increased the amount of work substantially. Darwin asked Murray to intervene, …
  • … … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwins angry letter to Murray crossed one from
  • blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin sympathised, replying on 14 January
  • as stone, if it were not quite mollified by your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  …
  • it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was
  • April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed
  • I did not see this, or rather I saw it only obs[c]urely, & have kept only a few references.’ …
  • as life he wd find the odour sexual!’ ( letter to A . R. Wallace, 16 September [1868] ). Francis
  • Edmund Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, …
  • question of theOrigin of Species”’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 4 October 1868 ). …
  • hands of the enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). …
  • of her two-month old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February
  • Africa, Darwin received from Hooker an account by Mary Elizabeth Barber of local variations in the
  • rest mostly on faith, and on accumulation of adaptations, &c) … Of course I understand your

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 26 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • until September 1844. Parallels in the development of Anne Elizabeth, born 2 March 1841, were also
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • all the notes until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwins later entries, like Emmas, …
  • Transcription: 1 [9W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10During first week. …
  • of muscles, without a corresponding sensation. D r . Holland[12informs me children do not
  • 35  & to take a crust, when their pudding was finished.— Elizabeth[45remarked him careful
  • trowsers. Emma one morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet of C. Langton,[52W. instantly observed
  • flower garden perceived them, said they were not Dzivers (Elizabeths) flowers. ie were not natural
  • very contradictory; by mistake he one day graciously gave Elizabeth a kiss, but repenting said
  • she added an s to the end of every wordEttis & Bettis &c afterwards all the ws were turned
  • goed dawn to the willage”. Fish for Smith. Kaw for cow. &c. Lenny[612 years old speaks
  • any thing with my egg. Miss Th. Shall I cut up y r  meat? L. I dont care whether you do or
  • … “But I could not help it”— I saidLenny you c d  help it, dont say that”. “I could not help it a
  • to Anne and Henrietta were added considerably later; Anne Elizabeth was born in 1841 and Henrietta
  • by Emma Darwin. [29Caroline Sarah Wedgwood, Elizabeth (Bessy) Wedgwood, and Josiah Wedgwood

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 22 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • a holiday in the Lake District in August did little to raise Darwins spirits. ‘I wish that my
  • W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879 ). The year
  • contained a warmer note and the promise of future happiness: Darwin learned he was to be visited by
  • Hacon, 31 December 1879 ). Seventy years old Darwins seventieth birthday on 12
  • the veteran of Modern Zoology’, but it was in Germany that Darwin was most fêted. A German
  • nice and good as could be’ ( letter from Karl Beger, [ c. 12 February 1879] ). The masters of
  • accepted in Germany. ‘On this festive day’, Haeckel told Darwin, ‘you can look back, with justified
  • of the Admiralty described the unknown young man asA M r Darwin grandson of the well known
  • Darwin, 28 May [1879] ). On the Galton side of the family, Elizabeth Anne Wheler, who was pleased
  • him on 9 June not toexpend much powder & shot on M r  Butler’, for he really was not worth
  • leaving Darwinmore perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 12
  • the highest point, for hiswhy”—“what for” &c are incessant’, Darwin joked on 2 July (first
  • In August, Bernard accompanied his grandparents, Aunt Elizabeth (Bessy) Darwin, and Henrietta and
  • which is his profession thonot a profitable one; also D r  C[lark]’s opinion that he was so
  • greatly amused Darwin, who felt it wasvery acute of M r  Ruskin to know that I feel a deep & …
  • and preventCattle diseases, Potato diseases &c’, probably did not know that Darwin had already

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 21 hits

  • letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwins life with a new intensity. The
  • life but I trust happy The anguish felt by Darwin is painfully expressed in letters
  • speak of her again. Yet the family gradually recovered, Darwins monographs were printed, and Darwin
  • to the cirripedes. Before turning to his species work, Darwin somewhat ruefully recorded in his
  • monographs by natural history societies, though welcomed by Darwin, did not run smoothly. …
  • the  Correspondence  describes the major achievements of Darwins cirripede work as a whole and
  • societies, which were supported by subscriptions, was that Darwins volumes were not publicly
  • in Germany at the forefront of work in invertebrate zoology, Darwin began a correspondence with
  • provided the foundations for a relationship with Darwin that soon developed into a valued friendship
  • April 1854, when his cirripede study was drawing to a close, Darwin re-entered London scientific
  • with lots of claret is what I want Perhaps Darwins decision to take a more active
  • to substantiate it is manifest in the correspondence. Darwins friends and colleagues were
  • outspoken young naturalists like Huxley, reacted eagerly to Darwins suggestions, although not
  • for the geographical distribution of animals and plants. Darwin began a series of researches on the
  • with the effects of known changes in climate and geology. Darwin boldly rejected the popular idea of
  • Some of the most interesting letters in this volume set out Darwins practical researches and
  • Variation and extinction The other main focus of Darwins research centred on determining the
  • seeds and bees An interest in variation naturally led Darwin to study the works of plant
  • views concerning decreased fertility of hybrids, Darwin began in the spring of 1855 a series of
  • a subject to which he returned in later years. Darwin also undertook experiments relating to
  • classification Hybridism, domestic animals & plants &c &c &c) to see how far they

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the second reading notebook. Readers primarily interested in Darwins scientific reading, therefore, …
  • editorsidentification of the book or article to which Darwin refers. A full list of these works is
  • page number (or numbers, as the case may be) on which Darwins entry is to be found. The
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • … [DAR *119: 2v.] Whites regular gradation in man [C. White 1799] Lindleys
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on Geog. distrib: of Brit: …
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • th . Humes Hist of England [Hume 1763]. to beginning of Elizabeth. Sept 14 th . 4 first
  • on chemistry (Liebig 1851). 50  Probably Elizabeth Wedgwood. 51  This
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • of the   Devereux, Earls of Essex, in the reigns of Elizabeth, James I.,   and Charles I., 1540
  • of England from the   fall of Wolsey to the death of Elizabeth.  12 vols. London. 185670128: …
  • …  London.  *119: 21v., 22; 119: 19a Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn. 1857The life of
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Robert. 1843Memoirs of the life of John   Constable, R.A., composed chiefly of his letters. …
  • Peacock, George. 1855Life of Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S.  London.  *128: 172; 128: 21

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a
  • material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwins interests remained extremely broad, and
  • plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to
  • Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwins most substantial addition to  Origin  was a
  • a Swiss botanist and professor at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägelis paper
  • principal engine of change in the development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägelis theory
  • in most morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now
  • are & must be morphological’. The comment highlights Darwins apparent confusion about Nägelis
  • … ‘purely morphological’. The modern reader may well share Darwins uncertainty, but Nägeli evidently
  • pp. 289). In further letters, Hooker tried to provide Darwin with botanical examples he could use
  • problems of heredity Another important criticism that Darwin sought to address in the fifth
  • prevailing theory of blending inheritance that Jenkin and Darwin both shared, would tend to be lost
  • … ( Origin  5th ed., pp. 1034). The terminology that Darwin and others employed in these matters ( …
  • … ‘I must have expressed myself atrociously’, Darwin wrote to Alfred Russel Wallace on 2 February , …
  • now see is possible or probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , and
  • of  Origin  was the result of correspondence between Darwin and the geologist James Croll. In the
  • but it was his theory of alternate ice ages that piqued Darwins interest the most. He wrote, ‘this
  • of information which I have sent prove of any service to M r . Darwin I can supply him with much
  • … & proximate cause in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More
  • and the bird of paradise  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and
  • an injustice & never demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). …
  • species that Darwin had investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a
  • genus that he had studied in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This
  • Sweetland Dallass edition of Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an
  • creation, if he is not completely staggered after reading y r  essay’. The work received a
  • whole meeting was decidedly Huxleys answer to D r  M c Cann. He literally poured boiling oil

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 10 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844
  • of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674
  • species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled
  • flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin
  • information exchange. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • In this letter, naturalist, artist, and writer Mary Elizabeth Barber replies to Queries on

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 21 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwins neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In
  • all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwins theory of transmutation
  • alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwins American publisher for a
  • for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwins work was given by Hooker in an
  • frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwins sisters died, Emily Catherine
  • from painful illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwins first letters in the new year
  • every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). Darwin had first consulted Jones in July
  • … ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). Darwin began riding the cob, Tommy, on 4
  • day which I enjoy much.’ The new exercise regime led to Darwins being teased by his neighbour, John
  • Agassizs views through a letter to Lyells wife, Mary Elizabeth Lyell, from Elizabeth Cabot Cary
  • you go on, after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèewhich I dreamed of 2 nights
  • so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). Henriettas
  • teleological development ( see for example, letter to C. W. Nägeli, 12 June [1866] ). Also in
  • common broom ( Cytisus scoparius ) and the white broom ( C. multiflorus ) in his botanical
  • and June on the subject of  Rhamnus catharticus  (now  R. cathartica ). Darwin had become
  • of separate sexes. William gathered numerous specimens of  R. catharticus , the only species of  …
  • replied with a modified list, adding Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin , and a recent fossil discovery in
  • selection, and with special creation ( letter from W. R. Grove, 31 August 1866 ). Hooker later
  • indeed at poor Susans loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 24 hits

  • The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle  voyage was one
  • a family Busy as he was with scientific activities, Darwin found time to re-establish family
  • close contact. In November 1838, two years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, …
  • 1842, the family, now increased by a daughter, Anne Elizabeth, moved to Down House in Kent, where
  • his greatest theoretical achievement, the most important of Darwins activities during the years
  • identifications of his bird and fossil mammal specimens, Darwin arrived at the daring and momentous
  • ideas on a wide range of topics. Then, in September 1838, T. R. Malthus’  An essay on the principle
  • in species. With this new theoretical point of departure Darwin continued to make notes and explore
  • present in the version of 1859. Young author Darwins investigation of the species
  • the  Beagle  had returned to England, news of some of Darwins findings had been spread by the
  • great excitement. The fuller account of the voyage and Darwins discoveries was therefore eagerly
  • suitable categories for individual experts to work upon, Darwin applied himself to the revision of
  • of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle. Darwins volume bore the title  Journal
  • visited by H.M.S. BeagleAlso in November 1837, Darwin read the fourth of a series of papers to
  • to the Society of 9 March 1838), had been developed by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, …
  • Fossil Mammalia , by Richard OwenMammalia , by G. R. WaterhouseBirds , by John Gould;  …
  • publications. The beetles were described by F. W. Hope, G. R. Waterhouse, and C. C. Babington; the
  • all crosses between all domestic birds & animals dogs, cats &c &c very valuable—' …
  • on literature in this field and on friends like Henslow, T. C. Eyton, and W. D. Fox, who were
  • the practice of systematists. As the correspondence with G. R. Waterhouse during the 1840s shows, …
  • same, though I know what I am looking for' ( Letter to G. R. Waterhouse, [26 July 1843] ).  …
  • to how one ought to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). These are not
  • … [20 February 1840] , ‘as usual has been my enemybut D r . Holland tells me he thinks it is only
  • relation of fossil with recent. the fabric falls!' (Notebook