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Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • are identified only asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25
  • to state that the information wasreceived through Sir C. Lyellor received fromMiss. B”. …
  • Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece to
  • infants identified by name in Expression was novelist Elizabeth Gaskell for her description
  • at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwins
  • near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Charles Darwins daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and
  • 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound notebook now in the Darwin Archive of Cambridge University
  • excised within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwins letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • scepticism; many of her arguments are reminiscent of Darwins own discussion of religious belief in
  • of the theory of natural selection. Snow occasionally sent Darwin information relating to his
  • of emotion (see letters from F. J. Wedgwood to H. E. and C. R. Darwin, [186772],  letter   nos. …
  • period of their courtship. We are grateful to William Darwin for permission to publish the
  • amongst whom of course was Lena had any knowledge of it. M r . W. spoke or preached as u like to
  • Father who w d  be waiting for herwhen down came M r . W. on his knees between them & said, …
  • worship of humanitythis I hope is only in its budI c d  conceive a life wh. was filled & …
  • when I feel my day made bright & happy by one short letter. I want him to take me in his arms
  • 13 Katherine Euphemia Wedgwood . 14 Hope Elizabeth Wedgwood . …

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 16 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • wrinkles one all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879
  • itself, or gone some other way round?’ At least the last letter of 1879 contained a warmer note and
  • nice and good as could be’ ( letter from Karl Beger, [ c. 12 February 1879] ). The masters of
  • of the Admiralty described the unknown young man asA M r Darwin grandson of the well known
  • Darwin, 28 May [1879] ). On the Galton side of the family, Elizabeth Anne Wheler, who was pleased
  • him on 9 June not toexpend much powder & shot on M r  Butler’, for he really was not worth
  • leaving Darwinmore perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 12
  • the highest point, for hiswhy”—“what for” &c are incessant’, Darwin joked on 2 July (first
  • In August, Bernard accompanied his grandparents, Aunt Elizabeth (Bessy) Darwin, and Henrietta and
  • which is his profession thonot a profitable one; also D r  C[lark]’s opinion that he was so
  • and preventCattle diseases, Potato diseases &c’, probably did not know that Darwin had already

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 22 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • in satisfying female preference in the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, …
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his
  • which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for
  • as well say, he would drink a little and not too much’ ( letter to Albert Günther, 15 May [1868] ) …
  • in January 1868. A final delay caused by the indexing gave Darwin much vexation. ‘My book is
  • 1867 and had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwins request, he modified his
  • the text. This increased the amount of work substantially. Darwin asked Murray to intervene, …
  • would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwins angry letter to Murray crossed one from Dallas to
  • of labour to remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). …
  • it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was
  • April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed
  • I did not see this, or rather I saw it only obs[c]urely, & have kept only a few references.’ …
  • as life he wd find the odour sexual!’ ( letter to A . R. Wallace, 16 September [1868] ). Francis
  • Edmund Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, …
  • of her two-month old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February
  • Africa, Darwin received from Hooker an account by Mary Elizabeth Barber of local variations in the
  • rest mostly on faith, and on accumulation of adaptations, &c) … Of course I understand your

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 20 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • inferred that he was well from his silence on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October
  • by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too
  • in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] …
  • that Mr Williams wasa cheat and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). …
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • letter John Murray, 9 May [1874] ). He communicated Mary Elizabeth Barbers paper on the pupae of
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration &c always bother me & make everything less

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 10 hits

  • and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • and he is curious about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., …
  • to Hookerit is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D. …
  • wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674Darwin, C. R. to Gray, …
  • species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled
  • flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin
  • In this letter, naturalist, artist, and writer Mary Elizabeth Barber replies to Queries on

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 26 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • until September 1844. Parallels in the development of Anne Elizabeth, born 2 March 1841, were also
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • of muscles, without a corresponding sensation. D r . Holland[12informs me children do not
  • our door N o  12 and N o  11 is in the slit for the Letter box.— he decidedly ran past N o  11
  • has learned them from my sometimes changing the first letter in any word he is usingthus I say
  • 35  & to take a crust, when their pudding was finished.— Elizabeth[45remarked him careful
  • trowsers. Emma one morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet of C. Langton,[52W. instantly observed
  • flower garden perceived them, said they were not Dzivers (Elizabeths) flowers. ie were not natural
  • very contradictory; by mistake he one day graciously gave Elizabeth a kiss, but repenting said
  • she added an s to the end of every wordEttis & Bettis &c afterwards all the ws were turned
  • goed dawn to the willage”. Fish for Smith. Kaw for cow. &c. Lenny[612 years old speaks
  • any thing with my egg. Miss Th. Shall I cut up y r  meat? L. I dont care whether you do or
  • … “But I could not help it”— I saidLenny you c d  help it, dont say that”. “I could not help it a
  • … , pp. 1312. [6Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . …
  • to Anne and Henrietta were added considerably later; Anne Elizabeth was born in 1841 and Henrietta

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 26 hits

  • At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a
  • … & I am sick of correcting’ ( Correspondence  vol. 16, letter to W. D. Fox, 12 December [1868
  • Well it is a beginning, & that is something’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 January 1869] ). …
  • material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwins interests remained extremely broad, and
  • plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to
  • Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwins most substantial addition to  Origin  was a
  • a Swiss botanist and professor at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägelis paper
  • principal engine of change in the development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägelis theory
  • in most morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now
  • made any blunders, as is very likely to be the case’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). …
  • are & must be morphological’. The comment highlights Darwins apparent confusion about Nägelis
  • … ‘purely morphological’. The modern reader may well share Darwins uncertainty, but Nägeli evidently
  • pp. 289). In further letters, Hooker tried to provide Darwin with botanical examples he could use
  • problems of heredity Another important criticism that Darwin sought to address in the fifth
  • than I now see is possible or probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , …
  • is strengthened by the facts in distribution’ ( letter to James Croll, 31 January [1869] ). Darwin
  • tropical species using Crolls theory. In the same letter to Croll, Darwin had expressed
  • of information which I have sent prove of any service to M r . Darwin I can supply him with much
  • … & proximate cause in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More
  • and the bird of paradise  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and
  • an injustice & never demands justice’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ). …
  • species that Darwin had investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a
  • genus that he had studied in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This
  • Sweetland Dallass edition of Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin  (Dallas trans. 1869). The book, an
  • whole meeting was decidedly Huxleys answer to D r  M c Cann. He literally poured boiling oil

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 22 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwins neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In
  • Pound foolish, Penurious, Pragmatical Prigs’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [29 December 1866] ). But
  • all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwins theory of transmutation
  • alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwins American publisher for a
  • for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwins work was given by Hooker in an
  • frustrations were punctuated by family bereavement. Two of Darwins sisters died, Emily Catherine
  • able to write easy work for about 1½ hours every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). …
  • once daily to make the chemistry go on better’ ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). …
  • see you out with our beagles before the season is over’ ( letter from John Lubbock, 4 August 1866
  • work doing me any harmany how I cant be idle’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 24 August [1866] ). …
  • Agassizs views through a letter to Lyells wife, Mary Elizabeth Lyell, from Elizabeth Cabot Cary
  • you go on, after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèewhich I dreamed of 2 nights
  • so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). Henriettas
  • teleological development ( see for example, letter to C. W. Nägeli, 12 June [1866] ). Also in
  • common broom ( Cytisus scoparius ) and the white broom ( C. multiflorus ) in his botanical
  • and June on the subject of  Rhamnus catharticus  (now  R. cathartica ). Darwin had become
  • of separate sexes. William gathered numerous specimens of  R. catharticus , the only species of  …
  • replied with a modified list, adding Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin , and a recent fossil discovery in
  • selection, and with special creation ( letter from W. R. Grove, 31 August 1866 ). Hooker later
  • indeed at poor Susans loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 20 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his
  • protégé, John Scott, who was now working in India. Darwins transmutation theory continued to
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • in the  GardenersChronicleAt the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of
  • year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend of
  • in August. There was also a serious dispute between two of Darwins friends, John Lubbock and
  • had failed to include among the grounds of the award ( see letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus
  • his letters to Darwin, and Darwin responded warmly: ‘Your letter is by far the grandest eulogium
  • may well rest content that I have not laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] …
  • always a most kind friend to me. So the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] …
  • for our griefs & pains: these alone are unalloyed’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 3 February 1865
  • gas.— Sic transit gloria mundi, with a vengeance’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 February [1865] ). …
  • Darwin had received a copy of Müllers bookFür Darwin , a study of the Crustacea with reference
  • … … inheritance, reversion, effects of use & disuse &c’, and which he intended to publish in
  • He wrote to Hooker, ‘I doubt whether you or I or any one c d  do any good in healing this breach. …
  • Hookers behalf, ‘He asks if you saw the article of M r . Croll in the last Reader on the
  • Wales rented by the Hensleigh Wedgwoods for the summer, and Elizabeth was evidently attending school
  • … ‘As for your thinking that you do not deserve the C[opley] Medal,’ he rebuked Hooker, ‘that I

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 22 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • Charles Harrison Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends
  • divines to see a pigs body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied, ‘& that about my
  • registry offices, and produced a twenty-page history of the Darwin family reaching back to the
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • modified; but now I much regret that I did not do so’ ( letter to Samuel Butler, 3 January 1880 ). …
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • shake their heads in the same dismal manner as you & M r . Murray did, when I told them my
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • … ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of the family
  • great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). …
  • for the Wedgwood nieces. Later in the year, Emmas sister Elizabeth Wedgwood died at her home, …
  • his voice as clearly as if he were present’ (letters to C. W. Fox, 29 March 1880 and 10 [April

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth
  • Letters Darwins Notes On Marriage [April - July 1838] In these notes, …
  • theories, & accumulating facts in silence & solitude”. Darwin also comments that he has
  • an hourwith poor Mrs. Lyell sitting by”. Letter 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to
  • whose attractions are not those of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13
  • her own steam and is afirst rate critic”. Letter 4377 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, …
  • ornaments in the making of feminine works”. Letter 4441 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [30
  • the young, especially ladies, to study nature. Letter 4940 - Cresy, E. to Darwin, E., …
  • Anderson isneither masculine nor pedantic”. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., …
  • to him as a published science author, is a man. Letter 7314 - Kovalevsky, S. to Darwin, …
  • natural thinking”. Letter 8079 - Norton, S. R. to Darwin, [20 November 1871] …
  • patience. Letter 13607Darwin to Kennard, C. A., [9 January 1882] Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1851-1855: Death of a daughter

Summary

The letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwin’s life with a new intensity. The period opens with a family tragedy in the death of Darwin’s oldest and favourite daughter, Anne, and it shows how, weary and mourning his dead child,…

Matches: 23 hits

  • letters from these years reveal the main preoccupations of Darwins life with a new intensity. The
  • life but I trust happy The anguish felt by Darwin is painfully expressed in letters
  • speak of her again. Yet the family gradually recovered, Darwins monographs were printed, and Darwin
  • to the cirripedes. Before turning to his species work, Darwin somewhat ruefully recorded in his
  • monographs by natural history societies, though welcomed by Darwin, did not run smoothly. …
  • the  Correspondence  describes the major achievements of Darwins cirripede work as a