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Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers

Summary

In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

Matches: 20 hits

  • In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, …
  • a very old man, who probably will not last much longer.’ Darwins biggest fear was not death, but
  • sweetest place on this earth’. From the start of the year, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He
  • provision for the dividing of his wealth after his death. Darwins gloominess was compounded by the
  • and new admirers got in touch, and, for all his fears, Darwin found several scientific topics to
  • Evolution old and new when revising his essay on Erasmus Darwins scientific work, and that Darwin
  • was another source of pleasure in the early months of 1881. This book had been a major undertaking
  • decided to print500 more, making 2000’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 ). Unlike
  • … & very surprising the whole case is to me’ (letters to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] and
  • the sale of books beinga game of chance’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 12 April 1881 ). On 18 May
  • suggestions of such plants, especially annuals ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 21 March [1881] ) …
  • he would feelless sulky in a day or two’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 July 1881 ). The degree of
  • falls at this late period of the season’ ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 30 July 1881 ). Darwin gave in
  • with you’, a Swedish teacher told him ( letter from C. E. Södling, 14 October 1881 ), while H. M. …
  • little, to the general stock of knowledge’ ( letter to E. W. Bok, 10 May 1881 ). Josef Popper, an
  • to possibilities for women, judging from her organization &c’. When Darwin replied the following
  • … ‘bread-winners’ ( Correspondence vol. 30, letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). …
  • in heavenwhen the portrait was finished ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 23 July 1881 ). ‘All my family
  • absurd for one with no pretensions’ (l etter from W. E. Darwin, 13 January [1881 ]), Darwin
  • after expressing their wish to visit Darwin ( letter from E. B. Aveling, 27 September [1881] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 24 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • in Down, where his brother Erasmus had been interred in 1881. But some of his scientific friends
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • to Fritz Müller, 4 January 1882 ). These were topics that Darwin had been investigating for years, …
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • vol. 29, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 28 December 1881 ). Darwin had a long-running
  • the flowers & experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). While
  • last book, Earthworms , had been published in October 1881. It proved to be very popular, with
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • and aGlycerin Pepsin mixture’ (letters to W. W. Baxter, 11 March 1882 and 18 March [1882 ]) …
  • he is a good deal depressed about himself’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March
  • is very calm but she has cried a little’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, [19 April
  • overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882 (DAR 219.1: 150)). …
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • without any mercy’ ( letter from Emma Wedgwood to F. E. E. Wedgwood, [28 October 1836] , letter
  • Natural History, that I went as Naturalist on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World & …
  • I cannot tell how or where to begin’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 21 [January 1860] ). Darwins
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To
  • of Darwinian theory to flowers and flower-visiting insects; H. Müller 1869)). Darwin was full of
  • at least be a valid ground for divorce’ ( letter to H. K. Rusden, [before 27 March 1875] ). In

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 20 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). Darwin had employed
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and Emma Darwin, …
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • wants a grievance to hang an article upon’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [28 January 1880] ). …
  • … , sending one or both to his daughter Henrietta ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 1 February [1880] ). …
  • he will have the last word’, she warned ( letter from H. E. Litchfield, [1 February 1880] ). ‘He
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • Darwinophobia? It is a horrid disease’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 3 February 1880 ). All
  • from scientific debate. The matter spilled over into January 1881. With Henriettas aid, the advice
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • pretended, ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of
  • bags ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [6, 13, or 20] March 1881 ). Romanes was at work on a lengthy
  • aided in any way direct attacks on religion’ ( letter to E. B. Aveling, 13 October 1880 ). Finally

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … Origin . The second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and …
  • … Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 Darwin praises Graham’s Creed …
  • … Letter 5307 — Darwin, C. R. to Boole, M. E., 14 Dec 1866 Darwin believes he is unable to …
  • … Letter 8070 — Darwin, C. R. to Abbot, F. E., 16 Nov [1871] Darwin explains why he must …
  • … Letter 1536 — Darwin, C. R. to Lubbock, J. W. (b), 11 Oct [1853] Darwin gives his opinion to …
  • … — Darwin, C. R. to Fegan, J. W. C., [Dec 1880 – Feb 1881] Darwin writes to J. W. C Fegan, a …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin …
  • … lay it down. Letter 13547 - Tanner, M. H. to Darwin, [12 December 1881] …

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 15 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May 1865] …
  • asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • to state that the information wasreceived through Sir C. Lyellor received fromMiss. B”. …
  • … . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868] Darwin asks
  • Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E., [13 May 1872] Darwin consults his
  • rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 July 1872] Darwin
  • near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • Letter 8193 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [1 February 1872] Amy Ruck sends a
  • … . Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin
  • Letter 13037 - Darwin to Darwin, W. E., [5 February 1881] Darwin discusses

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The story of Charles Darwins involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It
  • unique window into this complicated relationship throughout Darwins life, as it reveals his
  • belief (and doubt) than many non-conformist denominations. Darwins parents attended a Unitarian
  • the necessary studies to be a clergyman. During Darwins lifetime, the vast majority of the
  • income was essential to enjoy a gentlemanly lifestyle. For Darwin, who could rely on the financial
  • compatible with the pursuit of scientific interests. Indeed, Darwins Cambridge mentorJohn Stevens
  • … (Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine (1887): 321). Darwin started on his journey around the world
  • it even through a grove of Palms.—’ (letter to Caroline Darwin, 256 April [1832] ). Darwins
  • British Museum or some other learned place’ (letter from E. A. Darwin, 18 August [1832] ). …
  • sort of scene I never ought to think about—’ (letter to W. D. Fox, [912 August] 1835 ). Darwins
  • from the late 1830s, and in correspondence with his fiancéeEmma Wedgwood, in 1838 and 1839, as can
  • within six years of his return from the  Beagle  voyage, Darwin moved to Down House, in the
  • where their children Mary and Charles were buried; later Darwins brother Erasmus, Emmas sister
  • of Emma, whose religious scruples are discussed here. But Darwins correspondence reveals his own
  • letter of 1854 in which he saidFrom all I have seen of M r  Innesconduct towards the poor &amp
  • complications he left behind (letter from S. J. OH. Horsman, 2 June [1868] ). Among the reasons
  • Innes informed Darwin that though heheard all good of M r . Ffindens moral character, his
  • is an interesting letter from Darwin to the evangelist J. W. C. Fegan. Darwin whole-heartedly
  • … (letter to J. W. C. Fegan, [December 1880February 1881] ). Indeed, the Darwin family even
  • Victorian clergy. London: Croom Helm. Keppel, T. E. 1887. The country parson as he was, and as

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 24 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • one looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • Erasmuss house. The event was led by the medium Charles E. Williams, and was attended by George
  • Williams wasa cheat and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin
  • he was thus free to perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874] ). This did
  • sweetly all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The
  • I have pounded the enemy into a jelly’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 14 April 1874 ). The technical
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • failure of observations in New Zealand (see G. B. Airy ed. 1881). Darwins third son Francis
  • the subject & that must be enough for me’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon
  • try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April
  • nephew, the fine-art specialist Henry Parker ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • Julius Victor Carus, and his publisher, Eduard Koch of E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 27 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was
  • during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously
  • work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material
  • to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals
  • her liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). …
  • to be the truth, whether pleasant or not’ (letter from W. W. Reade, 21 February 1871). The geologist
  • OldhamThey club together to buy them’ ( letter from W. B. Dawkins, 23 February 1871 ). Thomas
  • … . ancestor lived between tide-marks!’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 February 1871 ). Asa Gray
  • and the heavy use of their arms and legs ( letter from C. L. Bernays, 25 February 1871 ). Samples
  • to make it darker than the hair on his head ( letter from W. B. Tegetmeier, [before 25 April 1871] …
  • a high aesthetic appreciation of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). …
  • is a thing which I sh d  feel very proud of, if anyone c d . say of me.’ After the publication
  • most deep and tender religious feeling’ ( letter from F. E. Abbot, 20 August 1871 ). The Anglican
  • was achieved throughthe medium of opinion, positive law &c’, and transmitted by culture, not
  • Abraham Dee Bartlett, Albert Günther, George Busk, T. H. Huxley, Osbert Salvin, and William Henry
  • and misquoting of both Darwin and Catholic theology (T. H. Huxley 1871). Huxley judged Mivart to be
  • in the world except. laughing. crying grinning pouting &c. &c’, he wrote to Hooker on 21
  • so giddy I can hardly sit up, so no more’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 4 August [1871] ). On 23
  • … ( letter to Asa Gray, 16 July [1871] , letter to S. R. S. Norton, 23 November [1871] ). …
  • who wasas good as twice refined gold’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 September [1871] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 24 hits

  • The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle  voyage was one
  • the publication of the  Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle , for which he described the
  • a family Busy as he was with scientific activities, Darwin found time to re-establish family
  • close contact. In November 1838, two years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, …
  • daughter, Anne Elizabeth, moved to Down House in Kent, where Darwin was to spend the rest of his
  • his greatest theoretical achievement, the most important of Darwins activities during the years
  • identifications of his bird and fossil mammal specimens, Darwin arrived at the daring and momentous
  • ideas on a wide range of topics. Then, in September 1838, T. R. Malthus’  An essay on the principle
  • in species. With this new theoretical point of departure Darwin continued to make notes and explore
  • present in the version of 1859. Young author Darwins investigation of the species
  • the  Beagle  had returned to England, news of some of Darwins findings had been spread by the
  • great excitement. The fuller account of the voyage and Darwins discoveries was therefore eagerly
  • suitable categories for individual experts to work upon, Darwin applied himself to the revision of
  • third volume of the  Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle. Darwins
  • and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. BeagleAlso in November 1837, …
  • the publication of the Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle  from February 1838 to October 1843
  • Fossil Mammalia , by Richard OwenMammalia , by G. R. WaterhouseBirds , by John Gould;  …
  • variety of publications. The beetles were described by F. W. Hope, G. R. Waterhouse, and C. C. …
  • distribution and classification (see Henslow 1837a and 1838; W. J. Hooker and G. A. W. Arnott 1836, …
  • Lyells sister-in-law, Katharine Lyell, between 1875 and 1881, when she was collecting material for
  • convince anyone that he had a sound solution to what J. F. W. Herschel in a letter to Lyell had
  • all crosses between all domestic birds & animals dogs, cats &c &c very valuable—' …
  • the practice of systematists. As the correspondence with G. R. Waterhouse during the 1840s shows, …
  • to Caroline Darwin, 13 October 1834 , and letter from R. E. Alison, 25 June 1835 ). Henry

Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 23 hits

  • Letters | Selected Readings Darwin's first reflections on human progress were
  • human progress or cause degeneration. In the "Fuegians", Darwin thought he had witnessed
  • several years earlier as part of a missionary enterprise. Darwin was struck by the progress that had
  • been returned to their native land. After the voyage, Darwin began to question the
  • After the publication of Origin of Species , many of Darwin's supporters continued to
  • or extermination of other peoples and cultures. When Darwin wrote about the human races and
  • on human and animal behavior accumulated over three decades. Darwin argued forcefully for the unity
  • and beyond. Letters Darwins first observations of the peoples
  • Cambridge, John Stevens Henslow. Letter 204 : Darwin to Henslow, J. S., 11 April 1833
  • Charles wrote to his sister, Emily Catherine Darwin, about witnessing slavery in the Portuguese
  • effect in the following year. Letter 206 : Darwin to Darwin, E. C., 22 May [– 14 July] …
  • human descent. Letter 4933 : Farrar, F. W. to Darwin, 6 November 1865
  • this a very strong argument for the Polygenist?" Darwin asked the English settler
  • of replies from the South African native, Christian Gaika. Darwin was impressed by Gaika's
  • of civilization of the natives. Letter 5617 , Darwin to Weale, J. P. M., 27 August
  • civilization" Letter 5722 , Weale, J. P. M. to Darwin, [10 December 1867] …
  • Just prior to the publication of Origin of Species , Darwin discussed his views on progress in a
  • … , 6 th ed, p. 98). Letter 2503 : Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, C., 11 October [1859] …
  • William Graham. Letter 2503 : Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, C., 11 October [1859] I
  • in rank." Letter 4510 : Darwin to Wallace, A. R., 28 [May 1864] "Now
  • Letter 13230 : Darwin to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 "I could show fight on natural
  • Primary Charles Darwin, Notebooks, B 18-29; E 95-7 [ available at Darwinonline ] …
  • Culture (1871) [ available at archive.org ] T. H. Huxley, "Methods and Results of

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

Here is a list of people that appeared in the photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 February 1877 from scientific admirers in the Netherlands. Many thanks to Hester Loeff for identifying and researching them. No. …

Matches: 2 hits

  • … list of people that appeared in the  photograph album Darwin received for his birthday on 12 …
  • … 13 august 1816 Rauwerd 6 december 1881 Den Haag 105 …

People featured in the Dutch photograph album

Summary

List of people appearing in the photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in the Netherlands for his birthday on 12 February 1877. We are grateful to Hester Loeff for providing this list and for permission to make her research available.…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … List of people appearing in the  photograph album Darwin received from scientific admirers in …
  • … Died just a few months after the album was sent to Charles Darwin at the age of 53 …
  • … Geologist, Economist an Darwinist. Corresponded with Darwin and translated The descent of Man in …
  • … 13 August 1816 Rauwerd 6 December 1881 Den Haag …