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2.16 Horace Montford statue, Shrewsbury


Horace Montford’s statue of Darwin, installed in his birthplace, Shrewsbury, in 1897, is one of the finest of the commemorative portrayals of him. Up to that time, the only memorial to Darwin in the town was a wall tablet of 1882 in the Unitarian church,…

Matches: 24 hits

  • Horace Montfords statue of Darwin, installed in his birthplace, Shrewsbury, …
  • portrayals of him. Up to that time, the only memorial to Darwin in the town was a wall tablet of
  • proposal, and in 18931894 another project for a statue of Darwin came to nothing, due to a
  • ago by the public at largein commissioning a statue of Darwin, to be unveiled at the time of the
  • of world power and of unrivalled intellectual achievement. Darwin in particular was internationally
  • general committee for November 1896 reveal that the sculptor Horace Montford, who was born near
  • 1897, at a ceremony attended by Joseph Hooker and by two of Darwins sons, William and George, as
  • … . Hooker, theaccomplished disciple and dear friend of Darwin’, spoke, with emotion, about the
  • a local man. It is an impressive and sympathetic likeness of Darwin in old age, in the creation of
  • of his subject. The hands were modelled from those of George Darwin, as most nearly resembling his
  • that had initially been directed at Boehms treatment of Darwins hands in the Natural History
  • barnacles, orchids and other plants and insects in which Darwin was interested. The winged suns
  • erected in the forecourt of the old Shrewsbury school which Darwin had attended as a boybut by
  • the bold and controversial decision to place the statue of Darwin, which is raised on a high granite
  • recalled the Bishop of Herefords remark in 1896that Darwin was ordained one of the doorkeepers in
  • to them new vistasof scientific knowledge. William Darwin in his speech at the unveiling ceremony
  • he had received at Shrewsbury schoolWhile Horace Montford was working on the Shrewsbury
  • son Paul Raphael Montford produced a spirited portrait of Darwin in the form of a chalk sketch, …
  • dignified prototypes, but the facial expression he gives to Darwin irreverently borders on
  • holder unknown  
 originator of image Horace Montford 
 date of creation 1896
  • granite. Inscribed on the front of the pedestal, ‘DARWIN 1809 1882’; on the right edge of the bronze
  • June 1897), p. 10; (13 August 1897), pp. 57. ‘Proposed Darwin memorial at Shrewsbury’, Times
  • … (11 August 1897), p. 8. ‘A memorial statue of Charles Darwin’, Manchester Guardian (11 August
  • lists Montford as exhibiting aModel of the Statue of Darwinat the exhibition of 1898 (no. 1815). …

Horace Darwin born


Darwin's son, and ninth child, Horace is born

Matches: 1 hits

List of correspondents


Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … Darwin, H. E. (60) Darwin, Horace (30) …
  • … Peacock, George (2) Pearce, Horace (1) …

1879 Letters now online


In 1879, Darwin continued his research on movement in plants and researched, wrote, and published a short biography of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin as an introduction to a translation of an essay by Ernst Krause on Erasmus’s scientific work. Darwin’s son…

Matches: 11 hits

  • In 1879, Darwin continued his research on movement in plants and researched, wrote, and published a
  • most of August on holiday in the Lake District. In October, Darwins youngest son, Horace, became
  • December [1879] ) In early 1879, as a tribute on Darwins 70th birthday, the editor of
  • until the preface was longer than the translated article. Darwin contacted cousins, sent his sons to
  • little book, with low but respectable sales, and Darwin was relieved to hear that his friends
  • sense & not to professional advisors .  ( Letter to the Darwin children, 21 February 1879 ) …
  • receiving certain irritations  ( Letter t o Francis Darwin, 2 July [1879] ) Darwin
  • 23 October 1879 ) During the year Darwin continued his support for other workers in
  • of the politicians seemed to be elsewhere. Horace has as sweet a temper & as
  • … ( Letter to THFarrer, 13 October 1879 ) Darwin wrote this to his son Horaces
  • his opposition to the match between his daughter, Ida, and Horace. The two families had known each

2.17 Montford, statuette


Horace Montford reproduced the design of his seated statue of Darwin at Shrewsbury (1897) as a small bronze statuette. He lent the ‘original cast’ of the statuette to the Darwin Centenary exhibition at Christ’s College, Cambridge, in the summer of 1909,…

Matches: 3 hits

  • Horace Montford reproduced the design of his seated statue of Darwin at Shrewsbury (1897) as a small …
  • … New York Botanical Garden 
 originator of image Horace Montford 
 date …
  • … and bibliography A.E. Shipley and J.C. Simpson (eds), Darwin Centenary: The Portraits, Prints …

2.21 Montford, relief at Christ's College


An oval bronze plaque with a relief portrait of Darwin by Horace Montford is at Christ’s College, Cambridge, the college where Darwin had been an undergraduate. It is likely to have been based on one of the many photographs of him in his later years, which…

Matches: 8 hits

  • An oval bronze plaque with a relief portrait of Darwin by Horace Montford is at Christs College, …
  • planning the statue at Shrewsbury. The three-quarter view of Darwins head is especially reminiscent
  • Montford seems to have slightly refined the shape of Darwins nose, and to have imparted flowing
  • than 1909, when it was lent by Montford himself to the Darwin exhibition at Christs College. The
  • right brings out the subtlety of Montfords modelling of Darwins featuresphysical
  • College, Cambridge 
 originator of image Horace Montford 
 date of
  • a wooden panel 
 references and bibliography Darwin Centenary: The Portraits, Prints and
  • vol. 7, 1985, p. 11, no. 18. John van Wyhe, Charles Darwin in Cambridge: The Most Joyful Years

2.20 Montford, terracotta bust, NPG


Horace Montford presented this terracotta bust of Darwin to the National Portrait Gallery in January 1905. He explained that it was the model for the bronze busts commissioned by Andrew Carnegie in 1901, one of which is now in the Carnegie Museum of…

Matches: 2 hits

  • Horace Montford presented this terracotta bust of Darwin to the National …
  • … National Portrait Gallery 
 originator of image Horace Montford 
 date …

Dramatisation script


Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 24 hits

  • Re: DesignAdaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby Craig
  • as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified
  • correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring
  • Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin Actor 3In the dress of a modern day
  • Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwinand acts as a sort
  • the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and
  • this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa
  • friends in England, copies of hisReview of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it
  • Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwinmade his home on the border of the little
  • are kept in check by a constitutional weakness. DARWIN: A plain but comfortable brick
  • by every blessing except that of vigorous healthDARWIN4   My confounded stomach
  • pursuits and the simplicity of his character. DARWIN:   5   I am allowed to work now
  • own house, where he was the most charming of hosts. DARWIN:   6   My life goes on
  • being a part of [an unpublished] manuscript. Darwin settles down to write. His tone is
  • THE CONCURRENCE OF BOTANISTS: 1855 In which Darwin initiates a long-running correspondence
  • gossip about difficult colleagues (Agassiz). Gray realizes Darwin is not revealing all of his
  • man, more formally attired and lighter on his feet than Darwin. He has many more demands on his time
  • catches his attention. He opens the letter. DARWIN8   April 25 th 1855. My
  • filled up the paper you sent me as well as I could. DARWIN10   My dear Dr Gray. I
  • is condensed in that little sheet of note-paper! DARWIN11   My dear HookerWhat
  • …   My dear Gray. I must tell you that the other day [my boy Horace] overheard me talking about
  • DARWINI answeredOh yes.’ HORACEWell then, what did they say about the kinds of
  • answered that these were all due to mans agency. HORACEBut do not wild plants vary? …
  • whoformerlybelieved in such conclusions. I believe Horace is a prophetic type, as Agassiz would

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots


Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 21 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography
  • a holiday in the Lake District in August did little to raise Darwins spirits. ‘I wish that my
  • W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • contained a warmer note and the promise of future happiness: Darwin learned he was to be visited by
  • the veteran of Modern Zoology’, but it was in Germany that Darwin was most fêted. A German
  • … ). The masters of Greiz College in Thuringia venerated Darwin asthe deep thinker’, while
  • accepted in Germany. ‘On this festive day’, Haeckel told Darwin, ‘you can look back, with justified
  • objection to the engagement between his daughter Ida and Horace Darwin. This was all the more
  • at the Farrershome, Abinger Hall, on several occasions. Horace had first approached Farrer to
  • Farrers objection was based on his impression of Horaces poor health and lack of profession, and
  • reported, because Darwin told Farrera great deal about Horace that he did not know, especially
  • Farrer did not relent. While the Darwins were in Coniston, Horace was instructed to wait for three
  • the engagement between his daughter Ida and Darwins son Horace be kept secret and that there should
  • and so, despite continuing to harbour misgivings about Horaces health and career, finally agreed to
  • to heal rifts. He understood Farrers concerns about Horaces health and acknowledged that the match
  • decisions concerning the amount of money to be settled on Horace and Ida came to an amicable end, …

2.19 Montford, bust at the Royal Society


Horace Montford’s marble bust of Darwin at the Royal Society, dating from 1898, derives from his bronze statue at Shrewsbury. It was normal for sculptors to re-use their models in this way for the creation of busts and statuettes, in order to capitalise on…

Matches: 6 hits

  • Horace Montfords marble bust of Darwin at the Royal Society, dating from
  • men, and attract new commissions. Montfords portrayal of Darwin proved exceptionally popular, and
  • was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1899 (no. 2023). Here Darwins coat is drawn across his chest, …
  • Wedgwood, daughter of Hensleigh Wedgwood; Hensleigh was Darwins brother-in-law and cousin. Farrers
  • Royal Society with an offer to lend another of his busts of Darwin for inspection by the Fellows, …
  • … (image number RS.13314) 
 originator of image Horace Montford 
 date of creation

2.18 Montford, Carnegie bust


In 1901 the immensely rich steel manufacturer and business magnate Andrew Carnegie commissioned Horace Montford for two bronze busts of Darwin. The exact circumstances of the commission are unknown, but Carnegie must have been impressed by Montford’s…

Matches: 8 hits

  • and business magnate Andrew Carnegie commissioned Horace Montford for two bronze busts of Darwin. …
  • also seen photographs of Montfords seated statue of Darwin at Shrewsbury. The report in Knowledge
  • of the dress is more relaxed than in the earlier bust of Darwin, and it stands on a finely shaped
  • an expression of hisGospel of Wealth’; and the bust of Darwin would have been felt to possess both
  • for inspectionby members. However, in 1966 the bust of Darwin (together with one of Herbert
  • in evolutionary theory as explained in the writings of Darwin, believing it to be as applicable to
  • Museum of Natural History 
 originator of image Horace Montford 
 date of creation
  • the Carnegie Museum of Natural History Library. ‘A bust of Darwin’, Knowledge , 25:195 (Jan. 1902

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year


The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 23 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too
  • the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those
  • imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin agreed that it wasall imposture’ …
  • stop word getting to America of thestrange newsthat Darwin had alloweda spirit séanceat his
  • the first three months of the year and, like many of Darwins enterprises in the 1870s, were family
  • 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble in
  • and letter to Charles Lyell, [13 January 1874] ). Darwin blamed his illness for the
  • … . In his preface ( Coral reefs  2d ed., pp. vvii), Darwin reasserted the priority of his work. …
  • for the absence of coral-reefs in certain locations. Darwin countered with the facts that low
  • whole coastline of a large island. Dana also thought that Darwin had seen fringing reefs as proof of
  • presentation copy, Dana sent an apology for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D
  • were also doing well. Despite ill health, his youngest son Horace began the year by taking the
  • without being bad & have done pretty well’ ( letter to Horace Darwin, 9 January [1874] ). …
  • Kent. After a months trial Darwin wrote to the firm about Horaces illness: ‘My son is most

Darwin’s observations on his children


Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 27 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • born 16 August 1848; Leonard, born 15 January 1850; and Horace, born 18 May 1851. It appears to have
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • all the notes until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwins later entries, like Emmas, …
  • Transcription: 1 [9W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10During first week. …
  • ought to do what a child says to a maid.[70] 46  Horace[712½. G. When shall you wean
  • But Papa you ought to forgive me if I do. 46v.  Horace seeing one of the huntsman not in a
  • P. Yes. Well I will then. Lenny trying to amuse Horace (crying  Baby I said Id got a bit of
  • … ”.[76] June 61854. Lenny after quarrelling with Horace, “I  feel  that I shall never play
  • … (ie liquorice) 49v.   July 25 th[77] /54/ Horace struck Lenny with a rake & Lenny
  • … “I bets that is a rum thing”, the bet being offered to Horace Lenny. When ill with Fever &amp
  • if you wont, you must.”— 50bv. [80Horace 3 yrs old walking with Bessy in London saw a
  • you the nature of these sort of persons (meaning himself & Horace who were making a horrid mess) …
  • written in pencil by CD and subsequently overwritten by Emma Darwin. The transcription throughout
  • … [15] ‘Annie . . . fortnightwas written by Emma Darwin on the verso of page 3 and opposite the
  • The name and address of a Mrs Locke are noted in Emma Darwins 1843 diary. [16The following
  • do not know.’ (H. E. Litchfield papers, CUL). [71Horace Darwin, born 1851. [72] …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms


‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 21 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • Charles Harrison Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends
  • divines to see a pigs body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied, ‘& that about my
  • registry offices, and produced a twenty-page history of the Darwin family reaching back to the
  • the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwins sons George and Leonard also
  • and conciliate a few whose ancestors had not featured in Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to
  • think I must pay a round of visits.’ One cousin, Reginald Darwin, warmed to George: ‘he had been
  • an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and Emma Darwin, 22 July
  • whose essay on Erasmuss scientific work complemented Darwins biographical piece. Krauses essay
  • Kosmos in February 1879, an issue produced in honour of Darwins birthday. Krause enlarged and
  • superficial and inaccurate piece of work’, although Darwin advised him not toexpend much powder
  • in the last sentence. When Butler read Erasmus Darwin , he noted the reference to his work, and
  • the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old & New, and
  • While on honeymoon with his new wife, Ida, in the Alps, Horace spotted worms at high elevations, …
  • saw a steam tramimagine my excitement’ ( letter from Horace Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September
  • elected fellow of the Royal Society. He rejoiced to see Horace and Ida settled in their new home in

Referencing women’s work


Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 16 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May 1865] Darwin
  • asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] Darwins
  • in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - …
  • in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868
  • baby in Mary Barton. Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E., [13 May
  • at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwins
  • I can implicitly rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 July 1872] …
  • Darwin, H., [1 November 1877] Darwin asks his sons, Horace and Francis, to observe
  • … - Darwin, H. to Darwin, [7 October 1880] Horace writes to his father with information
  • St Tibbs Row. Darwin proudly referenced the work of "My son Horace" in Vegetable Mould

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest


The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 26 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was
  • during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously
  • work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material
  • to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals
  • he istorn to piecesby people wanting copies’, Darwin wrote to his son Francis on 28 February
  • letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ). The profits for Darwin were considerable. After
  • man.’ Promoting the book As usual, Darwin did his best to obtain a wide and favourable
  • … (see Correspondence vol. 19Appendix IV). Four of Darwins five sons received a copy, and his
  • received a special acknowledgment in the form of a gift. Darwin credited her for whatever he had
  • … ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction
  • 1871). The geologist William Boyd Dawkins remarked on Darwins booksreception amongstartisans
  • 23 February 1871 ). Thomas Henry Huxley marvelled that Darwin had been able to link the periodicity
  • VariationDescent  inspired many to write to Darwin with small corrections or contributions. …
  • foetus ( letter from Hinrich Nitsche, 18 April 1871 ). Darwin thought he might use the photographs
  • friends A number of correspondents took issue with Darwins evolutionary explanation of the
  • butterflies and beetles to  Descent , could not extend Darwins evolutionary theory beyond mans
  • disagreement regarding human ancestry was expressed by Darwins old friend, the former vicar of Down
  • now left the family home. The Darwins&#039youngest son, Horace, entered Cambridge
  • to pursue studies in mathematics and science ( letter to Horace Darwin, [15 December 1871] ). …

Movement in Plants


The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 23 hits

  • 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • the advantages of both while Francis was working abroad. Darwin was privy to the inner workings of
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • plant physiology, but it was at its core informed by Darwins theory of evolution, particularly by
  • early 1860s, at a time when his health was especially bad, Darwin had taken up the study of climbing
  • reproduced as a small book, giving it a much wider audience. Darwin was not the first naturalist to
  • which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a much longer work,  …
  • about the nature of movement, so much so, that at one point Darwin had considered combining the
  • digestive processes. With his final great botanical work, Darwin would attemptto bring all the
  • emotions had their origins in non-human animal expression. Darwin had not done experimental work in
  • viewed the division between animals and plants as absolute, Darwin was interested in similarities. …
  • become adapted to perform new functions, like climbing? For Darwin, physiology was a way of seeing
  • attracting students from all over Europe and beyond. When Darwins