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Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 22 hits

  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was increasingly a
  • assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his sons own
  • from a family that the Darwins had befriended. The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. …
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of
  • and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term
  • as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton
  • of respect and affection’. He hinted as much in his letter of 4 June : ‘you will see I have done
  • In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but Francis later reported some of the results of
  • of a very heavy shower’, William wrote on 24 August 1877 . ‘The leaves were not at all depressed; …
  • have shared Hookers suspicion of ambitious gardeners ( letter from W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August
  • … … tap one of the young leaves with a delicate twig’ ( letter to R. I. Lynch, 14 September 1877 ). …
  • with thread, card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed
  • but I think the great honour of its being printed in the R. Soc. Transactions, (sh d . the
  • larger aim was announced in the subtitle: Zeitschrift für einheitliche Weltanschauung auf Grund
  • … ‘but found him as soft & smooth as butter’ ( letter to C. E. Norton, 16 March 1877 ). Hooker
  • I hope it may remain for centuries to come’ ( letter from C. C. Graham, 30 January 1877 ). Graham
  • of Siebolds study of medical monstrosity ( letter from C. T. E. Siebold, 10 October 1877 ). An
  • any recognition by any public bodies of England & that y r . own University w d . like to be

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 18 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • many blessings, was finding old agea dismal time’ ( letter to Henry Johnson, 24 September 1879 ) …
  • all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879 ). The year
  • nice and good as could be’ ( letter from Karl Beger, [ c. 12 February 1879] ). The masters of
  • Virchows attempt to discredit evolutionary theory in 1877, assured him that his views were now
  • editor of the journal Kosmos , which had been founded in 1877 by Krause and others as a journal
  • with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as Francis Darwin reported from Germany that
  • the children correctly’, mentioning in particular that Francis Galton was the son of one of Erasmus
  • of the Admiralty described the unknown young man asA M r Darwin grandson of the well known
  • him on 9 June not toexpend much powder & shot on M r  Butler’, for he really was not worth
  • and particularly the theory of natural selection in 1877) had previously told Krause, ‘He is a very
  • the highest point, for hiswhy”—“what for” &c are incessant’, Darwin joked on 2 July (first
  • is his profession thonot a profitable one; also D r  C[lark]’s opinion that he was so likely to
  • of laws he had received from Cambridge University in 1877. Emma Darwin recorded that Darwin found
  • and preventCattle diseases, Potato diseases &c’, probably did not know that Darwin had already

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments …
  • … of most advanced plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … Hooker, ‘or as far as I know any scientific man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1878] ). …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … or arched.… Almost all seedlings come up arched’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … (see Movement in plants , pp. 112–13). He explained to Francis on 2 July : ‘I go on maundering …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … when he finds out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] …
  • Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my blunder’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 22 December [1878] ). …
  • … accursed German language: Sachs is very kind to him’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June …
  • … Record”’ ( letter from Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvár, 28 April 1878 ). ‘What a wonderful change …
  • … the German Association of Naturalists in September 1877, Darwin’s outspoken supporter Ernst Haeckel …
  • … opponent’ ( Correspondence vol. 24, letter to T. C. Eyton, 22 April 1876 ). ‘When I first read …
  • … secretary, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil ( letter to R. A. T. Gascoyne-Cecil, 18 May 1878 ). …

Cross and self fertilisation

Summary

The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom, published on 10 November 1876, was the result of a decade-long project to provide evidence for Darwin’s belief that ‘‘Nature thus tells us, in the most emphatic manner, that she abhors…

Matches: 26 hits

  • the result of a decade-long project to provide evidence for Darwins belief that ‘‘Nature thus tells
  • on plants with two or three different forms of flowers, Darwin had focused on the anatomical and
  • of different forms of pollen. Although many plants that Darwin observed had flowers with adaptations
  • rates, growth, and constitutional vigour. Although Darwin was no stranger to long months and years
  • … … is highly remarkableIn September 1866, Darwin announced to the American botanist
  • several years ( To Édouard Bornet, 1 December 1866 ). Darwin began a series of experiments, …
  • … ). It was only after a new season of experiments that Darwin would confirm that this poppy shed its
  • access to flowers was only the tip of the iceberg. Darwin next focused on the California
  • conditions’ ( From Fritz Müller, 1 December 1866 ). Darwins interest was piqued and he described
  • when self-fertilised, although fewer than crossed plants. Darwin sent some of these seeds to Müller, …
  • … [1868] ). Müller, in turn, sent seeds from his plants to Darwin and both men continued to
  • Müller remarked, on receiving a new batch of seeds from Darwin, ‘that it wascurious to see, on
  • seeds of Ipomœa. I remember saying the contrary to you & M r  Smith at Kew. But the result is
  • 17 March [1867] ). He noted another factor in a letter to Gray, remarking, ‘I am going on with my
  • I am already plagued by foreign Translators, Reviewers, &c.’ ( To John Murray, 4 May [1873] ). …
  • … [1873] ). In September, Darwin wrote a long letter to Nature commenting on a seemingly
  • 8 January 1876] ). It was his cousin, the statistician Francis Galton, who provided a statistical
  • to publish the report in the introduction to the book ( To Francis Galton, 13 January [1876] ). …
  • 6 June 1876] ). The project proved to be too complex and Francis Darwin later recalled, ‘the
  • the set of all my works, I would suggest 1,500’ ( To R. F. Cooke, 16 September 1876 ). In the
  • if, as I expect, you find it too much for you’ ( To Francis Darwin, 16 September [1876] ). Francis
  • of plants.’ ( From Friedrich Hildebrand, 18 January 1877 ). Hermann Müller enthused that Darwins
  • of hybrids, has not yet been produced’ ( From ARWallace, 13 December 1876 ). No reply to this
  • my book’ ( To  GardenersChronicle , 19 February [1877] ). In contrast, as Hooker told Darwin, …
  • gloats over it' ( From JDHooker, 27 January 1877 ). Darwin was especially pleased with
  • have quite eviscerated it’ ( To Asa Gray, 18 February [1877] ). By mid-March 1877, the edition was

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 22 hits

  • 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • research being pursued by other naturalists who, like Francis, had come to this centre for the study
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • copied but also improved on some of the apparatuses that Francis had been introduced to at Würzburg. …
  • plant physiology, but it was at its core informed by Darwins theory of evolution, particularly by
  • early 1860s, at a time when his health was especially bad, Darwin had taken up the study of climbing
  • reproduced as a small book, giving it a much wider audience. Darwin was not the first naturalist to
  • which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a much longer work,  …
  • had considered combining the works in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). …
  • …   ‘Very curious resultsIn May 1877, Darwin asked one of his most trusted
  • … ‘ Frank & I are working very hard on bloom & sleep &c.; but I am horribly afraid all
  • … , a plant that exhibited all three types of movement ( letter from RILynch, [before 28 July
  • the woodblock using photography for scientific accuracy ( letter from JDCooper13 December
  • lost colour, withered, and died within a couple of days ( letter from A. F. Batalin28 February
  • how their observations could have been so much at odds ( letter to Hugo de Vries 13 February 1879
  • to learn about cutting thin sections of soft leaves &c.— Lastly the instrument for making marks
  • those of Gray, who had written an article on the subject in 1877 (A. Gray 1877e). Gray had reported
  • the curious mode of germinationand concluded, ‘ M r  Rattan seems to be a real good observer, …
  • orThe Nature of the Movements of Plants’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke23 April [1880] ). Cooke
  • was willing to publish on the usual terms ( letter from R. F. Cooke15 July 1880 ). This was also
  • pay more for at the usual rate of charging per inch &c they w dbe over £40’; he suggested

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 11 hits

  • human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the
  • he first began to reflect on the transmutation of species. Darwins correspondence reveals the scope
  • whom he exchanged information and ideas. Letter 346Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb
  • Caucasian languages separated from one stock.” Letter 2070Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, …
  • because we can trace the elements into Latin, German &c. but I see much the same sort of thing
  • is the grinding down of former continents.” Letter 3054Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2
  • that languages, like species, were separately created. Darwin writes to the geologist Charles Lyell
  • former,—which I tell him is perfectly logical.” Letter 5605Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. …
  • Letter 7040Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., [1868-70?] As Darwin began to work on
  • growing to such a stageLetter 8367Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June [1872] …
  • Letter 11074Sayce, A. H. to Darwin, C. R., 27 July 1877 Darwins study of human nature

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • are identified only asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25
  • to state that the information wasreceived through Sir C. Lyellor received fromMiss. B”. …
  • Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece to
  • at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwins
  • Darwin, [4 January 1871] Darwins brother-in-law, Francis Wedgwood, sends the results of
  • near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • Letter 11221 - Darwin to Darwin, H., [1 November 1877] Darwin asks his sons, …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 25 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • Charles Harrison Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends
  • my grandfathers character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). …
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • Mr Butler whatever.’ Power of movement With Franciss assistance, the last of Darwins
  • the genus given by Gray in an article and textbook (A. Gray 1877 and A. Gray 1879, pp. 201). ‘I
  • shake their heads in the same dismal manner as you & M r . Murray did, when I told them my
  • of the nervous system, and the nature ofsensitivity’. Francis Balfour described Movement in
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • … ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of the family
  • the intake of stones and flints to aid digestion. He asked Francis to check for castings on old
  • rightly thought thequeer subjectof interest to Francis Galton, who had already taken thumb
  • extending the study to public-school pupils ( letter to Francis Galton, 7 April 1880 , and
  • great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). …
  • his voice as clearly as if he were present’ (letters to C. W. Fox, 29 March 1880 and 10 [April

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 22 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwins preoccupation with the
  • to mans place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwins species theory and on the problem
  • fromsome Quadrumanum animal’, as he put it in a letter to J. D. Hooker of 24[–5] February [1863] …
  • detailed anatomical similarities between humans and apes, Darwin was full of praise. He especially
  • … ‘I declare I never in my life read anything grander’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 26 [February 1863] …
  • in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwins concern about the popular
  • Lyells and Huxleys books. Three years earlier Darwin had predicted that Lyells forthcoming
  • than  Origin had (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). …
  • from animals like the woolly mammoth and cave bear ( see letter from Jacques Boucher de Perthes, 23
  • first half of 1863 focused attention even more closely on Darwins arguments for species change. …
  • … ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later letter that it
  • of creation, and the origin of species particularly, worried Darwin; he told Hooker that he had once
  • letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin did not relish telling Lyell of his
  • … ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwins regret was profound that the
  • sentence from the second edition of  Antiquity of man  (C. Lyell 1863b, p. 469), published in
  • by them (see Correspondence vol. 11, Appendix IX). Francis Darwin later wrote of his fathers
  • very slowly recovering, but am very weak’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [29 September? 1863] ). …
  • Thomass Hospital, London ( letter from George Busk, [ c. 27 August 1863] ). Brinton, who

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 22 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwins fluid intake; this treatment
  • the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum
  • he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his
  • and he received more letters of advice from Jenner. In a letter of 15 December [1864] to the
  • November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Societys Copley Medal; …
  • been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William
  • it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin also wrote to Fox that he was
  • progressin Britain. Challenging convention Darwins concern about the acceptance of
  • observations indoors ( Correspondence  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin
  • gradation by which  leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). …
  • fearfully for it is a leaf climber & therefore sacred’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] …
  • matters which routinists regard in the light of axioms’ ( letter from Daniel Oliver, [17 March 1864
  • long series of changes . . .’ When he told Asa Gray in a letter of 29 October [1864] that he was
  • of dimorphic and trimorphic plants’), and later in his 1877 bookThe different forms of flowers on
  • measures, and drew the figures forClimbing plants’. Francis, aged 14, collected specimens of  …
  • in the second edition of  Orchids , published in 1877. These publications were partly inspired by
  • 5 September 1864 ). Fritz Müeller sent his bookFür Darwin , and Darwin had it translated by a
  • but Lyell says when I read his discussion in the Elements [C. Lyell 1865] I shall recant for fifth
  • on intellectual &ampmoral  qualities’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 26 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • sketch of an infant’, published in  Mind  in 1877.[2The full text of the notebook is available
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • all the notes until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwins later entries, like Emmas, …
  • Transcription: 1 [9W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10During first week. …
  • of muscles, without a corresponding sensation. D r . Holland[12informs me children do not
  • our door N o  12 and N o  11 is in the slit for the Letter box.— he decidedly ran past N o  11
  • has learned them from my sometimes changing the first letter in any word he is usingthus I say
  • trowsers. Emma one morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet of C. Langton,[52W. instantly observed
  • she added an s to the end of every wordEttis & Bettis &c afterwards all the ws were turned
  • goed dawn to the willage”. Fish for Smith. Kaw for cow. &c. Lenny[612 years old speaks
  • any thing with my egg. Miss Th. Shall I cut up y r  meat? L. I dont care whether you do or
  • … “But I could not help it”— I saidLenny you c d  help it, dont say that”. “I could not help it a
  • … , pp. 1312. [6Correspondence  vol. 2, letter from Emma Wedgwood, [23 January 1839] . …
  • pencil) by Emma Darwin must have been added on 19 January 1877, when Francis Darwins son Bernard
  • information is given. [57Emma Darwins brother Francis (Frank) Wedgwood lived at Etruria
  • … [61Leonard Darwin, born 1850. [62Francis Darwin, born 1848. [63Sarah was