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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August …
  • … silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to …
  • … observations of cats’ instinctive behaviour. Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, …
  • … to artificially fertilise plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to …
  • … in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • … a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • … Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 …
  • … of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • … her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676 …
  • … Darwin’s behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • … little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • … and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • … New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin …
  • … lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August …
  • … on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • … any way he can. Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] …
  • … Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] Emma’s sister, Sarah, passes on …
  • … at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February …
  • … E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • … Women: Letter 2345 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [20 October 1858] Darwin …
  • … E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • … is a great critic”, thought the article worth reprinting, Emma was less convinced. Letter

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 14 hits

  • for evaluation, and persuaded his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker to comment on a paper on  Verbascum
  • committed suicide at the end of April; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic
  • thriving, and when illness made work impossible, Darwin and Hooker read a number of novels, and
  • having all the Boys at home: they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] …
  • had failed to include among the grounds of the award ( see letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus
  • his letters to Darwin, and Darwin responded warmly: ‘Your letter is by far the grandest eulogium
  • may well rest content that I have not laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] …
  • always a most kind friend to me. So the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] …
  • griefs & pains: these alone are unalloyed’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 3 February 1865 ). …
  • Sic transit gloria mundi, with a vengeance’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 February [1865] ). …
  • know it is folly & nonsense to try anyone’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). He
  • and Darwin had given it up by early July ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, [10 July 1865] ). In
  • attending school, and spent some time travelling in Europe (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242),  Emma
  • people werent so foolish’;. In November, Darwin and Emma visited Erasmus in London ( …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August …
  • … pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such …
  • … And … one looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • … was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • … inferred that he was well from his silence on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October …
  • … to believe in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 …
  • … for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did …
  • … Mivart (see  Correspondence  vol. 20, letter to St G. J. Mivart, 11 January [1872] ). To Darwin …
  • … views. In December, he sought advice from Huxley and Hooker, sending them a draft letter that …
  • … satisfaction. Assisted in the wording by his wife, Emma, and daughter Henrietta, he finally wrote a …
  • … a comfortable cabin ( see letter from Leonard Darwin to Emma Darwin, [after 26 June -- 28 September …
  • … to become Darwin’s secretary. They rented Down Lodge and Emma Darwin wrote, ‘They have . . . made …
  • … the average in prettiness & snugness’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October …
  • letter to Down School Board, [after 29 November 1873] ). Emma saw a ‘great blessing’ in the rumour …
  • … dead uncle’s position of vicar of Deptford ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … be well abused’, he wrote to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker on 21 January , ‘for as my son Frank …
  • … the proof-sheets, rather than waiting for the bound copies. Hooker suggested one of the reasons …
  • … do to talk about it, which no doubt promotes the sale’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ) …
  • … to her liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). …
  • … and had forsaken his lunch and dinner in order to read it ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 19 …
  • … they believe to be the truth, whether pleasant or not’ (letter from W. W. Reade, 21 February 1871). …
  • … and Oldham … They club together to buy them’ ( letter from W. B. Dawkins, 23 February 1871 ). …
  • letter from Arthur Nicols, 7 March 1871 ; letter from B. J. Sulivan, 11 March 1871 ; letter
  • … a high aesthetic appreciation of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). …
  • … a good way ahead of you, as far as this goes’ ( letter to J. B. Innes, 29 May [1871] ). On …
  • … by the presence of its master. ( Letter from Hensleigh Wedgwood, [3–9 March 1871] .) Some …
  • … and morally bound. In one particularly long letter to Wedgwood, Darwin alluded to the pain of …
  • … agreement is a satisfaction to me’ ( letter to Hensleigh Wedgwood, 9 March 1871 ). A …
  • … tell heavily against natural selection’, Darwin wrote to Hooker on 21 January . Darwin read the …
  • … only the ‘most guarded expressions’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 January [1871] ). …
  • … arrogant, odious beast that ever lived,’ Darwin wrote to Hooker on 16 September . Darwin …
  • … religious bigotry is at the root of it’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 16 September [1871] ). …
  • … home, Leith Hill Place in Surrey, and CD’s niece Lucy Wedgwood collected and weighed the dried …
  • … & sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin, [5 November 1871] ). Her …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 23 hits

  • in satisfying female preference in the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, …
  • of changing the races of man’ (Correspondence vol. 12, letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). …
  • book would take the form of ashort essayon man ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 3 July 1868 ). But
  • as well say, he would drink a little and not too much’ ( letter to Albert Günther, 15 May [1868] ) …
  • the accursed Index-maker’, Darwin wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 6 January . Darwin had sent
  • would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwins angry letter to Murray crossed one from Dallas to
  • of labour to remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). …
  • to read a few pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). But such
  • awaythat sparked the most discussion. Darwin wrote to Hooker on 23 February , ‘did you look at
  • thought it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, …
  • editor of the  London and Westminster Review . When Hooker later tried to refute the claims of the
  • a scamp & I begin to think a veritable ass’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 1 September [1868] ). …
  • on 17 April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently
  • … (from ?, 6 April 1868). On 21 May , Darwin complained to Hooker, ‘I am bothered with heaps of
  • information on colour changes in the canary (letters from J. J. Weir, [26] March 1868 and 3
  • added, ‘for it is clear that I have none’ ( letter to J. J. Weir, 30 May [1868] ). Sexual
  • role of colour, sound, and smell in attracting females. J. J. Weir reported on 14 April 1868
  • at Cambridge, George Robert Crotch, writing to his mother Emma in a letter dated [after 16 October
  • Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing
  • Wallace that he had begun the previous year, writing to Hooker on 21 May , ‘I always distrust
  • and received a number of reports from family members. Emma Darwins niece, Cicely Mary Hawkshaw, …
  • old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February [1868] ). Darwins
  • other national papers, and within a few days Darwin and Emma were receiving letters of

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • … fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882 …
  • … François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20 …
  • … quite untirable & I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January …
  • … probably intending to test its effects on chlorophyll ( letter to Joseph Fayrer, 30 March 1882 ). …
  • … seeing the flowers & experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). While …
  • … their burrows ( Correspondence vol. 29, letter from J. F. Simpson, 8 November 1881 ). He …
  • … the summit, whence it rolls down the sides’ ( letter from J. F. Simpson, 7 January 1882 ). The …
  • … on it, which would have pleased me greatly’ ( letter from J. H. Gilbert, 9 January 1882, and …
  • … and was no longer able to take his daily strolls (Henrietta Emma Litchfield, ‘Charles Darwin’s death …
  • … E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March 1882 (DAR 245: 319)) Emma wrote ten days later: ‘You will …
  • … been a good deal plagued with dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 …
  • … benefit & he escaped pain entirely yesterday’ (letter from Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, 6 April …
  • … desires, grant us this our modest request!’ ( letter from J. L. Ambrose, 3 April 1882 ). Darwin …
  • … wrote to George, who had visited Down on 11 April (Emma Darwin’s diary (DAR 242)). ‘Father was taken …
  • … H. Darwin, [19 April 1882] (DAR 245: 320)). It was left to Emma to convey the sorrowful news to his …
  • … which I hope were never very violent’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [20 April 1882 …
  • … they were the most overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882 …
  • … was eagerly awaited by his family, including his cousin Emma Wedgwood. In long letters to her sister …
  • … plied him with questions without any mercy’ ( letter from Emma Wedgwood to F. E. E. Wedgwood, [28 …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 12 hits

  • and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important
  • tapping into the networks of others, such as Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray, who were at leading
  • in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of
  • of face-to-face contact. His correspondence with Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray illustrates how close
  • The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. Hooker. The second is between Darwin
  • to Hookerit is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D. …
  • wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674Darwin, C. R. to Gray, …
  • Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] Darwin catches up on personal
  • to specific name. Letter 1220Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, C. R., 3 Feb 1849 In this
  • J. D. Hooker to take Scott on at Kew. Darwin notes that Emma begs him not to employ him at Down. He
  • Letter 1176Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, Emma, [201 May 1848] Darwin writes to his wife Emma. …
  • Catherines and his own. He also notes that Hensleigh [Wedgwood] thinks he has settled the free-will

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Britain? Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, …
  • … pursuit of real, professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., …
  • … colour and “beauty” of tropical vegetation. Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27 …
  • … made up of meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to …
  • … ‘ A Biographical Sketch of an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May …
  • … them in the north-facing borders of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • … and “never saw anything so beautiful”. Letter 4230 - Darwin to Gardeners’ Chronicle, [2 …
  • … linked with his domestic family life. Letter 4377 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, [2 …
  • … at least provide Darwin with aesthetic pleasure. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • … or two of them into his bedroom. Letter 4469 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [20 April 1864] …
  • … to dedicate his life to science. Letter 4472 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [26 or 27 April …
  • … shape his sons’ fortunes. Letter 6046 - Weir, J. J. to Darwin, [24 March 1868] …
  • … in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 18 hits

  • of the five physicians Darwin had consulted in 1863. In a letter of 26[–7] March [1864] , Darwin
  • and he received more letters of advice from Jenner. In a letter of 15 December [1864] to the
  • As Darwin explained to his cousin William Darwin Fox in a letter of 30 November [1864] , ‘the
  • observations indoors ( Correspondence  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin
  • gradation by which  leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). …
  • …  peduncles to test sensitivity, and in his request to Hooker for another specimen: ‘I want it
  • plant morphology. Many of his other correspondents, such as Hooker and Gray, had grown accustomed to
  • the  Lythrum  paper was published, Darwin remarked to Hooker in a letter of 26 November [1864] …
  • garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • household news, were sometimes written by Darwins wife, Emma, or by Henrietta. Darwins own replies
  • case of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20
  • with his stipend being paid by Darwin himself ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [1 April 1864] ). …
  • often at odds with one another: ‘Gardeners are the very dl, & where two or three are gathered
  • enough to play your part  over  them’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [2 April 1864] ). …
  • … … they do require very careful treatment’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 8 April 1864 ). Nevertheless
  • that in giving I am hastening the fall’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 20 April 1864 ). In his
  • a first-class cabin for the journey ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [15 August 1864] ). Darwin
  • he saw few people outside the family and, according to Emma Darwins diary and his ownJournal’, …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 17 hits

  • … my grandfather’s character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). …
  • … have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 …
  • … delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and …
  • … much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and …
  • … modified; but now I much regret that I did not do so’ ( letter to Samuel Butler, 3 January 1880 ). …
  • … my excitement’ ( letter from Horace Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwin’s …
  • … We find that the light frightens them’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October [1880] ). The …
  • … and thus one looks to prevent its return’ ( letter from J.-H. Fabre, 18 February 1880 ). Darwin …
  • … letting them out of their respective bags ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [6, 13, or 20] March 1881 ) …
  • … received more attention than the baby!’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 17 December 1880 , and …
  • … to the greatest biologist of our time’ ( letter from W. D. Roebuck to G. H. Darwin, 25 October 1880 …
  • … …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). In April, …
  • … In the previous year, he had consulted Joseph Dalton Hooker about the possibility of a Civil List …
  • … employment’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from J. D. Hooker, 18 December 1879 ). For some …
  • … extensive work on geographical distribution. Darwin and Hooker both praised his most recent book on …
  • … year was marked by the loss of several close family members. Emma’s brother Josiah Wedgwood III died …
  • … Surrey, which became a regular destination for Charles and Emma, and also a site of scientific …

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … learn that the book was on sale even in railway stations ( letter to Charles Lyell, 14 January …
  • … the book, thinking that it would be nice easy reading.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 May [1860] ). …
  • … cannot expect fairness in a Reviewer’, Darwin commented to Hooker after reading an early notice that …
  • … his theory would have been ‘ utterly  smashed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). (A …
  • … from right principles of scientific investigation.—’ ( letter to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). …
  • … a theory solely by explaining an ample lot of facts.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 18 February [1860] ). …
  • … it comes in time to be admitted as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This …
  • … Several correspondents, such as his cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood and Heinrich Georg Bronn, expressed …
  • … considered it more a failure than a success ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 February [1860] ). …
  • … two physiologists, and five botanists ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 March [1860] ). Others, like …
  • … ‘topics of the day’ at the meeting in a letter from Hooker written from Oxford. Hooker’s letter, one …
  • Hooker attended the fabled Saturday session of Section D. He told Darwin how ‘between 700 & 1000 …
  • … ‘master of the field after 4 hours battle’ (letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 July 1860). Other …
  • … were already proved) to his own views.—’ ( letter from J. S. Henslow to J. D. Hooker, 10 May 1860 …
  • … visits have led to changed structure.’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 27 April [1860] ). Tracing the …
  • … level. Describing her husband’s current enthusiasm, Emma Darwin wrote to Mary Lyell: ‘At present he …
  • … suppose he hopes to end in proving it to be an animal.’ ( Emma Darwin  2: 177). As was so …
  • … fatal illness never far from their minds, Charles and Emma did whatever they could to promote Etty’s …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 20 hits

  • Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • Tollet for proofreading and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. …
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her eldest son, …
  • her to read to check that she can understand it. Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F. …
  • from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E
  • he seeks her help with tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28
  • in order to minimise impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, …
  • he uses to avoid ownership of indelicate content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to
  • so as not to lose the interest of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, …
  • which will make it more appealing to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to
  • Darwins female readership Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February
  • of the Manchester Ladies Literary Society . Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to
  • the chapter on pangenesis, which is a revelation. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. …
  • Darwin assumes that 'A. B. Blackwell' is a man. Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to
  • him to the psychology of Herbert Spencer. Letter 7624 - Bathoe, M . B. to Darwin
  • his statements on a lack of reasoning in animals. Letter 7644 - Barnard, A. to
  • to an asylum with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., …
  • be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • patience and care. Letter 6110 - Samuelson, J. to Darwin, [10 April 1868] …
  • is a revelation. Letter 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … work of preparing new Editions’, he complained again to Hooker on 18 August. Finally, by …
  • … much more than insectivorous plants. As he confessed to Hooker on 12 December , ‘I have not felt …
  • … the matter to his satisfaction. On 8 January , he told Hooker: ‘I will write a savage letter & …
  • … during the affair by the loyalty of his close friends, Hooker and Thomas Henry Huxley. …
  • … honoured George. You have indeed been a true friend.’ Hooker was hampered by his position as …
  • … & if he speaks to me should let him feel it .’ Hooker also directed some of his anger …
  • … to the Editor … Poor Murray shuddered again & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January …
  • … thirst for vengeance is now quite Satisfied’, he told Hooker on 17 January , ‘I feel now like a …
  • … offered to pay the costs for printing an additional 250 ( letter to John Murray, 3 May 1875 ). …
  • … & bless the day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 …
  • … that the originally red half has become wholly white’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [before 4 …
  • … pp. 188–90). He drew attention to this discussion in a letter to George Rolleston, remarking on 2 …
  • … Darwin wrote, ‘I beg ten thousand pardon & more’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . February …
  • … signed himself, ‘Your affect son … the proofmaniac’ ( letter from Francis Darwin, 1 and 2 May [1875 …
  • … firm. Darwin was impressed by the device, remarking to Hooker on 13 October : ‘Horace has made a …
  • … George Sketchley Ffinden resurfaced. In 1873, Charles and Emma Darwin and the Lubbocks had sought …
  • … and the Darwins did not warm thereafter. On 24 December , Emma wrote triumphantly to the former …
  • … both critical and reverential. On 16 July he received a letter from an advocate of women’s …
  • … her presentation copy of Insectivorous plants ( letter to D. F. Nevill, 15 July [1875] ). Such …
  • … Henry Eeles Dresser. ‘The horror was great’, Henrietta Emma Litchfield wrote to her brother Leonard …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … life in Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emma’s backgammon games. ‘I have won, …
  • … ‘my wife … poor creature, has won only 2490 games’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876 ). …
  • … quantity of work’ left in him for ‘new matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The …
  • … to a reprint of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February …
  • … & I for blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. …
  • … provided evidence for the ‘advantages of crossing’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising …
  • … for 3 February, Darwin reassured his close friend Joseph Hooker that he and Francis would attend the …
  • … of blackballing so distinguished a zoologist ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 29 January 1876 ). Both …
  • … results in this year’s experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less …
  • … by the mutual pressure of very young buds’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 21 June [1876] ). Darwin …
  • … researcher, and sympathised with his close friends Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray, whose situations …
  • … paper was ‘not worthy of being read ever’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 28 January 1876 ). Darwin …
  • … was never far away in the Darwin family. In April, while Emma was suffering from a feverish cold, …
  • … In the same month, Darwin heard that his sister Caroline Wedgwood continued to languish in …
  • … of illness & misery there is in the world’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 26 May [1876] ). A …
  • … associated with a happy event. On 7 September, Charles and Emma became grandparents for the first …
  • … have heart to go on again . . . I cannot conceive Emma and Charles exhibited a practical …
  • … August to be with her daughter at the time of the birth, and Emma was unimpressed by her. ‘The more …
  • … word she says’, she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August …
  • … ability to console Francis after Amy’s death gained Emma’s respect. ‘She is always able to speak’, …
  • … of Darwin’s recently completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 24 hits

  • What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 November [1872] …
  • anything more on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July
  • Darwins best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12
  • condition as I can make it’, he wrote to the translator ( letter to JJMoulinié, 23 September
  • translation remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November
  • to the comparative anatomist St George Jackson Mivart ( letter to St GJMivart,  11 January
  • comparison of Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ) …
  • a person as I am made to appear’, complained Darwin ( letter to St GJMivart, 5 January 1872 ). …
  • Darwin would renounce `fundamental intellectual errors’ ( letter from St GJMivart, 6 January
  • to think he felt friendly towards me’ ( letter to St GJMivart, 8 January [1872] ).  Despite
  • if only `in another world’ ( letter from St GJMivart,  10 January 1872 ).  Darwin, determined
  • …  but asked Mivart not to acknowledge it ( letter to St GJMivart, 11 January [1872] ). 'I
  • selection is somewhat under a cloud’, he wrote to JETaylor on 13 January , and he complained
  • rather than offended by `that clever book’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ) and
  • dispute involving his close friend Joseph Dalton Hooker came to a headHooker, director of the
  • system in the glasshouses had escalated to the point where Hooker applied over Ayrtons head direct
  • your enemies be cursed, is my pious frame of mind Hookers cause was taken up by his
  • the independence of science from bureaucratic interference. Hooker had kept Darwin well informed: …
  • Darwins wholeheartedly partisan reply ( letter to JDHooker, 14 May 1872 ). On 13 June, a
  • to make one turn into an old honest Tory’ ( letter to JDHooker, 12 July [1872] ). …
  • to contain wormcasts from India. Darwins niece Lucy Wedgwood, who had started her observations the
  • of the microscope led his head to `fail’ ( letter to WDFox, 29 October [1872] ) he had begun
  • by hearing about Panagæus!’ Darwin wrote ( letter to WDFox,  16 July [1872] ).  I
  • out such a litany of ill health to one correspondent that Emma protested: `My wife commands me to

Darwin's health

Summary

On 28 March 1849, ten years before Origin was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, where Dr James Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to…

Matches: 19 hits

  • …  was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, …
  • establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to Hookers letter which he put down to his
  • I was rapidly going the way of all fleshSee the letter At various periods in his
  • months while he took Dr Gullys water cure. In Darwins letter to Hooker, he described Dr Gullys
  • certain that the Water Cure is no quackery.—  See the letter After returning from
  • the years around 1848, 1852, 1859, and 1863. In a letter to Hooker in April of 1861for example, …
  • vomiting wonderfully & I am gaining vigour .’ (letter to JDHooker, 13 April [1864] ) …
  • … (see, for example, Correspondence vol. 2, letter to J. S. Henslow, 14 October [1837] , …
  • troubles, see Correspondence vol. 2, letter to Caroline Wedgwood, [May 1838] , and letter to
  • attacks ofperiodical vomitingin a letter to W. D. Fox, [7 June 1840] ( Correspondence vol
  • 1849] , andvomiting every weekin his letter to J. D. Hooker, 28 March 1849 ( …
  • almost daily (see Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, [6 May 1864] …
  • decision to consult John Chapman.  In a letter to J. D. Hooker, [20-] 22 February [1864] ( …
  • 38, 47, 64). Fainting androckinghad been recorded in Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242) on several
  • sensationshas been found. On Darwins reliance on Emma Darwins companionship and care see, for
  • … , and Correspondence vol. 2, letter to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood, [28 August 1837] ). His
  • alive’. See also Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, 17 March
  • October 1863 (see Correspondence vol. 11, letter from Emma Darwin to W. D. Fox, 8 December
  • of chalk, magnesia, and other antacids in March 1864 (see Emma Darwins diary, DAR 242, and n. 8, …

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 21 hits

  • years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, Emma Wedgwood. The letters they
  • of Darwins findings had been spread by the publication by J. S. Henslow and Adam Sedgwick of
  • by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood II, during one of Darwins visits to
  • results of the  Beagle  voyage. With the help of J. S. Henslow, William Whewell, and other
  • by Adam White; infusoria by C. G. Ehrenberg; fungi by M. J. Berkeley; and corals by William Lonsdale
  • were neglected. During the voyage Darwin had expected that J. S. Henslow would describe his
  • the end of 1843, he increasingly hoped that William Jackson Hooker or his son Joseph might be
  • were discovered that contain lists of Darwins plants (see D. M. Porter 1981). Charles Lyell
  • letters have suffered an even more severe loss. In a letter to Lyells sister-in-law, Katharine
  • of fact . . . on the origin & variation of species” ( Letter to J. S. Henslow, [November 1839] …
  • with facts It is true that, until he took J. D. Hooker into his confidence in 1844, …
  • that he had a sound solution to what J. F. W. Herschel in a letter to Lyell had called themystery
  • about searching for evidence to support his hypothesis. In a letter to Lyell, [14] September [1838
  • clearly  under sub-laws.' To his cousin, W. D. Fox, [25 January 1841] , he wrote: & …
  • this field and on friends like Henslow, T. C. Eyton, and W. D. Fox, who were knowledgeable about
  • just the same, though I know what I am looking for' ( Letter to G. R. Waterhouse, [26 July
  • … (Simpson 1961, p. 53). Marriage Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in January 1839. His
  • … ( Correspondence vol. 2, Appendix III). The letters that Emma and Darwin subsequently exchanged
  • correspondence is that Darwin had evidently communicated to Emma that he had doubts about religion, …
  • as she was, from marrying him. Just after their marriage, Emma states that she has the impression
  • were no doubts as to how one ought to act’ ( Letter from Emma Darwin, [  c.  February 1839] ). …

Darwin and Fatherhood

Summary

Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten children. It is often assumed that Darwin was an exceptional Victorian father. But how extraordinary was he? The Correspondence Project allows an unusually…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood in 1839 and over the next seventeen years the couple had ten …
  • … a result, Darwin rarely spent a day without the company of Emma and at least some of his children. …
  • … they employed eight servants including two nursery maids. Emma actively supervised and assisted with …
  • … to see their father when he was working (Darwin to his wife Emma,  [7-8 February 1845] ). Although …
  • … period, as Darwin’s attempts to comfort his friend Joseph Hooker on the death of his six-year-old …
  • … about the ‘awesome state of indecision’ (Darwin to W. D. Fox,  10 October [1850] ) as he and Emma
  • … children in letters to friends, and the choices that he and Emma made were deliberately conventional …
  • … were favourite family games, and in 1859 he ended a letter to his oldest son with the exclamation ‘I …
  • … (Darwin to his son William,  [30 October 1858] ). In one letter in 1856, he explained his paternal …
  • … the age of twenty-six. This meant that in old age Darwin and Emma continued to share Down House with …

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 …
  • … sweeping conclusions on insufficient grounds. Letter 3934 - Darwin to Scott, J., [21 …
  • … how to make the material worthy of publication. Letter 4185 - Darwin to Scott, J., [25 …
  • … indefatigable worker you are!”. Letter 7605 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [20 March …
  • … book’s “lucid vigorous style”. In consultation with Emma, Darwin offers Henrietta “some little …
  • … how he made so many observations without aid. Letter 8146 - Darwin to Treat, M., [5 …
  • … “in some well-known scientific journal”. Letter 8171 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L., [21 …
  • … that Lucy is worth her weight in gold. Letter 9005b - Darwin to Treat, M., [12 …
  • … flies until he had repeated the experiment. Letter 9580 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H. D., …
  • … should not yet be submitted to the publisher. Letter 9613 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • … and thinks that it ought to be published. Letter 10523 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 June …
  • … in the pursuit of her “admirable work”. Letter 11096 - Darwin to Romanes, G. J., [9 …
  • … her manuscript to Nature for publication. Letter 13414 - Darwin to Harrison, L., …

Darwin and vivisection

Summary

Darwin played an important role in the controversy over vivisection that broke out in late 1874. Public debate was sparked when the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals brought an unsuccessful prosecution against a French physiologist who…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … me) attack on Virchow for experimenting on the Trichinae’ (letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January …
  • … progress of physiology. He reiterated these concerns in a letter to Thomas Henry Huxley ten days …
  • … I love with all my heart’ ( Correspondence vol. 19, letter to ?, 19 May [1871] ). As a …
  • … farmers and their staff (see Correspondence vol. 14, letter to a local landowner, [1866?] ). …
  • … by the prospect of animals suffering for science. In a letter to E. Ray Lankester, he wrote: ‘You …
  • … I shall not sleep to-night’ ( Correspondence vol. 19, letter to E. R. Lankester, 22 March [1871 …
  • … was a sensitive subject within Darwin’s family. In his letter of 14 January 1875 to Huxley, …
  • … ones (men of course) or I might get one or two’ (letter from Emma Darwin to F. P. Cobbe, 14 …
  • … after night, prepares and sets instruments of torture’ ( Emma Darwin (1904) 2: 201). …
  • … to serve as the basis for a petition, and gave it to Huxley (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, …
  • … with Huxley, who produced a new sketch for a petition (letter from T. H. Huxley, [4 April 1875] ) …
  • … who drafted a memorial, sending it to Darwin on 7 April (letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 7 …
  • … had already been prepared for the House of Lords (see letter to J. S. Burdon Sanderson, [11 April …
  • … scientific men’. Darwin sent a copy to Joseph Dalton Hooker requesting his approval as president of …
  • … his counsel: ‘we wd do whatever else you think best’ (letter to E. H. Stanley, 15 April 1875 ). …
  • … (letter from T. H. Huxley, 19 May 1875 , letter from J. S. Burdon Sanderson, 23 May [1875] ). …
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