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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • observations of catsinstinctive behaviour. Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, …
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • Letter 4242 - Hildebrand, F. H. G. to Darwin, [16 July 1863] Hildebrand writes to
  • little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Darwins nephews, Edmund and Charles, write to Emma Darwins sister, Sarah, with observations of
  • Letter 4235 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [8 July 1863] Lydia Becker sends Darwin a
  • Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] Emmas sister, Sarah, passes on
  • at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February
  • E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • is a great critic”, thought the article worth reprinting, Emma was less convinced. Letter

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 17 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his
  • for evaluation, and persuaded his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker to comment on a paper on  Verbascum
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • committed suicide at the end of April; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic
  • thriving, and when illness made work impossible, Darwin and Hooker read a number of novels, and
  • having all the Boys at home: they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] …
  • had failed to include among the grounds of the award ( see letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus
  • his letters to Darwin, and Darwin responded warmly: ‘Your letter is by far the grandest eulogium
  • kind friend to me. So the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] ). However, …
  • griefs & pains: these alone are unalloyed’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 3 February 1865 ). …
  • Scott had evidently started his crossing experiments in 1863 (see Correspondence  vol. 11, …
  • vol. 11, letter from J. D. Hooker, 10 June 1863 ). However, probably the most enthusiastic
  • that Lyell in his  Antiquity of man , published in 1863, had made unacknowledged use of Lubbocks
  • attending school, and spent some time travelling in Europe (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242),  Emma
  • people werent so foolish’;. In November, Darwin and Emma visited Erasmus in London ( …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important …
  • … tapping into the networks of others, such as Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray, who were at leading …
  • … when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific …
  • … in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of …
  • … of face-to-face contact. His correspondence with Joseph Hooker and Asa Gray illustrates how close …
  • … section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • Letter 736 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844] Darwin begins with a charming …
  • … J. D. Hooker to take Scott on at Kew. Darwin notes that Emma begs him not to employ him at Down. He …
  • Letter 4170 — Becker, Lydia to Darwin, C. R., 18 May 1863 This is a very formal letter
  • Letter 4258 — Becker, Lydia to Darwin, C. R., 31 July [1863] Becker has found seeds produced …
  • Letter 4260a — Darwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia Becker for …
  • Letter 1176 — Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, Emma, [20–1 May 1848] Darwin writes to his wife Emma. …

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 18 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • from that of the five physicians Darwin had consulted in 1863. In a letter of 26[–7] March [1864] …
  • and he received more letters of advice from Jenner. In a letter of 15 December [1864] to the
  • As Darwin explained to his cousin William Darwin Fox in a letter of 30 November [1864] , ‘the
  • leaf, and aerial roots. When his health deteriorated in 1863, he found that he could still continue
  • by which  leaves  produce tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwins
  • …  peduncles to test sensitivity, and in his request to Hooker for another specimen: ‘I want it
  • garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • household news, were sometimes written by Darwins wife, Emma, or by Henrietta. Darwins own replies
  • case of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20
  • with his stipend being paid by Darwin himself ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [1 April 1864] ). …
  • often at odds with one another: ‘Gardeners are the very dl, & where two or three are gathered
  • enough to play your part  over  them’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [2 April 1864] ). …
  • … … they do require very careful treatment’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 8 April 1864 ). Nevertheless
  • scientific debate. He had begun taking the journal in April 1863 and was an enthusiastic subscriber. …
  • he saw few people outside the family and, according to Emma Darwins diary and his ownJournal’, …

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 12 hits

  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Britain? Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, …
  • pursuit of real, professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., …
  • colour andbeautyof tropical vegetation. Letter 542 - Darwin to Wedgwood, C. S., [27
  • made up of meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to
  • … ‘ A Biographical Sketch of an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May
  • borders of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [12 July 1860] …
  • Letter 4230 - Darwin to GardenersChronicle, [2 July 1863] Published in Gardeners’ …
  • aesthetic pleasure. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • or two of them into his bedroom. Letter 4469 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [20 April 1864] …
  • in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 24 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • … & I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January 1882 ). The
  • seeing the flowers & experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). While
  • their burrows ( Correspondence vol. 29, letter from J. F. Simpson, 8 November 1881 ). He
  • the summit, whence it rolls down the sides’ ( letter from J. F. Simpson, 7 January 1882 ). The
  • on it, which would have pleased me greatly’ ( letter from J. H. Gilbert, 9 January 1882, and
  • and was no longer able to take his daily strolls (Henrietta Emma Litchfield, ‘Charles Darwins death
  • E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March 1882 (DAR 245: 319)) Emma wrote ten days later: ‘You will
  • been a good deal plagued with dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28
  • benefit & he escaped pain entirely yesterday’ (letter from Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, 6 April
  • wrote to George, who had visited Down on 11 April (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242)). ‘Father was taken
  • H. Darwin, [19 April 1882] (DAR 245: 320)). It was left to Emma to convey the sorrowful news to his
  • which I hope were never very violent’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [20 April 1882
  • were not wanting to tell me how you felt for meHope [Wedgwood] expresses a feeling that I should
  • they were the most overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882
  • was eagerly awaited by his family, including his cousin Emma Wedgwood. In long letters to her sister
  • … ( letter from Aleksander Jelski, [186082] ). In 1863, the final blow was dealt to Darwins
  • a fallen enemy!’ ( letter to T. F. Jamieson, 24 January [1863] ). From 1863 to 1865, Darwin

Darwin's health

Summary

On 28 March 1849, ten years before Origin was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker from Great Malvern in Worcestershire, where Dr James Manby Gully ran a fashionable water-cure establishment. Darwin apologised for his delayed reply to…

Matches: 17 hits

  • March 1849, ten years before  Origin  was published, Darwin wrote to his good friend Joseph Hooker
  • I was rapidly going the way of all fleshSee the letter At various periods in his
  • fatigue, trembling, faintness, and dizziness. In 1849, Darwins symptoms became so severe that he
  • months while he took Dr Gullys water cure. In Darwins letter to Hooker, he described Dr Gullys
  • in severity in the years around 1848, 1852, 1859, and 1863. In a letter to Hooker in April of 1861, …
  • vomiting wonderfully & I am gaining vigour .’ (letter to JDHooker, 13 April [1864] ) …
  • … (see, for example, Correspondence vol. 2, letter to J. S. Henslow, 14 October [1837] , …
  • troubles, see Correspondence vol. 2, letter to Caroline Wedgwood, [May 1838] , and letter to
  • attacks ofperiodical vomitingin a letter to W. D. Fox, [7 June 1840] ( Correspondence vol
  • 1849] , andvomiting every weekin his letter to J. D. Hooker, 28 March 1849 ( …
  • decision to consult John Chapman.  In a letter to J. D. Hooker, [20-] 22 February [1864] ( …
  • 38, 47, 64). Fainting androckinghad been recorded in Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242) on several
  • sensationshas been found. On Darwins reliance on Emma Darwins companionship and care see, for
  • Hooker, 1 June [1865] and 27 [or 28 September 1865] . Emma or another member of the household
  • … , and Correspondence vol. 2, letter to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood, [28 August 1837] ). His
  • pp. 31-2, 47, 98. In his letter to J. D. Hooker, 5 March [1863] ( Correspondence vol. 11), …
  • alive’. See also Correspondence vol. 12, letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, 17 March

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 17 hits

  • 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwins  Origin of species , printing
  • surprised both the publisher and the author. One week later Darwin was stunned to learn that the
  • the book, thinking that it would be nice easy reading.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 May [1860] ). …
  • Henry Huxley, William Benjamin Carpenter, and Joseph Dalton Hooker. Others were not quite as
  • his views. ‘One cannot expect fairness in a Reviewer’, Darwin commented to Hooker after reading an
  • of the geological record; but this criticism, he told Hooker, did not at all concern his main
  • butunfairreviews that misrepresented his ideas, Darwin began to feel that without the early
  • from right principles of scientific investigation.—’ ( letter to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). …
  • it comes in time to be admitted as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This
  • Several correspondents, such as his cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood and Heinrich Georg Bronn, expressed
  • considered it more a failure than a success ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 February [1860] ). …
  • two physiologists, and five botanists ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 March [1860] ). Others, like
  • Hooker attended the fabled Saturday session of Section D. He told Darwin howbetween 700 & 1000
  • of the field after 4 hours battle’ (letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 July 1860). Other correspondents
  • level. Describing her husbands current enthusiasm, Emma Darwin wrote to Mary Lyell: ‘At present he
  • suppose he hopes to end in proving it to be an animal.’ ( Emma Darwin  2: 177). As was so
  • fatal illness never far from their minds, Charles and Emma did whatever they could to promote Ettys

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific …
  • … of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 …
  • … sweeping conclusions on insufficient grounds. Letter 3934 - Darwin to Scott, J., [21 …
  • … how to make the material worthy of publication. Letter 4185 - Darwin to Scott, J., [25 …
  • … indefatigable worker you are!”. Letter 7605 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [20 March …
  • … book’s “lucid vigorous style”. In consultation with Emma, Darwin offers Henrietta “some little …
  • … how he made so many observations without aid. Letter 8146 - Darwin to Treat, M., [5 …
  • … “in some well-known scientific journal”. Letter 8171 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L., [21 …
  • … that Lucy is worth her weight in gold. Letter 9005b - Darwin to Treat, M., [12 …
  • … flies until he had repeated the experiment. Letter 9580 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H. D., …
  • … should not yet be submitted to the publisher. Letter 9613 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • … and thinks that it ought to be published. Letter 10523 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 June …