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Darwin's in letters, 1873: Animal or vegetable?

Summary

Having laboured for nearly five years on human evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost exclusively to his beloved plants. He resumed work on the digestive powers of sundews and Venus fly traps, and…

Matches: 17 hits

  • evolution, sexual selection, and the expression of emotions, Darwin was able to devote 1873 almost
  • … (1875) and  Cross and self fertilisation  (1876). Darwins son Francis became increasingly
  • career to become his fathers scientific secretary. Darwin had always relied on assistance from
  • Franciss decision. A large portion of the letters Darwin received in 1873 were in response
  • the previous year. As was typical, readers wrote to Darwin personally to offer suggestions, …
  • up his research again in January, he wrote to Joseph Dalton Hooker, “It is wonderful how many points
  • a specimen of the carnivorous  Drosophyllum lusitanicum , Hooker wrote: “Pray work your wicked
  • on the North American species  Drosera filiformis . Hooker, with the assistance of William Turner
  • parts of the flower would become modified & correlated” ( letter to T. H. Farrer, 14 August
  • it again, “for Heaven knows when it will be ready” ( letter to John Murray, 4 May [1873] ). …
  • without instruction or previously acquired knowledge” (A. R. Wallace 1870, p. 204). Moggridge
  • could be transmitted to its offspring ( letter from J. T. Moggridge, 1 February 1873 ). …
  • friendbut he is a deal too sharp” ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [7 April 1873] ). A group
  • forced him to take periodic breaks from work ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 21 February [1873] ). They
  • believes whether or not they are sound” ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 November 1873 ). But no
  • unorthodoxy, troubling and potentially undermining (J. R. Moore 1985, pp. 4712). A courted
  • a personification of Natural Filosofy” ( letter from J. C. Costerus and N. D. Doedes, 18 March 1873

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 19 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • to believe in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18
  • had suggested a new edition of the coral book in December 1873, when he realised the difficulty a
  • …  vol. 21, letter to Smith, Elder & Co., 17 December [1873] ). Darwin himself had some trouble
  • the publishers, he applied first to his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker, and finally borrowed one from
  • for misinterpreting Darwin on this point ( letter from J. D. Dana, 21 July 1874 ); however, he did
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • of human evolution and inheritance himselfIn August 1873, he had published in the  Contemporary
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • observations of catsinstinctive behaviour. Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, …
  • to artificially fertilise plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to
  • in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L to Darwin, [8 & 9 May 1869] …
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - Roberts, D. to Darwin, [17 December 1872] …
  • Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen Lubbock, wife of naturalist
  • Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary Treat reports in detail on her
  • little treatise”. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] …
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • at Maer Hall, Staffordshire. Letter 1219  - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin, [3 February
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Letter 8989 - Treat, M. to Darwin, [28 July 1873] Mary Treat provides a detailed
  • Women: Letter 2345 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [20 October 1858] Darwin

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 21 hits

  • Re: DesignAdaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby Craig
  • as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified
  • correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring
  • Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin Actor 3In the dress of a modern day
  • the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and
  • this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa
  • of natural selection to his friend, the botanist, Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles
  • year 1839, and copied and communicated to Messrs Lyell and Hooker in 1844, being a part of
  • DARWIN:   7   January 1844. My dear Hooker. I have beenengaged in a very presumptuous work
  • his University) and is much less his own man. A letter from England catches his attention
  • the opportunity I enjoyed of making your acquaintance at Hookers three years ago; and besides that
  • sheet of note-paper! DARWIN11   My dear HookerWhat a remarkably nice and kind
  • be of any the least use to you? If so I would copy itHis letter does strike me as most uncommonly
  • on the geographical distribution of the US plants; and if my letter caused you to do this some year
  • 22   Hurrah I got yesterday my 41st Grass! Hooker is younger than Darwin and Gray by
  • a brace of letters 25   I send enclosed [a letter for you from Asa Gray], received
  • might like to see it; please be sure [to] return it. If your letter is Botanical and has nothing
  • paragraph, in which I quote and differ from you[r178   doctrine that each variation has been
  • GRAY (BOSTON, 1893) 2A GRAY TO CLARA ?, 3 MARCH 1873 3 A GRAY. MEMOIR OF
  • C DARWIN, 1819 AUGUST 1862 149 C DARWIN TO J. D. HOOKER 26 JULY 1863 150
  • … & 1 MARCH 1870 197 A GRAY TO JD HOOKER, 3 JULY 1873 198  TO A GRAY 5

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 20 hits

  • At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a
  • … & I am sick of correcting’ ( Correspondence  vol. 16, letter to W. D. Fox, 12 December [1868
  • he remarked to his best friend, the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker, ‘If I lived 20 more years, & …
  • Well it is a beginning, & that is something’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [22 January 1869] ). …
  • material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwins interests remained extremely broad, and
  • plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to
  • Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwins most substantial addition to  Origin  was a
  • Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now missing) to Hooker, remarking: ‘I should be extremely
  • made any blunders, as is very likely to be the case’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 January 1869 ). …
  • than I now see is possible or probable’ (see also letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 January [1869] , …
  • males & females, cocks & hens.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 13 November [1869] ). Yet
  • … & contemptalmost hatred—’ ( from Asa Gray and J. L. Gray, 8 and 9 May [1869] ). James
  • of information which I have sent prove of any service to M r . Darwin I can supply him with much
  • … & proximate cause in regard to Man’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 14 April 1869 ).  More
  • and the bird of paradise  (Wallace 1869a; letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 March [1869] ), and
  • species that Darwin had investigated in depth ( letter from C. F. Claus, 6 February 1869 ). In a
  • genus that he had studied in the early 1860s ( letter to W. C. Tait, 12 and 16 March 1869 ). This
  • incorporating his latest revisions (Moulinié trans. 1873).  Reinwald and Moulinié had been engaged
  • whole meeting was decidedly Huxleys answer to D r  M c Cann. He literally poured boiling oil

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 18 hits

  • Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those
  • a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of
  • Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the
  • her to read to check that she can understand it. Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F. …
  • from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E
  • he seeks her help with tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28
  • in order to minimise impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, …
  • he uses to avoid ownership of indelicate content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to
  • to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslows daughter, Anne, responds to
  • with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] …
  • … - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February 1873] Henriettas friend, Laura, …
  • in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …
  • of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …
  • is a revelation. Letter 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 23 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • his publishers, he warned that it wasdry as dust’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 9 September 1879 ). …
  • turned out, alas, very dull & has disappointed me much’ ( letter to Francis Galton, 15 [June
  • home again’, he fretted, just days before his departure ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26
  • many blessings, was finding old agea dismal time’ ( letter to Henry Johnson, 24 September 1879 ) …
  • Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I find now is this dnd old age, which creeps slily upon one, …
  • nice and good as could be’ ( letter from Karl Beger, [ c. 12 February 1879] ). The masters of
  • of the Admiralty described the unknown young man asA M r Darwin grandson of the well known
  • admiration of his grandfather: ‘The more I read of Dr. D. the higher he rises in my estimation.’ …
  • him on 9 June not toexpend much powder & shot on M r  Butler’, for he really was not worth
  • it, leaving Darwinmore perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, …
  • the highest point, for hiswhy”—“what for” &c are incessant’, Darwin joked on 2 July (first
  • and after Farrers second marriage to Darwins niece in 1873 the Darwins had stayed at the Farrers’ …
  • is his profession thonot a profitable one; also D r  C[lark]’s opinion that he was so likely to
  • when the acorns failed to ripen, Darwin had to ask Joseph Hooker to come to his rescue by sending
  • scarlet oak: ‘to be planted in my honour!’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 4 November [1879] ). While in
  • knowledgeobservation & experiment’ ( letter from J. F. Moulton, 10 December 1879 ). In reply
  • image of the frog be published in Nature ( letter to J. N. Lockyer, 4 and 6 March [1879] ). …
  • and his family to the Riviera for the summer ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 23 July 1879 ). Allen, who
  • prospects were precarious. Darwin contacted Joseph Hooker on 17 December to ask his opinion: ‘I
  • and preventCattle diseases, Potato diseases &c’, probably did not know that Darwin had already

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 25 hits

  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was increasingly a
  • assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his sons own
  • The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • … & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton Hooker on 25 January . He had been troubling
  • of respect and affection’. He hinted as much in his letter of 4 June : ‘you will see I have done
  • it is not likely that more than a few hundred copies w d . be sold’. His publisher knew from
  • little understood. Darwin had begun studying bloom in August 1873, but had broken off to concentrate
  • He requested a large number of plants from Hooker on 25 May , adding, ‘I often wish that I could
  • to Down if it lay in my power and you thought it w d . help you.’ ‘I declare had it not been for
  • warned Thiselton-Dyer, who seems to have shared Hookers suspicion of ambitious gardeners ( letter
  • method of recording leaf motion for extended periods. In a letter to Thiselton-Dyer of 11 October
  • … … tap one of the young leaves with a delicate twig’ ( letter to R. I. Lynch, 14 September 1877 ). …
  • but I think the great honour of its being printed in the R. Soc. Transactions, (sh d . the
  • vibratory flagella of some Infusoria’ ( letter from F. J. Cohn, 5 August 1877 ). Franciss paper
  • larger aim was announced in the subtitle: Zeitschrift für einheitliche Weltanschauung auf Grund
  • … ‘but found him as soft & smooth as butter’ ( letter to C. E. Norton, 16 March 1877 ). Hooker
  • … & offer himself you & me to dejeuner!!!’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 14 June 1877 ). …
  • I hope it may remain for centuries to come’ ( letter from C. C. Graham, 30 January 1877 ). Graham
  • the old story to be horsewhipped by a duke!’ ( letter to J. M. Rodwell, 3 June 1877 ). Back home, …
  • of Siebolds study of medical monstrosity ( letter from C. T. E. Siebold, 10 October 1877 ). An
  • with wicked imprecations’ (Trollope 1867; letter to G. J. Romanes, [1 and 2 December 1877] ). …
  • any recognition by any public bodies of England & that y r . own University w d . like to be
  • at the Senate House yesterday, with a suspended monkey &c; but I believe the cheering was more

Fake Darwin: myths and misconceptions

Summary

Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive ones, with full debunking below...

Matches: 1 hits

  • … Many myths have persisted about Darwin's life and work. Here are a few of the more pervasive …

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 24 hits

  • 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • the advantages of both while Francis was working abroad. Darwin was privy to the inner workings of
  • from correspondents in response to the work, and by 1873 began preparing a second edition, which
  • had considered combining the works in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). …
  • because Darwin never published on bloom. In August 1873, while on holiday in Southampton at the home
  • the phenomenon. A few days later, Darwin wrote to Joseph Hooker, ‘ Why are the leaves & fruit
  • injure the leaves? if indeed this is at all the case ’. Hooker, who had also speculated on the
  • by bloom, but his main preoccupation in the summer of 1873 was his experimental work on
  • on  Mimosa albida from Kew Gardens, he explained to Hooker, ‘ I have never syringed (with tepid
  • whether they are coated with a waxy secretion ’. He told Hooker, ‘ I have been looking over my old
  • … ‘ Frank & I are working very hard on bloom & sleep &c.; but I am horribly afraid all
  • … , a plant that exhibited all three types of movement ( letter from RILynch, [before 28 July
  • was asked to send any spare seeds he might have. ‘ I sh dlike to see how the embryo breaks
  • the woodblock using photography for scientific accuracy ( letter from JDCooper13 December
  • that the method wasall that I can desire, but as I sh d   like to give a very large number of
  • lost colour, withered, and died within a couple of days ( letter from A. F. Batalin28 February
  • to learn about cutting thin sections of soft leaves &c.— Lastly the instrument for making marks
  • … ). Hooker offered to write to Egypt for the seeds (From JDHooker   29 November 1879; DCP-LETT
  • the curious mode of germinationand concluded, ‘ M r  Rattan seems to be a real good observer, …
  • orThe Nature of the Movements of Plants’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke23 April [1880] ). Cooke
  • was willing to publish on the usual terms ( letter from R. F. Cooke15 July 1880 ). This was also
  • Eduard Koch had already agreed to publish it ( letter from JVCarus18 September 1880 ). The
  • pay more for at the usual rate of charging per inch &c they w dbe over £40’; he suggested