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Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 22 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • my grandfathers character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). …
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • Mr Butler whatever.’ Power of movement With Franciss assistance, the last of Darwins
  • shake their heads in the same dismal manner as you & M r . Murray did, when I told them my
  • of the nervous system, and the nature ofsensitivity’. Francis Balfour described Movement in
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • … ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of the family
  • the intake of stones and flints to aid digestion. He asked Francis to check for castings on old
  • rightly thought thequeer subjectof interest to Francis Galton, who had already taken thumb
  • extending the study to public-school pupils ( letter to Francis Galton, 7 April 1880 , and
  • great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 15 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • wrinkles one all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879
  • nice and good as could be’ ( letter from Karl Beger, [ c. 12 February 1879] ). The masters of
  • with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as Francis Darwin reported from Germany that
  • the children correctly’, mentioning in particular that Francis Galton was the son of one of Erasmus
  • of the Admiralty described the unknown young man asA M r Darwin grandson of the well known
  • him on 9 June not toexpend much powder & shot on M r  Butler’, for he really was not worth
  • leaving Darwinmore perplexed than ever about life of D r . D’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 12
  • survived the ordeal as his paper was published by Sachs in 1880. Family matters Before
  • the highest point, for hiswhy”—“what for” &c are incessant’, Darwin joked on 2 July (first
  • is his profession thonot a profitable one; also D r  C[lark]’s opinion that he was so likely to
  • and preventCattle diseases, Potato diseases &c’, probably did not know that Darwin had already

Movement in Plants

Summary

The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

Matches: 21 hits

  • The power of movement in plants , published on 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • research being pursued by other naturalists who, like Francis, had come to this centre for the study
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • copied but also improved on some of the apparatuses that Francis had been introduced to at Würzburg. …
  • plant physiology, but it was at its core informed by Darwins theory of evolution, particularly by
  • early 1860s, at a time when his health was especially bad, Darwin had taken up the study of climbing
  • reproduced as a small book, giving it a much wider audience. Darwin was not the first naturalist to
  • which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a much longer work,  …
  • had considered combining the works in a single volume ( letter to J. V. Carus, 7 February 1875 ). …
  • … ‘ Frank & I are working very hard on bloom & sleep &c.; but I am horribly afraid all
  • … , a plant that exhibited all three types of movement ( letter from RILynch, [before 28 July
  • and illustrated Horaces machine in a paper (F. Darwin 1880, pp. 44955). Diagram
  • the woodblock using photography for scientific accuracy ( letter from JDCooper13 December
  • lost colour, withered, and died within a couple of days ( letter from A. F. Batalin28 February
  • to learn about cutting thin sections of soft leaves &c.— Lastly the instrument for making marks
  • suggested by Darwins son William in February 1880, probably to replace FranksTransversal
  • the curious mode of germinationand concluded, ‘ M r  Rattan seems to be a real good observer, …
  • orThe Nature of the Movements of Plants’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke23 April [1880] ). Cooke
  • was willing to publish on the usual terms ( letter from R. F. Cooke15 July 1880 ). This was also
  • pay more for at the usual rate of charging per inch &c they w dbe over £40’; he suggested

Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers

Summary

In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began
  • a very old man, who probably will not last much longer.’ Darwins biggest fear was not death, but
  • sweetest place on this earth’. From the start of the year, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He
  • provision for the dividing of his wealth after his death. Darwins gloominess was compounded by the
  • and new admirers got in touch, and, for all his fears, Darwin found several scientific topics to
  • Evolution old and new when revising his essay on Erasmus Darwins scientific work, and that Darwin
  • his accusations in Unconscious memory in November 1880 and in an abusive letter about Darwin in
  • memory in Kosmos and sent Darwin a separate letter for publication in the Journal of Popular
  • of the false accusation’. Other friends rallied round. Francis Balfour translated Krauses account
  • had been a major undertaking for both Darwin and his son Francis, who assisted in the many
  • publishers decided to print500 more, making 2000’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 ) …
  • the animal learnt from its own individual experience ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 7 March 1881 ). …
  • whether observations of their behaviour were trustworthy ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 March [1881] …
  • the sale of books beinga game of chance’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 12 April 1881 ). On 18 May
  • July, sending the pages to Germany for further checks by Francis Darwin, who was spending the summer
  • Ruskin, who lived there. Sending the last two chapters to Francis on 27 May , Darwin wrote, …
  • he would feelless sulky in a day or two’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 July 1881 ). The degree of
  • falls at this late period of the season’ ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 30 July 1881 ). Darwin gave in
  • with you’, a Swedish teacher told him ( letter from C. E. Södling, 14 October 1881 ), while H. M. …
  • to possibilities for women, judging from her organization &c’. When Darwin replied the following
  • … ‘bread-winners’ ( Correspondence vol. 30, letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). …
  • publication & to acknowledge any criticism’ ( letter to C. G. Semper, 19 July 1881 ). He
  • to bear thewear & tear of controversy’ ( letter to G. R. Jesse, 23 April 1881 ). Later in
  • everyone elses judgment on the subject ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 12 July 1881 ). However, some
  • provedthe greatness of their power’ ( letter from M. C. Stanley, 16 October 1881 ). Hooker

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • to artificially fertilise plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Letter 12389 - Johnson, M. to Darwin, [January 1880] Mary Johnson tells Darwin about her
  • 12745 - Darwin to Wedg wood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • 12760 - Wedgw ood, K. E. S. to Darwin, [15 October 1880] Darwins niece, Katherine
  • Darwin, [9 January 1871] Darwins brother-in-law, Francis, reports on the appearance and
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • tells her eldest son, William, that her third eldest son, Francis, is receiving help with his plant
  • February 1857] Darwins nephew, Edmund, writes to Francis with the results of his
  • in his home. Letter 10517  - Darwin to Francis, F., [29 May 1876] Darwin
  • publication of  The Movement  of Plants   in 1880 and hisassistanceis proudly

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 22 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • experiments had been conducted to lend support to Darwins theory of pangenesis (see
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 March 1882] (DAR 210.3: 45)). …
  • at an early age was encouraged by Darwin. He wrote to Francis: ‘I say nothing about the loss to
  • a small tribute of respect’ (letter from John Lubbock to Francis Darwin, 20 April 1882 (DAR 215: 10n
  • to some Estancia,’ wrote Hughes, ‘as the scenery &c. will amply repay your trouble’ ( letter
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • of ice dams causing glacial lakes was presented by Thomas Francis Jamieson in a paper to the
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To
  • Darwins views on eugenics, a term coined by his cousin Francis Galton, were mixed, partly owing to
  • years of Darwins life show his increasing attachment to Francis, as father and son worked together

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 15 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • are identified only asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25
  • to state that the information wasreceived through Sir C. Lyellor received fromMiss. B”. …
  • Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] Darwin asks his niece to
  • at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwins
  • Darwin, [4 January 1871] Darwins brother-in-law, Francis Wedgwood, sends the results of
  • near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • … [1 November 1877] Darwin asks his sons, Horace and Francis, to observe earthworm activity
  • Letter 12742 - Darwin, H. to Darwin, [7 October 1880] Horace writes to his father
  • Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • 12760 - Wedgwood, K. E. S. to Darwin, [15 October 1880] Darwins niece, Sophy, …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 22 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwins preoccupation with the
  • to mans place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwins species theory and on the problem
  • fromsome Quadrumanum animal’, as he put it in a letter to J. D. Hooker of 24[–5] February [1863] …
  • detailed anatomical similarities between humans and apes, Darwin was full of praise. He especially
  • … ‘I declare I never in my life read anything grander’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 26 [February 1863] …
  • in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwins concern about the popular
  • Lyells and Huxleys books. Three years earlier Darwin had predicted that Lyells forthcoming
  • than  Origin had (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). …
  • from animals like the woolly mammoth and cave bear ( see letter from Jacques Boucher de Perthes, 23
  • first half of 1863 focused attention even more closely on Darwins arguments for species change. …
  • … ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later letter that it
  • of creation, and the origin of species particularly, worried Darwin; he told Hooker that he had once
  • letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin did not relish telling Lyell of his
  • … ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwins regret was profound that the
  • sentence from the second edition of  Antiquity of man  (C. Lyell 1863b, p. 469), published in
  • by them (see Correspondence vol. 11, Appendix IX). Francis Darwin later wrote of his fathers
  • very slowly recovering, but am very weak’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [29 September? 1863] ). …
  • Thomass Hospital, London ( letter from George Busk, [ c. 27 August 1863] ). Brinton, who

Moral Nature

Summary

In Descent of Man, Darwin argued that human morality had evolved from the social instincts of animals, especially the bonds of sympathy and love. Darwin gathered observations over many decades on animal behavior: the heroic sacrifices of social insects,…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … | Selected Readings In Descent of Man , Darwin argued that human morality had …
  • … (Barrett et al. eds. 1987, p. 619) Darwin gathered observations over many decades on …
  • … Though rooted in instinctive sympathy, moral behavior for Darwin was not purely automatic or …
  • … the social instincts that humans shared with animals. Darwin's moral theory was the most …
  • … obligation, compassion, guilt, and the pangs of conscience. Darwin's theory was condemned by …
  • … female members of their hive in order to protect the queen. Darwin engaged with his critics in …
  • … save another. Letters Letter 7048 : Darwin, W. E., to Darwin, …
  • … of ideas, rather than as evolving from animal instinct. Darwin got clarification on this point from …
  • … but rather in a muddle on the whole subject" Letter 7645 : Morley, John to Darwin, …
  • … but 'in the air' from generation to generation." Letter 7685 : Darwin to …
  • … that man ever existed as a non-social animal." Letter 7691 , Morley, John, to …
  • … the moral sense, at a time when Paris is aflame". Letter 7145 : Darwin to Cobbe, F. …
  • … apes & savages at the moral sense of mankind." Letter 7149 : Cobbe, F. P. to …
  • … or respect is shame." Letter 7537 : Darwin, C. R. to Wenslow, Hensleigh, 3 March …
  • … & regret his conduct." Letter 9377 : Darwin, C. R. to Abbott, F. E. A., 30 …
  • Letter 12610 : Preston, S. T. to Darwin, 20 May 1880 In correspondence with the engineer …
  • … Self or Self-Interest." Letter 12615 : Darwin, C. R. to Preston, S. T., 22 May …
  • … 2007. Darwin (London: Routledge), ch. 6 Richards, R. J. 1987. Darwin the development of …

Darwin and the Church

Summary

The story of Charles Darwin’s involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It shows another side of the man who is more often remembered for his personal struggles with faith, or for his role in large-scale controversies over the…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The story of Charles Darwins involvement with the church is one that is told far too rarely. It
  • unique window into this complicated relationship throughout Darwins life, as it reveals his
  • belief (and doubt) than many non-conformist denominations. Darwins parents attended a Unitarian
  • the necessary studies to be a clergyman. During Darwins lifetime, the vast majority of the
  • income was essential to enjoy a gentlemanly lifestyle. For Darwin, who could rely on the financial
  • compatible with the pursuit of scientific interests. Indeed, Darwins Cambridge mentorJohn Stevens
  • … (Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine (1887): 321). Darwin started on his journey around the world
  • … & I can see it even through a grove of Palms.—’ (letter to Caroline Darwin, 256 April [1832] …
  • wrote to the contrary: ‘I am sorry to see in your last letter that you still look forward to the
  • near the British Museum or some other learned place’ (letter from E. A. Darwin, 18 August [1832] …
  • it is a sort of scene I never ought to think about—’ (letter to W. D. Fox, [912 August] 1835 ). …
  • in 1838 and 1839, as can be read here. In the end, Darwin chose a middle coursea life of ease in
  • within six years of his return from the  Beagle  voyage, Darwin moved to Down House, in the
  • where their children Mary and Charles were buried; later Darwins brother Erasmus, Emmas sister
  • However, what remains is cordial; in the first extant letter of the correspondence, Darwin wrote to
  • … (a local charity), which he administered from 1848 to 1869 (letter to J. B. Innes, [8 May 1848] …
  • Innes informed Darwin that though heheard all good of M r . Ffindens moral character, his
  • an interesting letter from Darwin to the evangelist J. W. C. Fegan. Darwin whole-heartedly supported
  • in the village’ (letter to J. W. C. Fegan, [December 1880February 1881] ). Indeed, the Darwin
  • Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter . Edited by Francis Darwin. 3 vols. London: John