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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • to artificially fertilise plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to
  • be made on seeds of Pulmonaria officinalis . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to
  • Expression from her home in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L
  • birds. Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868] Darwin
  • Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October 1869] …
  • Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • her nieces ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen
  • patience”. Letter 4242 - Hildebrand, F. H. G. to Darwin, [16 July 1863] …
  • Women: Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] …
  • Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] Darwins niece, Lucy, …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 21 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • book, Erasmus Darwin , had been published in November 1879. It was received well by his relations
  • Erasmuss life and other bits of family history. On 1 January , a distant cousin, Charles
  • my grandfathers character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). …
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • much powder & shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and
  • modified; but now I much regret that I did not do so’ ( letter to Samuel Butler, 3 January 1880 ). …
  • a grievance to hang an article upon’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [28 January 1880] ). …
  • … , sending one or both to his daughter Henrietta ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 1 February [1880] ). …
  • he will have the last word’, she warned ( letter from H. E. Litchfield, [1 February 1880] ). ‘He
  • Darwinophobia? It is a horrid disease’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 3 February 1880 ). All
  • I was, also, rarely fit to see anybody’ ( letter to S. H. Haliburton, 13 December 1880 ). …
  • thus one looks to prevent its return’ ( letter from J.-H. Fabre, 18 February 1880 ). Darwin shared
  • aided in any way direct attacks on religion’ ( letter to E. B. Aveling, 13 October 1880 ). Finally
  • biologist of our time’ ( letter from W. D. Roebuck to G. H. Darwin, 25 October 1880 ). The

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 18 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • home again’, he fretted, just days before his departure ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26
  • many blessings, was finding old agea dismal time’ ( letter to Henry Johnson, 24 September 1879 ) …
  • wrinkles one all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879
  • itself, or gone some other way round?’ At least the last letter of 1879 contained a warmer note and
  • … & would please Francis’, he pointed out ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 13 March [1879 ]). …
  • with the when & the where, & the who—’ ( letter from V. H. Darwin, 28 May [1879] ). On the
  • thoughtperfect in every way’ ( letter from E. A. Wheler, 25 March 1879 ). She suggested that
  • and well, and with little fatigue’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 , and letter from
  • to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 5 June 1879 , and letter to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 ). Darwins
  • … … neither cross nor ennuied’ (Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: 125)). Darwin
  • wait for three months. ‘Nothing can be more useless than T.Hs conduct’, Emma Darwin pointed out, …
  • say that he has opposed it’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: …
  • to get home ‘& began drumming at once’ (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR
  • it dominated the picture (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [17 July 1879] (DAR 219.9: …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 19 hits

  • The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • been the naturalist and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • inferred that he was well from his silence on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October
  • Erasmuss house. The event was led by the medium Charles E. Williams, and was attended by George
  • in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] …
  • Williams wasa cheat and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin
  • he was thus free to perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874] ). This did
  • sweetly all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The
  • I have pounded the enemy into a jelly’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 14 April 1874 ). The technical
  • and never mind where it goes’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 16 April 1874 ). The second
  • conciseness & clearness of your thought’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 20 April 1874 ). …
  • artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon
  • try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April
  • nephew, the fine-art specialist Henry Parker ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … proofread and edited by “a lady”. Darwin, E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March 1862 - DAR 219.1
  • … her to read to check that she can understand it. Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F. …
  • … from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E …
  • … he seeks her help with tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 …
  • … in order to minimise impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, …
  • Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] Ann Cupples asks …
  • … readership Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February 1867] …
  • … Society . Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] …
  • Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] Frances Wedgwood …
  • Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February 1873] Henrietta’s …
  • … lay it down. Letter 13547 - Tanner, M. H. to Darwin, [12 December 1881] …
  • … Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …

Cross and self fertilisation

Summary

The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom, published on 10 November 1876, was the result of a decade-long project to provide evidence for Darwin’s belief that ‘‘Nature thus tells us, in the most emphatic manner, that she abhors…

Matches: 18 hits

  • self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom , published on 10 November 1876, was the result of a
  • by insects, and on the good effects of intercrossing (1862), and in several papers on plants with
  • of different forms of pollen. Although many plants that Darwin observed had flowers with adaptations
  • rates, growth, and constitutional vigour. Although Darwin was no stranger to long months and years
  • … … is highly remarkableIn September 1866, Darwin announced to the American botanist
  • of the young plants is highly remarkable’ ( To Asa Gray, 10 September [1866] ). By early December, …
  • when grown together for several years ( To Édouard Bornet, 1 December 1866 ). Darwin began a
  • access to flowers was only the tip of the iceberg. Darwin next focused on the California
  • in divergent climatic conditions’ ( From Fritz Müller, 1 December 1866 ). Darwins interest was
  • when self-fertilised, although fewer than crossed plants. Darwin sent some of these seeds to Müller, …
  • … [1868] ). Müller, in turn, sent seeds from his plants to Darwin and both men continued to
  • Müller remarked, on receiving a new batch of seeds from Darwin, ‘that it wascurious to see, on
  • … ( From Fritz Müller, 15 June 1869 ). By May 1870, Darwin reported that he wasrearing crossed
  • 17 March [1867] ). He noted another factor in a letter to Gray, remarking, ‘I am going on with my
  • … [1873] ). In September, Darwin wrote a long letter to Nature commenting on a seemingly
  • excess of the crossed over the self-fertilised’ ( To GHDarwin, 8 January [1876] ). George
  • for the moment that all of equal value.’ ( From GHDarwin, [after 8 January 1876] ). It was his
  • ARWallace, 13 December 1876 ). No reply to this letter has been found, but Darwin had long

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 20 hits

  • I cannot bear to think of the future The year 1876 started out sedately enough with
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11 September just hours after Amys
  • quantity of workleft in him fornew matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The
  • to a reprint of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February
  • … & I for blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. …
  • provided evidence for theadvantages of crossing’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising
  • year to write about his life ( Correspondence vol. 23, letter from Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, 20
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica the previous year ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [after 4 September 1876] ). …
  • … ‘all I can say is do not commit suicide’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [4 June 1876] ). By midsummer, …
  • a set of sons I have, all doing wonders.’ ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 July [1876]. ) A
  • and eczema, was able to rest his mind ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 2 May [1876] ). Darwin even
  • letter to Andrew Clark, [late June 1876] ; letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 July [1876] ). The irony
  • we have & you are one of the best of all’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 11 September [1876] ). …
  • she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • herself & is so tender’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6
  • completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6: …
  • horticulturists and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In
  • been the subject of mere observation’ ( letter from T. H. Farrer, 31 December 1876 ). The Swiss

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 21 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • upstairs with the aid of a special chair. The end came on 19 April. Plans were made for a burial in
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root response and the
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • quite untirable & I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January
  • probably intending to test its effects on chlorophyll ( letter to Joseph Fayrer, 30 March 1882 ). …
  • the flowers & experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). While
  • he is a good deal depressed about himself’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March
  • is very calm but she has cried a little’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, [19 April
  • overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882 (DAR 219.1: 150)). …
  • he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • without any mercy’ ( letter from Emma Wedgwood to F. E. E. Wedgwood, [28 October 1836] , letter
  • Natural History, that I went as Naturalist on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World & …
  • I cannot tell how or where to begin’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 21 [January 1860] ). Darwins
  • of Darwinian theory to flowers and flower-visiting insects; H. Müller 1869)). Darwin was full of
  • at least be a valid ground for divorce’ ( letter to H. K. Rusden, [before 27 March 1875] ). In

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 19 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • in satisfying female preference in the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, …
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • and his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that
  • which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for
  • as well say, he would drink a little and not too much’ ( letter to Albert Günther, 15 May [1868] ) …
  • in January 1868. A final delay caused by the indexing gave Darwin much vexation. ‘My book is
  • would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwins angry letter to Murray crossed one from Dallas to
  • of labour to remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). …
  • if I try to read a few pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). …
  • reviews. On 7 August 1868 , he wrote him a lengthy letter from the Isle of Wight on the formation
  • classes, a dim ray of light may be gained’ ( letter to H. T. Stainton, 21 February [1868] ). From
  • and had himself watched elephants cry (letters to W. E. Darwin, [15 March 1868] and 8 April
  • of the caudicle of  Ophrys muscifera  (letters from T. H. Farrer, 17 May 1868 and 18 May
  • to oneselfis no slight gain’ ( letter from T. H. Farrer, 17 September 1868 ). Darwin continued
  • induced him to stay away ( letter from S. J. OH. Horsman, 2 June [1868] ). But if Horsman
  • at the shrine of D r . Darwin’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 July 1868 ). Darwin received a

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 17 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • of man and his history' The first five months of 1863 contain the bulk of the
  • to mans place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwins species theory and on the problem
  • fromsome Quadrumanum animal’, as he put it in a letter to J. D. Hooker of 24[–5] February [1863] …
  • … ‘I declare I never in my life read anything grander’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 26 [February 1863] …
  • than  Origin had (see  Correspondence  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). …
  • seen how indignant all Owens lies and mean conduct about E. Columbi made me… . The case is come to
  • on this subject seems to get rarer & rarer’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 18 April [1863] ), …
  • for the Natural History Review  ( see letter to H. W. Bates, 12 January [1863] ). Darwin added
  • Copley Medal had been unsuccessful ( see letter from E. A. Darwin to Emma Darwin, 11 November [1863
  • to J. D. Hooker, [9 May 1863] , and memorandum from G. H. Darwin, [before 11 May 1863]) . …
  • the end of 1862, and published as a book in early 1863 (T. H. Huxley 1863a). Though Darwin was
  • sterility of species, when crossed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 10 [January 1863] ). He reminded
  • both self-pollination and cross-pollination ( letter to P. H. Gosse, 2 June [1863] ). The
  • the bookcase and around the head of the sofa ( letter to W. E. Darwin, [25 July 1863], and

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 15 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • … set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication …
  • … work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • … her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D …
  • … Darwin’s Fertilisation of Orchids . Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., …
  • … being acknowledged publicly as a science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to …
  • … are identified only as “friends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 …
  • … Sir C. Lyell” or received from “Miss. B”. Letter 7060 - Wedgwood, F. J. to …
  • … . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868] Darwin asks …
  • Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E., [13 May 1872] Darwin consults his …
  • … rely”. Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 July 1872] Darwin …
  • Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] Amy Ruck reports the …
  • Letter 8193 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [1 February 1872] Amy Ruck sends a …
  • Letter 11221 - Darwin to Darwin, H., [1 November 1877] Darwin asks his sons, …
  • … . Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin …

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 19 hits

  • As the sheer volume of his correspondence indicates, 1862 was a particularly productive year for
  • promotion of his theory of natural selection also continued: Darwins own works expanded on it, …
  • but really I do think you have a good right to be so’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [15 and] 20
  • a keen interest in the progress of his views through Europe, Darwin negotiated, in addition to a
  • the family over the summer. But towards the end of the year, Darwin was able once more to turn his
  • of the Scottish press hissed). Huxley, while advocating Darwins theory, had again espoused the view
  • experimental production of newphysiologicalspecies. Darwin attempted to dissuade him from this
  • partially sterile together. He failed. Huxley replied ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 January 1862
  • delivered a series of lectures to working men that reviewed Darwins theory, and sent copies to
  • resigned to their difference of opinion, but complained ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 28 December [1862
  • letters, Darwin, impressed, gave him the commission ( see letter to John Scott, 11 December [1862] …
  • son, William, his language was more blunt ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 14 February [1862] ): ‘whether
  • withgood dashes of original reflexions’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 13 January [1862] ). He warmly
  • … & admirable papers I ever read in my life’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 20 November [1862] ). He
  • French Translation will appear very soon’ ( letter to C. E. Brown-Séquard, 2 January [1862] ). …
  • telling him of the need for a second edition ( letter from H. G. Bronn, [before 11 March 1862] ), …
  • Bronn died suddenly from a heart attack ( see letter from E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung
  • and Emmaperplexed to death what to do’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, [23 August 1862] ). They
  • work would make his lifemuch happier’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 14 February [1862] ). Darwin

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • and he is curious about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., …
  • to Hookerit is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D. …
  • wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674Darwin, C. R. to Gray, …
  • and asks him to append the ranges of the species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. …
  • Darwin and Müller Letter 5457Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Mar 1867
  • … . Letter 5471Darwin, C. R. to Müller, H. L. H., 29 Mar [1867] Darwin learns
  • Müllers brother. Letter 5481Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr [1867] …
  • grow in Westphalia. Letter 5657Müller, H. L. H. to Darwin, C. R., 23 Oct 1867
  • … . Letter 4260aDarwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 19 hits

  • When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations
  • expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to
  • cultural and conventional, or instinctive and universal. Darwin used his existing correspondence
  • and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?” Darwins questionnaire was an extension of
  • was also carefully devised so as to prevent the feelings of Darwins remote observers from colouring
  • in Ceylon, wrote the botanist George Thwaites on 22 July 1868 , “all endeavour to drill their
  • Scottish botanist John Scott wrote from Calcutta, 4 May 1868 : “Shame isexpressed by an
  • Correspondence about Darwins Questionnaire (click on the letter dates to see the individual letters
  • Correspondent Letter date Location
  • Africa)? ] mentioned in JPM Weale letter, but Bowker's answers not found
  • Woolston, Southampton, England letter to W.E. Darwin shrugging
  • Square W London, England enclosed in a letter from Henry Maudsley
  • South Africa possibly included in letter from Mansel Weale
  • Peradeniya, Ceylon enclosed in letter from G.H.K. Thwaites
  • will forward query Huxley, H.A. 22 Mar
  • Aborigines Lane, H.B. 13 Aug 1868
  • aborigines Lubbock, E.F. [1867-8?] …
  • aborigines Thwaites, G.H.K. 1 Apr 1868
  • Kanara), Bombay, India forwarded by H.N.B. Erskine

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … everything is the result of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 …
  • … nature, as he is in a “muddle” on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, …
  • … shares a witty thought experiment about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, …
  • … He asks Gray some questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 …
  • … He can give me.” Letter 5303 — Boole, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., 13 Dec 1866 In this …
  • Letter 5307 — Darwin, C. R. to Boole, M. E., 14 Dec 1866 Darwin believes he is unable to …
  • Letter 8070 — Darwin, C. R. to Abbot, F. E., 16 Nov [1871] Darwin explains why he must …