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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Octavian (3) Blomefield, Leonard (42) …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … Darwin, Horace (30) Darwin, Leonard (37) …
  • … Horner, K. M. (5) Horner, Leonard (13) …
  • … Jenyns, G. L. (1) Jenyns, Leonard (42) …
  • … Ruck, M. A. (2) Rudd, Leonard (2) …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 21 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography
  • a holiday in the Lake District in August did little to raise Darwins spirits. ‘I wish that my
  • he fretted, just days before his departure ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] …
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • all over like a baked pear’ ( enclosure in letter from R. W. Dixon, 20 December 1879 ). The year
  • contained a warmer note and the promise of future happiness: Darwin learned he was to be visited by
  • … & would please Francis’, he pointed out ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 13 March [1879 ]). …
  • thoughtperfect in every way’ ( letter from E. A. Wheler, 25 March 1879 ). She suggested that
  • itvery dull,—almost too dull to publish’, while Leonard Darwin considered that insufficient
  • … ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 , and letter from Leonard Darwin, [before 12 July] 1879
  • and he regretted going beyond histether’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 5 June 1879 , and
  • travellerneither cross nor ennuied’ (Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: 125
  • … & that it was suppressed gout. Also how well off he wd be, w. is a matter of some consequence
  • to say that he has opposed it’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: …
  • get home ‘& began drumming at once’ (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR 219
  • it dominated the picture (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [17 July 1879] (DAR 219.9: …
  • men of science quarrelled (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [6 September 1879] (DAR 219.1: …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 13 hits

  • for plants to flourish can be traced back to the last book Darwin wrote, snappily-titled The
  • on their habits, which was published in 1881. Despite Darwins fears that a book on earthworms might
  • out in his Natural History of Selborne of 1789 (a book Darwin claimed hadmuch influence on my
  • a new field in natural history, and almost a century later Darwin argued that all fields had passed
  • variety of strange things he persuaded people to do. Darwin concluded that worms had no sense
  • a metal whistle and to being shouted at, but also to Francis Darwin playing the bassoon, and to Emma
  • whether worms possessed the power to lift a pavement. Leonard and George made calculations about
  • realising that this negative evidence was also valuable to Darwin. Thomas Henry Farrer , …
  • existence of worms at that altitude. By the 1870s, Darwin was also drawing on the work of
  • him. Soon worm excrement was trusted to postal services, and Darwin acquired casts from India and
  • observations he had gathered to write a book on the subject. Darwin brought to the topic the
  • soul is absorbed with worms just at present!’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton Dyer, 23 November [1880] …
  • much bigger souls than anyone wd suppose’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] (CUL DAR

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 22 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • one looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those
  • all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The book
  • in sympathy: ‘If anybody tries that on with my boy Leonard the old wolf will shew all the fangs he
  • … [1874] ). At the end of June, Darwins fourth son, Leonard, who had joined the Royal
  • son of the Astronomer Royal, George Biddell Airy, to help Leonard gain the commission ( …
  • took twelve weeks aboard the immigrant ship  Merope . Leonard joined a colourful collection of
  • son Francis married Amy Ruck, the sister of a friend of Leonard Darwins in the Royal Engineers, on
  • the subject & that must be enough for me’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. Fox,  11 May [1874] ). …
  • artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon
  • do when they are sitting at rest’ ( letter from S. W. Pennypacker, 14 September 1874 ). …
  • try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April
  • nephew, the fine-art specialist Henry Parker ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 24 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • all the notes until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwins later entries, like Emmas, …
  • Transcription: 1 [9W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10During first week. …
  • morning put on an unconspicuous bonnet of C. Langton,[52W. instantly observed it knew whose it was
  • leaves, stuck them in the ground to observe if the Bees, w d  look at them.[53Willy across whole
  • remonstrating with him on telling such a Burster (as he w d . call it), he answered, “Well then I
  • written in pencil by CD and subsequently overwritten by Emma Darwin. The transcription throughout
  • … [15] ‘Annie . . . fortnightwas written by Emma Darwin on the verso of page 3 and opposite the
  • The name and address of a Mrs Locke are noted in Emma Darwins 1843 diary. [16The following
  • books that she could recall encountering as a child (H. E. Litchfield papers, CUL). [60] …
  • and family memoirs and reminiscences. [61Leonard Darwin, born 1850. [62Francis
  • of her childhood, Henrietta Litchfield remembered Leonard Darwin saying this to their maid Jane and
  • CUL). [71Horace Darwin, born 1851. [72Leonard Darwins nickname. [73Miss

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 28 hits

  • The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle  voyage was one
  • a family Busy as he was with scientific activities, Darwin found time to re-establish family
  • close contact. In November 1838, two years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, …
  • daughter, Anne Elizabeth, moved to Down House in Kent, where Darwin was to spend the rest of his
  • his greatest theoretical achievement, the most important of Darwins activities during the years
  • identifications of his bird and fossil mammal specimens, Darwin arrived at the daring and momentous
  • in species. With this new theoretical point of departure Darwin continued to make notes and explore
  • present in the version of 1859. Young author Darwins investigation of the species
  • the  Beagle  had returned to England, news of some of Darwins findings had been spread by the
  • great excitement. The fuller account of the voyage and Darwins discoveries was therefore eagerly
  • suitable categories for individual experts to work upon, Darwin applied himself to the revision of
  • of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle. Darwins volume bore the title  Journal
  • visited by H.M.S. BeagleAlso in November 1837, Darwin read the fourth of a series of papers to
  • to the Society of 9 March 1838), had been developed by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, …
  • Sedgwick, [after 15 May 1838] ). The new research Darwin undertook after 1837 was an
  • time, the parallel terraces, orroads’, of Glen Roy. Darwin had seen similar formations on the
  • roads of Glen Roy’,  Collected papers  1: 88137). Darwin later abandoned this view, calling it a
  • contemporaneous unstratified deposits of South America”, Darwin continued to defend his and Lyells
  • 1842, having heard of evidence of glaciation in North Wales, Darwin made a tour there in order to
  • G. R. WaterhouseBirds , by John GouldFish , by Leonard Jenyns; and  Reptiles , by Thomas
  • variety of publications. The beetles were described by F. W. Hope, G. R. Waterhouse, and C. C. …
  • distribution and classification (see Henslow 1837a and 1838; W. J. Hooker and G. A. W. Arnott 1836, …
  • convince anyone that he had a sound solution to what J. F. W. Herschel in a letter to Lyell had
  • clearly  under sub-laws.' To his cousin, W. D. Fox, [25 January 1841] , he wrote: & …
  • in this field and on friends like Henslow, T. C. Eyton, and W. D. Fox, who were knowledgeable about
  • between species and varieties had no basis in reality (W. Herbert 1837, p. 341); species were only
  • to Caroline Darwin, 13 October 1834 , and letter from R. E. Alison, 25 June 1835 ). Henry
  • so-calledscience of morphology’, first set forth by J. W. von Goethe. Though widely accepted in

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 16 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • about Hookers thoughts. Letter 729Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [11 Jan 1844] …
  • is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844
  • of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674
  • of the species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray
  • of alpine flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] …
  • have in simple truth been of the utmost value to me.” Darwin believes species have arisen, like
  • or continuous area; they are actual lineal descendants. Darwin discusses fertilisation in the bud
  • exchange This collection of letters between Darwin and Hooker, while Darwin was writing his
  • to information exchange. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • followed automatically. On the issue of nomenclature reform, Darwin opposes appending first
  • forms of address and acknowledgement. Darwin and W. B. Tegetmeier Letter 1751 — …
  • … . Letter 4260aDarwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia
  • offered the Beagle naturalist appointment first to Leonard Jenyns, who almost accepted, as did

Darwin in letters, 1869: Forward on all fronts

Summary

At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  Origin. He may have resented the interruption to his work on sexual selection and human evolution, but he spent forty-six days on the task. Much of the…

Matches: 26 hits

  • At the start of 1869, Darwin was hard at work making changes and additions for a fifth edition of  …
  • appeared at the end of 1866 and had told his cousin William Darwin Fox, ‘My work will have to stop a
  • of correcting’ ( Correspondence  vol. 16, letter to W. D. Fox, 12 December [1868] ). He may
  • material on emotional expression. Yet the scope of Darwins interests remained extremely broad, and
  • plants, and earthworms, subjects that had exercised Darwin for decades, and that would continue to
  • Carl von  Nägeli and perfectibility Darwins most substantial addition to  Origin  was a
  • a Swiss botanist and professor at Munich (Nägeli 1865). Darwin had considered Nägelis paper
  • principal engine of change in the development of species. Darwin correctly assessed Nägelis theory
  • in most morphological features (Nägeli 1865, p. 29). Darwin sent a manuscript of his response (now
  • are & must be morphological’. The comment highlights Darwins apparent confusion about Nägelis
  • … ‘purely morphological’. The modern reader may well share Darwins uncertainty, but Nägeli evidently
  • pp. 289). In further letters, Hooker tried to provide Darwin with botanical examples he could use
  • problems of heredity Another important criticism that Darwin sought to address in the fifth
  • prevailing theory of blending inheritance that Jenkin and Darwin both shared, would tend to be lost
  • … ( Origin  5th ed., pp. 1034). The terminology that Darwin and others employed in these matters ( …
  • … ‘I must have expressed myself atrociously’, Darwin wrote to Alfred Russel Wallace on 2 February , …
  • of  Origin  was the result of correspondence between Darwin and the geologist James Croll. In the
  • but it was his theory of alternate ice ages that piqued Darwins interest the most. He wrote, ‘this
  • … ( letter to James Croll, 31 January [1869] ). Darwin had argued ( Origin , pp. 3778) that plant
  • would always exist. In  Origin  5th ed., pp. 45061, Darwin accounted for the survival of tropical
  • James Croll31 January [1869] ). Croll could not supply Darwin with an estimate of the age of the
  • … ( letter from James Croll, 4 February 1869 ).  Darwin did not directly challenge Thomsons
  • 19 March [1869] ). Towards Descent Once Darwin had completed revisions of the
  • ability to recognise the different varieties ( letter to W. B. Tegetmeier, 25 February [1869] ). …
  • … ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 7 May 1869 , letter from W. B. Dawkins, 17 July 1869 ). He
  • grandfather, Erasmus, to two of Darwins sons (George and Leonard), who had recently excelled in

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 22 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • Charles Harrison Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends
  • divines to see a pigs body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied, ‘& that about my
  • registry offices, and produced a twenty-page history of the Darwin family reaching back to the
  • the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwins sons George and Leonard also
  • and conciliate a few whose ancestors had not featured in Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to
  • to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and Emma Darwin, …
  • wants a grievance to hang an article upon’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [28 January 1880] ). …
  • one or both to his daughter Henrietta ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 1 February [1880] ). ‘The
  • he will have the last word’, she warned ( letter from H. E. Litchfield, [1 February 1880] ). ‘He
  • pretended, ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of
  • the reasons, I should be greatly obliged’ ( letter from W. Z. Seddon, 2 February 1880) . Darwin
  • he added, ‘hardly anybody has accepted’ ( letter to W. Z. Seddon, 4 February 1880 ). On 16
  • aided in any way direct attacks on religion’ ( letter to E. B. Aveling, 13 October 1880 ). Finally
  • to the greatest biologist of our time’ ( letter from W. D. Roebuck to G. H. Darwin, 25 October 1880
  • his great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880
  • his voice as clearly as if he were present’ (letters to C. W. Fox, 29 March 1880 and 10 [April

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 24 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his
  • and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwins three volumes of the geology of
  • single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at
  • volume, Coral reefs , already in its second edition. Darwin was neverthelessfirmly resolved not
  • meticulous correction of errors in the German editions made Darwin less anxious about correcting the
  • to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. ) Darwin focused instead on the second
  • concentrated on themeans of crossing’, was seen by Darwin as the companion to Cross and self
  • return to old work than part of the future work outlined by Darwin in hislittle Autobiography’ ( …
  • been cast by thepoorest curs in London’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [4 February 1876] ). …
  • of illness & misery there is in the world’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 26 May [1876] ). A
  • Just four days later, Darwin had the hard task of telling Leonard that Amy, after seeming to recover
  • not by hiding the pain of the situation, but by reminding Leonard of how much his friendship had
  • we have & you are one of the best of all’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 11 September [1876] ). …
  • she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • herself & is so tender’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6
  • completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6: …
  • … & a Prof. Romer came to lunch’, Emma Darwin reported to Leonard Darwin on 29 September (DAR 239
  • horticulturists and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 26 hits

  • Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwins theorising about species, and
  • his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend
  • way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving
  • bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript
  • coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of
  • zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated
  • chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwins son George, in an anonymous
  • on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair
  • Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwins friends had to find ways of
  • pp. 1617). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also
  • in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwins ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the
  • to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial
  • Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral
  • could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbes memorial inflammatory
  • memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Kleins testimony
  • agree to any law, which should send him to the treadmill.’ Darwin had become acquainted with Klein
  • in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 and 10
  • day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   …
  • plants (Carus trans. 1876a). The German publisher E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagshandlung began to
  • was great’, Henrietta Emma Litchfield wrote to her brother Leonard on 14 September, ‘& special
  • agreed to see him at Down with Thiselton-Dyer ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 7 July 1875 ). It

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 24 hits

  • indicates, 1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his
  • promotion of his theory of natural selection also continued: Darwins own works