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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … G. E. (1) Beaufort, Francis (5) …
  • … Octavian (3) Blomefield, Leonard (42) …
  • … Boole, M. E. (3) Boott, Francis (7) …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … Darwin, Emma (191) Darwin, Francis (287) …
  • … Darwin, Horace (30) Darwin, Leonard (37) …
  • … Everest, Robert (1) Ewbank, Francis (1) …
  • … Fox, W. D. (225) Francis, George (1) …
  • … Galton, Erasmus (1) Galton, Francis (118) …
  • … Horner, K. M. (5) Horner, Leonard (13) …
  • … Jenyns, G. L. (1) Jenyns, Leonard (42) …
  • … Archibald (1) Lloyd, Francis (1) …
  • … Ruck, M. A. (2) Rudd, Leonard (2) …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 23 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). Darwin had employed
  • J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwins sons George and Leonard also continued to research the
  • find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and Emma Darwin, 22
  • a grievance to hang an article upon’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [28 January 1880] ). …
  • … , sending one or both to his daughter Henrietta ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 1 February [1880] ). …
  • he will have the last word’, she warned ( letter from H. E. Litchfield, [1 February 1880] ). ‘He
  • the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • Darwinophobia? It is a horrid disease’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 3 February 1880 ). All
  • Mr Butler whatever.’ Power of movement With Franciss assistance, the last of Darwins
  • of the nervous system, and the nature ofsensitivity’. Francis Balfour described Movement in
  • I was, also, rarely fit to see anybody’ ( letter to S. H. Haliburton, 13 December 1880 ). …
  • the intake of stones and flints to aid digestion. He asked Francis to check for castings on old
  • thus one looks to prevent its return’ ( letter from J.-H. Fabre, 18 February 1880 ). Darwin shared
  • rightly thought thequeer subjectof interest to Francis Galton, who had already taken thumb
  • extending the study to public-school pupils ( letter to Francis Galton, 7 April 1880 , and
  • aided in any way direct attacks on religion’ ( letter to E. B. Aveling, 13 October 1880 ). Finally
  • and spent extended periods with Henrietta and Richard Litchfield in London. The children returned

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 20 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography
  • W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the
  • with Charles Darwin and Ernst Haeckel. Kosmos was, as Francis Darwin reported from Germany that
  • the children correctly’, mentioning in particular that Francis Galton was the son of one of Erasmus
  • … & would please Francis’, he pointed out ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 13 March [1879 ]). …
  • with the when & the where, & the who—’ ( letter from V. H. Darwin, 28 May [1879] ). On the
  • thoughtperfect in every way’ ( letter from E. A. Wheler, 25 March 1879 ). She suggested that
  • own family found his first draft lacked interest. Henrietta Litchfield thought itvery dull,—almost
  • and well, and with little fatigue’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 , and letter from
  • to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 5 June 1879 , and letter to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 ). Darwins
  • Aunt Elizabeth (Bessy) Darwin, and Henrietta and Richard Litchfield to the Lake District for a
  • … … neither cross nor ennuied’ (Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: 125)). Darwin
  • wait for three months. ‘Nothing can be more useless than T.Hs conduct’, Emma Darwin pointed out, …
  • say that he has opposed it’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: …
  • get home ‘& began drumming at once’ (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR 219
  • it dominated the picture (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [17 July 1879] (DAR 219.9: …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 25 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • Erasmuss house. The event was led by the medium Charles E. Williams, and was attended by George
  • Williams wasa cheat and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin
  • he was thus free to perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874] ). This did
  • sweetly all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The
  • I have pounded the enemy into a jelly’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 14 April 1874 ). The technical
  • and never mind where it goes’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 16 April 1874 ). The second
  • had cost twenty-four shillings.) Murrays partner, Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the
  • in sympathy: ‘If anybody tries that on with my boy Leonard the old wolf will shew all the fangs he
  • … [1874] ). At the end of June, Darwins fourth son, Leonard, who had joined the Royal
  • son of the Astronomer Royal, George Biddell Airy, to help Leonard gain the commission ( …
  • took twelve weeks aboard the immigrant ship  Merope . Leonard joined a colourful collection of
  • … (see G. B. Airy ed. 1881). Darwins third son Francis married Amy Ruck, the sister of a
  • work on insectivorous plants. Amy drew a plant and Francis was disappointed that they seemed not to
  • artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon
  • try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April
  • could not weary the German public ( letter to H. E. Litchfield,  21 [March 1874] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 26 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • …  27 July [1872] ). By the end of the year Darwin was immersed in two of the studies that
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • worms , published in the year before his deathDespite Darwins declared intention to take up new
  • begun many years before. In his private life also, Darwin was in a nostalgic frame of mind, …
  • The last word on Origin The year opened with Darwin, helped by his eldest son William, …
  • on 30 January , shortly after correcting the proofs, and Darwins concern for the consolidation of
  • and sixth editions were costly to incorporate, and despite Darwins best efforts, set the final
  • closely involved in every stage of publication of his books, Darwin was keen to ensure that this
  • to bring out the new edition in the United States, Darwin arranged with Murray to have it
  • selection is somewhat under a cloud’, he wrote to JETaylor on 13 January , and he complained
  • the theories of natural and sexual selection to bees (HMüller 1872), and with his reply Darwin
  • for myself it is dreadful doing nothing’ ( letter to THHuxley, 22 October [1872] ). He was far
  • drawings shortly afterwards ( letter from Samuel Butler to Francis Darwin, [before 30 May 1872] , …
  • origins of music provided by her husband, Richard Buckley Litchfield ( letter to HELitchfield, …
  • … 'I know that I am half-killed myself’ ( letter to HELitchfield, 25 July 1872 ). A
  • a week later ( enclosure to letter from John Lubbock to WEGladstone, 20 June 1872 ).  Darwin
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • Darwin used his correspondence with Airy to support his son Leonards application to join the
  • the claims of spiritualists, and Darwin, through his cousin Francis Galton, had with some interest
  • however, incorporated in the second edition, produced by Francis Darwin after his fathers death. …
  • new name on the list of volunteers: by the beginning of May, Francis Darwin, the Darwinsthird son, …
  • pleasant letters & never answer them’ ( letter to THHuxley, 22 October [1872] ). But not
  • than usual. One such old friend was Sarah Haliburton, née Owen, to whose sister, Fanny, Darwin had

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 21 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • the first member of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amys child expected in
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his
  • Darwin reassured his close friend Joseph Hooker that he and Francis would attend the meeting. Darwin
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica the previous year ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [after 4 September 1876] ). …
  • … ‘all I can say is do not commit suicide’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [4 June 1876] ). By midsummer, …
  • a set of sons I have, all doing wonders.’ ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 July [1876]. ) A
  • and eczema, was able to rest his mind ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 2 May [1876] ). Darwin even
  • Clark was called out to see Darwins daughter Henrietta Litchfield, who had fallen ill on a visit to
  • letter to Andrew Clark, [late June 1876] ; letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 July [1876] ). The irony
  • Just four days later, Darwin had the hard task of telling Leonard that Amy, after seeming to recover
  • not by hiding the pain of the situation, but by reminding Leonard of how much his friendship had
  • we have & you are one of the best of all’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 11 September [1876] ). …
  • she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • herself & is so tender’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6
  • completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6: …
  • … & a Prof. Romer came to lunch’, Emma Darwin reported to Leonard Darwin on 29 September (DAR 239
  • horticulturists and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 25 hits

  • Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwins theorising about species, and
  • his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend
  • way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving
  • bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript
  • coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of
  • zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated
  • chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwins son George, in an anonymous
  • on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair
  • Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwins friends had to find ways of
  • pp. 1617). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also
  • in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwins ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the
  • Darwin had become acquainted with Klein when his son Francis was studying medicine in London. Klein
  • in April 1874 (see Correspondence vol. 22, letters from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 and 10
  • day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   …
  • performed on animals in previous years by Darwins cousin Francis Galton. These had been
  • manuscripts and proofs, Darwin now relied heavily on his son Francis, who had made the decision in
  • wrote, ‘I beg ten thousand pardon & more’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [ c . February 1875?] …
  • plants , and moved on to Variation 2d ed., Francis signed himself, ‘Your affect sonthe
  • a review of William Dwight Whitneys work on language (G. H. Darwin 1874c). George had taken the
  • plants (Carus trans. 1876a). The German publisher E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagshandlung began to
  • 219.1: 89). The most eminent of Darwins guests was Francis, duke of Teck, a German prince
  • Eeles Dresser. ‘The horror was great’, Henrietta Emma Litchfield wrote to her brother Leonard on 14

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 28 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • to Fritz Müller, 4 January 1882 ). These were topics that Darwin had been investigating for years, …
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root response and the
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 28 December 1881 ). Darwin had a long-running interest in such
  • the flowers & experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). While
  • Anthony Rich, he shared several of his sonsachievements. Leonard had been appointed to observe the
  • was no longer able to take his daily strolls (Henrietta Emma Litchfield, ‘Charles Darwins death’, …
  • he is a good deal depressed about himself’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March
  • is very calm but she has cried a little’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, [19 April
  • is always easier to write than to speak,’ she wrote to Leonard, ‘& so though I shall see you so
  • … & have been able to be to him’ (letter from Emma Darwin to Leonard Darwin, [21? April 1882] (DAR
  • overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882 (DAR 219.1: 150)). …
  • at an early age was encouraged by Darwin. He wrote to Francis: ‘I say nothing about the loss to
  • a small tribute of respect’ (letter from John Lubbock to Francis Darwin, 20 April 1882 (DAR 215: 10n
  • he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • without any mercy’ ( letter from Emma Wedgwood to F. E. E. Wedgwood, [28 October 1836] , letter
  • Natural History, that I went as Naturalist on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World & …
  • I cannot tell how or where to begin’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 21 [January 1860] ). Darwins
  • of ice dams causing glacial lakes was presented by Thomas Francis Jamieson in a paper to the
  • of Darwinian theory to flowers and flower-visiting insects; H. Müller 1869)). Darwin was full of
  • Darwins views on eugenics, a term coined by his cousin Francis Galton, were mixed, partly owing to
  • at least be a valid ground for divorce’ ( letter to H. K. Rusden, [before 27 March 1875] ). In
  • years of Darwins life show his increasing attachment to Francis, as father and son worked together

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 23 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • all the notes until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwins later entries, like Emmas, …
  • Transcription: 1 [9W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10During first week. …
  • 46  Horace[712½. G. When shall you wean baby. H. I am weaned for theres no more milk. …
  • written in pencil by CD and subsequently overwritten by Emma Darwin. The transcription throughout
  • … [15] ‘Annie . . . fortnightwas written by Emma Darwin on the verso of page 3 and opposite the
  • by Emma Darwin must have been added on 19 January 1877, when Francis Darwins son Bernard was
  • information is given. [57Emma Darwins brother Francis (Frank) Wedgwood lived at Etruria
  • evangelical stories and tracts. In her old age, Henrietta Litchfield noted thatLittle Robert & …
  • and family memoirs and reminiscences. [61Leonard Darwin, born 1850. [62Francis
  • of her childhood, Henrietta Litchfield remembered Leonard Darwin saying this to their maid Jane and
  • CUL). [71Horace Darwin, born 1851. [72Leonard Darwins nickname. [73Miss