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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • him. Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • Letter 7858 - Darwin to Wa llace, A. R., [12 July 1871] Darwin tells Wallace that

Language: key letters

Summary

How and why language evolved bears on larger questions about the evolution of the human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the development of human speech from animal sounds in The Descent of Man (1871),…

Matches: 11 hits

  • human species, and the relationship between man and animals. Darwin presented his views on the
  • he first began to reflect on the transmutation of species. Darwins correspondence reveals the scope
  • whom he exchanged information and ideas. Letter 346Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, C. S., 27 Feb
  • Caucasian languages separated from one stock.” Letter 2070Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, …
  • because we can trace the elements into Latin, German &c. but I see much the same sort of thing
  • down of former continents.” Letter 3054Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 2 Feb [1861] …
  • him is perfectly logical.” Letter 5605Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 15 Aug [1867] …
  • do they scream & make loud noise?” Letter 7040Wedgwood, Hensleigh to Darwin, C. R., …
  • growing to such a stageLetter 8367Darwin, C. R. to Wright, Chauncey, 3 June [1872] …
  • altering the breed. Letter 8962Darwin, C. R. to Max Müller, Friedrich, 3 July 1873
  • to eat, for this movement makes a sound like the letter m.” “For some time past I have been

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 11 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • … set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication …
  • … work are referenced throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, …
  • … her identity is both anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D …
  • … publicly as a science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May …
  • … Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] Darwin asks …
  • … final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - 72] …
  • … the public humming” at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …
  • … input. Letter 8719 - Darwin to Treat, M., [1 January 1873] Darwin asks …
  • … near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • … worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 12 hits

  • Charles Darwins daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and July 1871 in a
  • excised within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwins letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • reflect her concerns about the consequences of her fathers theories for religious belief, which he
  • on a discussion with her cousin, Frances Julia (Snow) Wedgwood, about religion and free will in
  • fresh in my mind I will give an account of it. Lena & Alice M. 2 were both mission women, …
  • amongst whom of course was Lena had any knowledge of it. M r . W. spoke or preached as u like to
  • fits they didnt attemptbut otherwise it must have m. resembled a Wesleyan revivaleven down to the
  • her Father who w d  be waiting for herwhen down came M r . W. on his knees between them & …
  • to reappear next day in the vestry where Lena took her & was m. gratified to find she had cried. …
  • worship of humanitythis I hope is only in its budI c d  conceive a life wh. was filled & …
  • when I feel my day made bright & happy by one short letter. I want him to take me in his arms
  • 6 Laura May Forster . 7 Frances Julia Wedgwood (Snow) and George Eliot. The

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 10 hits

  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Britain? Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, …
  • pursuit of real, professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., …
  • and taking in the aesthetic beauty of the world around him. Darwin describes thestrikingcolour
  • meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to FitzRoy, R., …
  • … ‘ A Biographical Sketch of an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May
  • Published in GardenersChronicle , Darwin asks M. J. Berkeley to identify microscopical
  • in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • on the bedroom wallpaper. Letter 10821 - Graham C. C. to Darwin, [30 January 1877] …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 21 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • came on 19 April. Plans were made for a burial in St Marys churchyard in Down, where his brother
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • vegetables such as potatoes, carrots, and beets. Romaness experiments had been conducted to lend
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 March 1882] (DAR 210.3: 45)). …
  • were not wanting to tell me how you felt for meHope [Wedgwood] expresses a feeling that I should
  • to some Estancia,’ wrote Hughes, ‘as the scenery &c. will amply repay your trouble’ ( letter
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • History, that I went as Naturalist on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World & collected in
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To
  • and journals by Lyells sister-in-law Katherine (see K. M. Lyell ed. 1881, 2: 4456). A complete

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E …
  • … he seeks her help with tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 …
  • … of Herbert Spencer. Letter 7624 - Bathoe, M . B. to Darwin, [25 March 1871] …
  • … to an asylum with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., …
  • … thinking”. Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February …
  • … in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • … questionnaire. Letter 10390 - Herrick, S. M. B. to Darwin, [12 February 1876] …
  • … in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • … Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …
  • … of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … spent an extended period in Würzburg at Julius Sachs’s botanical institute, one of most advanced …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … Hooker, ‘or as far as I know any scientific man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1878] ). …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … or arched.… Almost all seedlings come up arched’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … when he finds out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] …
  • Darwin complained. ‘I am ashamed at my blunder’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 22 December [1878] ). …
  • … apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in Germany, not returning …
  • … accursed German language: Sachs is very kind to him’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June …
  • … be obtained at Down House, but Francis thought Horace’s abilities were a match for German instrument …
  • … Record”’ ( letter from Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvár, 28 April 1878 ). ‘What a wonderful change …
  • … Samuel Haughton. ‘If I do write’, George worried, ‘I’m pretty sure to get in Haughton’s ill favour …
  • … opponent’ ( Correspondence vol. 24, letter to T. C. Eyton, 22 April 1876 ). ‘When I first read …
  • … secretary, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil ( letter to R. A. T. Gascoyne-Cecil, 18 May 1878 ). …

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] Darwin …
  • … on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 17 Sept [1861] Darwin …
  • … about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 11 Dec [1861] Darwin …
  • … questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 May [1868] …
  • Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 — Wallace, A. R. to Darwin, C. R., 2 July 1866 …
  • Darwin and Graham Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 …
  • … members of his own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov …
  • … only He can give me.” Letter 5303 — Boole, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., 13 Dec 1866 In …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 18 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • been the naturalist and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old & helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those present included George
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • of books in relation to the Origin, of which I have the M.S. half completed; but I have started the
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • Darwin replied, ‘I have so poor a metaphysical head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration
  • for a Serbian translation of  Origin  ( letter from M. M. Radovanović, 17 September 1874 ), …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 24 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • generations. He continued to receive letters about Erasmuss life and other bits of family history. …
  • my grandfathers character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). …
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, & even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to explain away y r . treatment of [William Alvey Darwin],’ …
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • by anticipation the position I have taken as regards D r Erasmus Darwin in my book Evolution old
  • to the end’, added her husband Richard ( letter from R. B. Litchfield, 1 February 1880 ). Even the
  • family shake their heads in the same dismal manner as you & M r . Murray did, when I told them
  • structural differentiations’ ( letter from F. M. Balfour, [22 November 1880] ). George Romanes, …
  • in a book about beetles the impressive wordscaptured by C. Darwin”. … This seemed to me glory
  • have been forestalled: ‘I had hoped to call & see whether M rs . Biddulph would admit me, &amp
  • … ‘but the subject has amused me’ ( letter to W. C. McIntosh, 18 June 1880 ). Members of the family
  • Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwins Wedgwood nieces, Sophy and Lucy, were asked
  • We find that the light frightens them’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October [1880] ). The
  • Darwin encouraged the experiment, but conceded, ‘M rs . Romanes is quite right not to allow the
  • great doctrines …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). …
  • of several close family members. Emmas brother Josiah Wedgwood III died on 11 March. Like Emma, he
  • his voice as clearly as if he were present’ (letters to C. W. Fox, 29 March 1880 and 10 [April

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 11 hits

  • and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844] …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 1674Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1855] Darwin
  • species. Letter 1685Gray, Asa to Darwin, C. R., 22 May 1855 Gray recalled
  • flora in the USA. Letter 2125Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 20 July [1857] Darwin
  • information exchange. Letter 1202Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 6 Oct [1848] …
  • Catherines and his own. He also notes that Hensleigh [Wedgwood] thinks he has settled the free-will
  • and corrections. Letter 5745Barber, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., [after Feb 1867] In

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 11 hits

  • Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth
  • Letters Darwins Notes On Marriage [April - July 1838] In these notes, …
  • theories, & accumulating facts in silence & solitude”. Darwin also comments that he has
  • an hourwith poor Mrs. Lyell sitting by”. Letter 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to
  • whose attractions are not those of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13
  • her own steam and is afirst rate critic”. Letter 4377 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, …
  • ornaments in the making of feminine works”. Letter 4441 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [30
  • the young, especially ladies, to study nature. Letter 4940 - Cresy, E. to Darwin, E., …
  • natural thinking”. Letter 8079 - Norton, S. R. to Darwin, [20 November 1871] …
  • women. Letter 10746Darwin to Dicey, E. M., [1877] Darwin gives his
  • patience. Letter 13607Darwin to Kennard, C. A., [9 January 1882] Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … ‘My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, ‘is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can
  • of   On the origin of   species , intended to be Darwins last, and of  Expression of the
  • books brought a strong if deceptive sense of a job now done: Darwin intended, he declared to Alfred
  • anything more on 'so difficult a subject, as evolution’ ( letter to ARWallace,  27 July
  • of books and papers, and the latter formed the subject of Darwins last bookThe formation of   …
  • begun many years before. In his private life also, Darwin was in a nostalgic frame of mind, …
  • best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from RFCooke, 12 February 1872 ) …
  • remained unpublished at the end of the year ( letter from C.-FReinwald, 23 November 1872 ). …
  • Whale  & duck  most beautiful’ ( letter from ARWallace, 3 March 1872 ). I
  • … `chiefly perhaps because I do it badly’ ( letter to ARWallace, 3 August [1872] ).  …
  • than offended by `that clever book’ ( letter to JMHerbert, 21 November 1872 ) and invited
  • from his ignorance, he feels no doubts’ ( letter to FCDonders, 17 June 1872 ). Right up to the
  • Charlton Bastians recent book on the origin of life (HCBastian 1872; Wallace 1872d) left him
  • … & new views which are daily turning up’ ( letter to ARWallace, 28 August [1872] ).  …
  • Lord Sackville Cecil, to attend a séance ( letter from MCStanley, 4 June 1872 ). There was
  • you agreed to let them have it for love!!!’ ( letter from RFCooke, 1 August 1872 ). It
  • …  & have not taken care of ourselves’ ( letter from RFCooke, 20 November 1872 ). A
  • others described the way their hands blushed (letter from MISnow, 29 [November 1872 or later] …
  • gift, although he doubted he would ever use it ( letter to CLDodgson, 10 December 1872 ). …
  • to contain wormcasts from India. Darwins niece Lucy Wedgwood, who had started her observations the
  • to which any scientific man can look’ ( letter to FCDonders, 29 April [1872] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 17 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emmas backgammon games. ‘I have won, hurrah, …
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amys child expected in September. Their joy
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and
  • quantity of workleft in him fornew matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The
  • to a reprint of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February
  • … & I for blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. …
  • provided evidence for theadvantages of crossing’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). Revising
  • effected by his forthcoming pamphlet, Darwin confounded (C. OShaughnessy 1876), which, he
  • and who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). Although
  • years experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less welcome reaction
  • and ardent naturalist Thomas Edward ( letter from F. M. Balfour, 11 December 1876 ; letter to
  • In the same month, Darwin heard that his sister Caroline Wedgwood continued to languish in
  • and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In England, the
  • in harmony with yours’ ( letter from George Henslow, [ c. 7 December 1876] ). A more typical

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 22 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • in satisfying female preference in the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, …
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his
  • which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for
  • had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwins request, he modified his original plan, …
  • Murray to intervene, complaining on 9 January , ‘M r . Dallasdelayis intolerableI am
  • though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwins angry letter to Murray crossed one from
  • remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin
  • it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was
  • April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed
  • I did not see this, or rather I saw it only obs[c]urely, & have kept only a few references.’ …
  • as life he wd find the odour sexual!’ ( letter to A . R. Wallace, 16 September [1868] ). Francis
  • Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing
  • question of theOrigin of Species”’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 4 October 1868 ). …
  • hands of the enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). …
  • of her two-month old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February
  • rest mostly on faith, and on accumulation of adaptations, &c) … Of course I understand your
  • host, his usually phlegmatic brother Erasmus exclaimed, ‘M rs  Cameron there are six people in

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 20 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • from this, the editing of excerpts from Fritz Müllers letters on climbing plants to make another
  • to comment on a paper on  Verbascum (mullein) by CDs protégé, John Scott, who was now working in
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • in the  GardenersChronicleAt the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of
  • year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend of
  • in August. There was also a serious dispute between two of Darwins friends, John Lubbock and
  • The death of Hugh Falconer Darwins first letter to Hooker of 1865 suggests that the family
  • having all the Boys at home: they make the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] …
  • had failed to include among the grounds of the award ( see letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus
  • his letters to Darwin, and Darwin responded warmly: ‘Your letter is by far the grandest eulogium
  • may well rest content that I have not laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] …
  • always a most kind friend to me. So the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] …
  • Darwin had received a copy of Müllers bookFür Darwin , a study of the Crustacea with reference
  • … … inheritance, reversion, effects of use & disuse &c’, and which he intended to publish in
  • He wrote to Hooker, ‘I doubt whether you or I or any one c d  do any good in healing this breach. …
  • on Hookers behalf, ‘He asks if you saw the article of M r . Croll in the last Reader on the
  • Correspondence vol. 13, CDsJournal’, Appendix I). Wedgwood and Darwin relatives visited Down
  • … ‘As for your thinking that you do not deserve the C[opley] Medal,’ he rebuked Hooker, ‘that I

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 23 hits

  • The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle  voyage was one
  • the publication of the  Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle , for which he described the
  • a family Busy as he was with scientific activities, Darwin found time to re-establish family
  • close contact. In November 1838, two years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, …
  • daughter, Anne Elizabeth, moved to Down House in Kent, where Darwin was to spend the rest of his
  • his greatest theoretical achievement, the most important of Darwins activities during the years
  • identifications of his bird and fossil mammal specimens, Darwin arrived at the daring and momentous
  • ideas on a wide range of topics. Then, in September 1838, T. R. Malthus’  An essay on the principle
  • in species. With this new theoretical point of departure Darwin continued to make notes and explore
  • volume of the  Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle. Darwins volume
  • and natural