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Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 23 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The
  • However, several smaller projects came to fruition in 1865, including the publication of his long
  • letters on climbing plants to make another paper. Darwin also submitted a manuscript of his
  • protégé, John Scott, who was now working in India. Darwins transmutation theory continued to
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news of an exchange of
  • Butler, and, according to Butler, the bishop of Wellington. Darwins theory was discussed at an
  • in the  GardenersChronicleAt the end of the year, Darwin was elected an honorary member of
  • year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend of
  • in August. There was also a serious dispute between two of Darwins friends, John Lubbock and
  • of Hugh Falconer Darwins first letter to Hooker of 1865 suggests that the family had had a
  • the house jolly’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 7 January [1865] ). Darwin was ready to submit his
  • letter from Hugh Falconer to Erasmus Alvey Darwin, 3 January 1865 ). Erasmus forwarded his letters
  • laboured in vain’ ( letter to Hugh Falconer, 6 January [1865] ). Sic transit gloria
  • the world goes.—’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 February [1865] ). However, Hooker, at the time
  • are unalloyed’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 3 February 1865 ). Darwin, nowhauntedby
  • with a vengeance’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 9 February [1865] ). Continuing ill-health
  • Darwin had received a copy of Müllers bookFür Darwin , a study of the Crustacea with reference
  • … … inheritance, reversion, effects of use & disuse &c’, and which he intended to publish in
  • He wrote to Hooker, ‘I doubt whether you or I or any one c d  do any good in healing this breach. …
  • Hookers behalf, ‘He asks if you saw the article of M r . Croll in the last Reader on the
  • attending school, and spent some time travelling in Europe (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242),  Emma
  • people werent so foolish’;. In November, Darwin and Emma visited Erasmus in London ( …
  • … ‘As for your thinking that you do not deserve the C[opley] Medal,’ he rebuked Hooker, ‘that I

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] …
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] Emmas sister, Sarah, passes on
  • Letter 4928  - Henslow, G. to Darwin, [11 November 1865] J. S. Henslows son, George, …
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 23 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • to Fritz Müller, 4 January 1882 ). These were topics that Darwin had been investigating for years, …
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • and was no longer able to take his daily strolls (Henrietta Emma Litchfield, ‘Charles Darwins death
  • E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March 1882 (DAR 245: 319)) Emma wrote ten days later: ‘You will
  • been a good deal plagued with dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28
  • benefit & he escaped pain entirely yesterday’ (letter from Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, 6 April
  • wrote to George, who had visited Down on 11 April (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242)). ‘Father was taken
  • H. Darwin, [19 April 1882] (DAR 245: 320)). It was left to Emma to convey the sorrowful news to his
  • which I hope were never very violent’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [20 April 1882
  • were not wanting to tell me how you felt for meHope [Wedgwood] expresses a feeling that I should
  • to some Estancia,’ wrote Hughes, ‘as the scenery &c. will amply repay your trouble’ ( letter
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • to T. F. Jamieson, 24 January [1863] ). From 1863 to 1865, Darwin suffered the most extended
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To
  • to have known’ ( letter to Charles Kingsley, 2 June [1865] ). In the years following

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … Origin . The second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and …
  • Darwin and Gray Letter 2814 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 22 May [1860] Darwin …
  • Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 — Wallace, A. R. to Darwin, C. R., 2 July 1866 …
  • Darwin and Graham Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 …
  • … members of his own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [21–22 Nov …
  • … conscientious doubts”. Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] …
  • … Letter 4752 — Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, Charles, 22 Jan [1865] Darwin writes to King's …
  • … Letter 4939 — Shaw, James to Darwin, C. R., 20 Nov 1865 Scottish school teacher and writer …
  • … Letter 4943 — Darwin, C. R. to Shaw, James, 30 Nov 1865 Darwin writes to James Shaw. He is …

Science: A Man’s World?

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth-century women participated in the world of science, be it as experimenters, observers, editors, critics, producers, or consumers. Despite this, much of the…

Matches: 13 hits

  • Discussion Questions | Letters Darwin's correspondence show that many nineteenth
  • Letters Darwins Notes On Marriage [April - July 1838] In these notes, …
  • of family, home and sociability. Letter 489 - Darwin to Wedgwood, E., [20 January 1839] …
  • theories, & accumulating facts in silence & solitude”. Darwin also comments that he has
  • sitting by”. Letter 3715 - Claparède, J. L. R. A. E. to Darwin, [6 September 1862] …
  • are not those of her sex”. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] …
  • critic”. Letter 4377 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, [2 January 1864] Haeckel
  • works”. Letter 4441 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [30 March 1864] Lydia Becker
  • to study nature. Letter 4940 - Cresy, E. to Darwin, E., [20 November 1865] …
  • of physiology at Bedford College for girls. Appealing to Emmasfeminine sympathies”, Cresy is keen
  • masculine nor pedantic”. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. B., [8 November 1869] …
  • natural thinking”. Letter 8079 - Norton, S. R. to Darwin, [20 November 1871] …
  • patience. Letter 13607Darwin to Kennard, C. A., [9 January 1882] Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 24 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August 1874] ). The death of a
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too
  • the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those
  • Descent  was published in November 1874 ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). Though
  • on subsequent print runs would be very good ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 12 November 1874 ). …
  • satisfaction. Assisted in the wording by his wife, Emma, and daughter Henrietta, he finally wrote a
  • a comfortable cabin ( see letter from Leonard Darwin to Emma Darwin, [after 26 June -- 28 September
  • to become Darwins secretary. They rented Down Lodge and Emma Darwin wrote, ‘They have . . . made
  • the average in prettiness & snugness’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October
  • letter to Down School Board, [after 29 November 1873] ). Emma saw agreat blessingin the rumour
  • dead uncles position of vicar of Deptford ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October
  • in a few hours dissolve the hardest cartilage, bone & meat &c. &c.’ ( letter to W. D. …
  • whether at theclose of the putrefaction of flesh, skin &c, any substance is produced before
  • details of an Australian variety of sundew ( letter from T. C. Copland, 23 June 1874 ). …
  • Sharpe for promotion at the British Museum ( letter to R. B. Sharpe, 24 November [1874] ).  He
  • head that M r  Spencers terms of equilibration &c always bother me & make everything less

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 23 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any
  • he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The
  • and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 8790, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of
  • process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, Darwin claimed that sexual selection wasthe
  • to the stridulation of crickets. At the same time, Darwin continued to collect material on
  • his immediate circle of friends and relations. In July 1868 Darwin was still anticipating that his
  • which was devoted to sexual selection in the animal kingdom. Darwin described his thirst for
  • been advertised by the publisher John Murray as early as 1865, the two-volume work appeared in
  • Murray to intervene, complaining on 9 January , ‘M r . Dallasdelayis intolerableI am
  • it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was
  • April 1868 . The letter was addressed tothe Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed
  • I did not see this, or rather I saw it only obs[c]urely, & have kept only a few references.’ …
  • as life he wd find the odour sexual!’ ( letter to A . R. Wallace, 16 September [1868] ). Francis
  • at Cambridge, George Robert Crotch, writing to his mother Emma in a letter dated [after 16 October
  • Langton wrote from the south of France to Sarah Elizabeth Wedgwood on 9 Novembe r, describing
  • question of theOrigin of Species”’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 4 October 1868 ). …
  • hands of the enemies of Nat. Selection’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 8 [April] 1868 ). …
  • mission stations in Victoria, Australia ( letter from R. B. Smyth, 13 August 1868 ); lengthy
  • and received a number of reports from family members. Emma Darwins niece, Cicely Mary Hawkshaw, …
  • rest mostly on faith, and on accumulation of adaptations, &c) … Of course I understand your
  • other national papers, and within a few days Darwin and Emma were receiving letters of
  • who wished to payhis devotions at the shrine of D r . Darwin’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20

Darwin in letters, 1864: Failing health

Summary

On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July 1864: ‘the venerable beard gives the look of your having suffered, and … of having grown older’.  Because of poor health, Because of poor health, Darwin…

Matches: 25 hits

  • On receiving a photograph from Charles Darwin, the American botanist Asa Gray wrote on 11 July
  • … … of having grown older’. This portrait, the first of Darwin with his now famous beard, had been
  • 52 hours without vomiting!! In the same month, Darwin began to consult William Jenner, …
  • prescribed a variety of antacids and purgatives, and limited Darwins fluid intake; this treatment
  • the dimorphic aquatic cut-grass  Leersia . In May, Darwin finished his paper on  Lythrum
  • he had set aside the previous summer. In October, Darwin let his friends know that on his
  • to the surgeon and naturalist Francis Trevelyan Buckland, Darwin described his symptoms in some
  • November and December were also marked by the award to Darwin of the Royal Societys Copley Medal; …
  • been unsuccessfully nominated the two previous years. As Darwin explained to his cousin William
  • it was conferred, brought a dramatic conclusion to the year. Darwin also wrote to Fox that he was
  • progressin Britain. Challenging convention Darwins concern about the acceptance of
  • …  vol. 11). In a letter of [27 January 1864] , Darwin wrote to Hooker: ‘The only approach to work
  • …  produce tendrils However, the queries that Darwin, describing himself asa broken-down
  • tendrils’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [8 February 1864] ). Darwins excitement about his
  • … ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 2 June [1864] ). When Darwin asked Oliver whether the tendrils of
  • for his teacherly tone, explaining that he had felt that Darwin had misunderstood some accepted
  • … ( letter from Daniel Oliver, [17 March 1864] ). Though Darwin replied with his typical humility
  • which Darwin submitted to the Linnean Society in January 1865. Climbers and twiners
  • garden, taking notes by dictation. His niece Lucy Caroline Wedgwood sent observations of  …
  • household news, were sometimes written by Darwins wife, Emma, or by Henrietta. Darwins own replies
  • case of Dimorphismin  Menyanthes  ( letter from Emma and Charles Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [20
  • 5 September 1864 ). Fritz Müeller sent his bookFür Darwin , and Darwin had it translated by a
  • but Lyell says when I read his discussion in the Elements [C. Lyell 1865] I shall recant for fifth
  • on intellectual &ampmoral  qualities’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 28 [May 1864] ). …
  • he saw few people outside the family and, according to Emma Darwins diary and his ownJournal’, …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 27 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • … [DAR *119: 2v.] Whites regular gradation in man [C. White 1799] Lindleys
  • 8 vo  p 181 [Latreille 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian
  • in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on Geog. distrib: of Brit: …
  • 1833] (Boot) Leslie life of Constable [Leslie 1843]. (Emma) (read) M rs  Frys Life
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • Wollaston Coleoptera Atlantidum 1. 1. 0 [Wollaston 1865] Books Read, 185260 [DAR
  • Public Library. 3  ‘BooksReadis in Emma Darwins hand. 4  “”Traité …
  • 6  The text from page [1v.] to page [6] is in Emma Darwins hand and was copied from Notebook C, …
  • to old Aristotle.’ ( LL 3: 252). 10  Emma Darwin wrote7 thinstead of3 d “ …
  • 12  A mistranscription forEntozoaby Emma Darwin. See Notebook C, p. 266 ( Notebooks ). …
  • wroteTransactto replaceJournalwritten in Emma Darwins hand. 16  Emma Darwin
  • … (Liebig 1851). 50  Probably Elizabeth Wedgwood. 51  This note is a
  • …  The text from page [1a] to half way down page [5a] is in Emma Darwins hand and is a copy of CDs
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Robert. 1843Memoirs of the life of John   Constable, R.A., composed chiefly of his letters. …
  • Peacock, George. 1855Life of Thomas Young, M.D., F.R.S.  London.  *128: 172; 128: 21
  • …  London. [Darwin Library.]  128: 18 ——. 1865Coleoptera Atlantidum; being an