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Darwin Correspondence Project

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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 28 hits

  • … child of God" (1) Abberley, John (1) …
  • … Adams, A. L. (1) Addison, John (1) …
  • … Allen, J. A. (b) (1) Allen, John (1) …
  • … C. J. (3) Andrews, John (1) Ann. …
  • … Balfour, J. H. (7) Ball, John (5) …
  • … Becher, A. B. (1) Beck, John (2) …
  • … Beckhard, Martin (1) Beddoe, John (3) …
  • … C. H. (8) Blackwall, John (4) …
  • … J. A. H. de (11) Bostock, John (1) …
  • … Bridgman, W. K. (3) Brigg, John (1) …
  • … Busch, Otto (1) Bush, John (3) Busk, …
  • … Caton, J. D. (9) Cattell, John (3) …
  • … the Exchequer (1) Chapman, John (4) …
  • … Coe, Henry (6) Coghlan, John (2) …
  • … Colburn, Henry (3) Colby, John (3) …
  • … Colgate, Robert (1) Collier, John (2) …
  • … Craig, J. S. (2) Crawfurd, John (3) …
  • … Crick, W. D. (11) Crier, John (1) …
  • … Davis, J. E. (1) Davy, John (6) …
  • … Denny, Henry (13) Denny, John (6) …
  • … Downie, Mr (1) Downing, John (3) …
  • … Evans, E. G. (2) Evans, John (b) (3) …
  • … Farn, A. B. (1) Farr, John (2) Farr, …
  • … Fisher, J. F. (2) Fiske, John (14) …
  • … Richard (1) Fordyce, John (2) Forel, …
  • … Fox, H. S. (3) Fox, John & Sons (1) …
  • … Gaertner, Albin (2) Gage, John (1) …
  • … Gibbs, George (1) Gibbs, John (2) …

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … substances, Darwin next considered sound. He explained to John Tyndall on 4 December: ‘The day …
  • … complained. ‘I am ashamed at my blunder’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 22 December [1878] ). …
  • … no”’. Darwin shared some of his observations with George John Romanes, who was engaged in his own …
  • … the title seems to me quite ridiculous’ ( letter to John Price, 2 April [1878] ). When a wealthy …
  • … of the sermon from his old friend, the former vicar of Down, John Brodie Innes. Darwin and Innes had …

Rewriting Origin - the later editions

Summary

For such an iconic work, the text of Origin was far from static. It was a living thing that Darwin continued to shape for the rest of his life, refining his ‘one long argument’ through a further five English editions.  Many of his changes were made in…

Matches: 2 hits

  • … to keep costs low, and he was disappointed when the cover price was fixed at 7s/6d .  Even his …
  • … a larger target audience were also made.  Darwin persuaded John Murray to include a glossary of …

Living and fossil cirripedia

Summary

Darwin published four volumes on barnacles, the crustacean sub-class Cirripedia, between 1851 and 1854, two on living species and two on fossil species. Written for a specialist audience, they are among the most challenging and least read of Darwin’s works…

Matches: 4 hits

  • … what he called ‘ this difficult order ’. He wrote to John Edward Gray to request permission to …
  • … rather reflective letter to his former professor and friend, John Stevens Henslow, musing about the …
  • … him to be wary of multiplying species; his botany professor John Stevens Henslow had alerted his …
  • … did not satisfy Darwin, who hired his old school friend John Price to correct the work . By the …

Darwin in letters, 1872: Job done?

Summary

'My career’, Darwin wrote towards the end of 1872, 'is so nearly closed. . .  What little more I can do, shall be chiefly new work’, and the tenor of his correspondence throughout the year is one of wistful reminiscence, coupled with a keen eye…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … to spread my views’, he wrote to his publisher, John Murray, on 30 January , shortly after …
  • … and despite Darwin’s best efforts, set the final price at 7 s.  6 d.  ( letter from R. F. Cooke …
  • … Hooker’s cause was taken up by his friends, in particular John Lubbock and John Tyndall, as one …
  • … to Gladstone a week later ( enclosure to letter from John Lubbock to W. E. Gladstone, 20 June 1872 …
  • … photographic plates with his overseas publishers, and with John Murray’s assistant, the excitable …
  • … London Heliotype Company, and miscommunication about the price and the difficulty of estimating the …
  • … of the booksellers, encouraged an originally cautious John Murray to gamble on the book’s success: & …
  • … attractive dishes in his `Literary Banquet’ (letters from John Murray, 6 November [1872] and 9 …
  • … to supply comparative observations, and Darwin’s protégé John Scott, now employed as a curator in …
  • … a copy of  Expression  to another old Cambridge friend, John Maurice Herbert, who when they were …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any man wants to …
  • … domestication . Having been advertised by the publisher John Murray as early as 1865, the two …
  • … profound contempt of me. I feel convinced it is by Owen’. John Edward Gray, a colleague of Richard …
  • … me in the face, but not behind my back’ ( letter to John Murray, 25 February [1868] ). Wallace …
  • … R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was in fact by John Robertson, a Scottish journalist …
  • … a letter of thanks to the naturalist and customs offcial John Jenner Weir for a paper on apterous …
  • … depends on the actions of the female’, and of rats, John Bush observed on 30 March that two …
  • … the whole System is sustained.’ The former Down clergyman, John Brodie Innes, passed easily over …
  • … letter to J. B. Innes, 1 December 1868 ), his replacement, John Warburton Robinson, proved no …
  • … and joy. Satisfaction in one’s children, Darwin wrote to John Price on 26 November , was ‘the …
  • … poets, and men of science, including Adam Sedgwick, John Stevens Henslow, and William Jackson Hooker …

John Lubbock

Summary

John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring property of Down House, Down, Kent; the total of one hundred and seventy surviving letters he went on to exchange with Darwin is a large number considering that the two men lived…

Matches: 13 hits

  • John Lubbock was eight years old when the Darwins moved into the neighbouring …
  • … neighbours for most of their lives.  Lubbock's father, John William Lubbock, third baronet, was …
  • … and wide-ranging studies in anthropology and prehistory, John Lubbock’s childhood interest in …
  • … mountain must come some Sunday to Mahomet.   ( to John Lubbock, 26 March [1867] ) …
  • … meetings leave in the documentary record, it is clear that John Lubbock played a significant part in …
  • … with me on general issue, or against me. ( to John Lubbock, 14 December [1859] ) …
  • … much interest for the good of my internal viscera’ ( to John Lubbock, 21 July [1870] ). It seems …
  • … a daughter? or scrupled to carry off anothers wife? ( from John Lubbock, 18 March [1871] ). …
  • … complained that he remained 'not a little in the dark' ( to John Lubbock, 26 March [1867] …
  • … in a banking career, and Darwin's last known letter to John Lubbock, sent shortly before …
  • … children were strained.  ‘I am afraid our feeling to Sir John’ Francis Darwin later wrote ‘did not …
  • … when he did agree to sell it seems the Darwins thought the price was rather high. A year …
  • … He signed himself, with unusual formality, “My dear Sir John, yours sincerely”. By this stage …

John Murray

Summary

Darwin's most famous book On the origin of species by means of natural selection (Origin) was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, particularly politics, travel and science, and had published…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … was published on 22 November 1859. The publisher was John Murray, who specialised in non-fiction, …
  • … series of guides and also published travel books. Successive John Murrays ran the publishing house; …
  • … University Library  a similar number of letters from John Murray and Robert Cooke, his cousin and …
  • … had proved to be a scientific best-seller for the second John Murray, to open negotiations with his …
  • … began the business relationship between Charles Darwin and John Murray. Darwin’s next …
  • … Navy: and adapted for travellers in general  edited by John Herschel, but there was an error at …
  • … . Again he asked Lyell to act as his intermediary with John Murray ( Letter 2437 ), who, without …
  • … October [1859] Letter 2506 ). Murray decided on a retail price of 14 s ., selling to the trade …
  • … had paid Darwin profits of nearly £3000. The third John Murray made a successful business …
  • … ). Darwin’s next publishing project with John Murray in 1869 was a translation into English …
  • … in the  Quarterly Review , a magazine published by John Murray.The pamphlets were not primarily …
  • … his orders ( Letter 8616 ). However, when Robert Cooke, John Murray’s cousin, went round to …

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … it was issued in a single volume at a much reduced price of nine shillings, in line with Charles …
  • … Robert Francis Cooke, informed Darwin that the lower price would bring the profits on the first 2000 …
  • … Quarterly Review  discussing works on primitive man by John Lubbock and Edward Burnett Tylor. It …
  • … of anonymous reviews. Its proprietor was none other than John Murray, Darwin’s publisher. So …
  • … to review me in a hostile spirit’ ( letter to John Murray, 11 August 1874 ). Darwin was …
  • … number of the Review & in the same type’  ( letter from John Murray, 12 August 1874 ). George …
  • … anonymous reviews. While staying with Hooker over Christmas, John Tyndall, professor at and …
  • … as ‘the natural outflow of his character’ ( letter from John Tyndall, 28 December 1874 ). …
  • … to purchase the wooded land, which he had been renting from John Lubbock, led to a straining of …
  • … the sale was agreed in April for £300 ( letter from John Lubbock, 2 April 1874 ), a high price …
  • … for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon Sanderson sent the results …
  • … of other insect-eating plants. The surgeon and botanist John Ralfs sent  Utricularia  from …
  • … in order to work on its difficult structures ( letter to John Ralfs, 13 July [1874] ). The …
  • … a printed appeal for funds, raising £860 ( Circular to John Lubbock, P. L. Sclater, Charles Lyell, …
  • … from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He tried to persuade John Murray to publish a second edition …
  • … authority on marriage customs in  Descent  ( see letter John Murray, 9 May [1874] ). He …
  • … for Darwin’s last years. The young physiologist George John Romanes wrote a long letter to Herbert …
  • … established by Michael Foster. He then studied under John Scott Burdon Sanderson at University …
  • … August in Belfast, several papers featured Darwin’s work. John Tyndall asked Darwin to glance over …
  • … seems to me excellent, & as clear as light’ ( letter to John Tyndall, 12 August [1874] ). …

Origin is 160; Darwin's 1875 letters now online

Summary

To mark the 160th anniversary of the publication of Origin of species, the full transcripts and footnotes of nearly 650 letters to and from Charles Darwin in 1875 are published online for the first time. You can read about Darwin's life in 1875…

Matches: 5 hits

  • … been blackballed by the Linnean Society. John Burdon Sanderson, Edward Emanuel …
  • … his publisher in June 1875; he had succeeded in getting the price of his new book, Insectivorous …
  • … in the vestry of having made false statements  ( Letter to John Lubbock, 8 April 1875 ) …
  • … of Down, George Sketchley Ffinden, continued to be poor. John Lubbock, another local landowner and …
  • … without much success. Emma Darwin was happy to report to John Brodie Innes, the former vicar,  that …

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 17 hits

  • of sterility between varieties of  Verbascum . When John Scott, foreman of the propagating
  • Darwin, impressed, gave him the commission ( see letter to John Scott, 11 December [1862] ). …
  • to publish on  Linum  ‘at once’ ( letter to John Scott, 11 December [1862] ), writing up his
  • buy it. When he submitted the manuscript to his publisher, John Murray, he boasted: ‘I can say with
  • in the least , whether the Book will sell’ ( letter to John Murray, 9 [February 1862] ). To his
  • paper for the  Natural History Review  ( see letter to John Lubbock, 16 [December 1862] ). Aware
  • July that he and Emma hadcome to wish for Peace at any price’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 23[–4] July
  • of the old  Beagle  crew, Bartholomew James Sulivan, John Clements Wickham, and Arthur Mellersh, …
  • of this, he prescribed strict conditions for a meeting with John Lubbock: ‘if you couldlet me go
  • at 9 o clock I do not think it would hurt me’ ( letter to John Lubbock, 23 October [1862] ). …
  • on botany. Even at the start of their correspondence he told John Scott: ‘Botany is a new subject to
  • odds & ends of botany & you know far more’ ( letter to John Scott, 19 November [1862] ). …
  • Lyell, 14 October [1862] ). Moreover, when the physicist John Tyndall, fresh from a summer in the
  • of Darwins circle was in Switzerland in the summer: John Lubbock briefly met up with Tyndall and
  • discovered prehistoric lake-dwellings ( see letter from John Lubbock, 23 August 1862 ). Lubbock
  • to view the prehistoric sites near Amiens ( see letter from John Lubbock, 15 May 1862 ), and he
  • about the antiquity of the human species ( see letter from John Lubbock, 6 January 1862 ). …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 23 hits

  • … of every plant & country— Recommended by Lindley— price about 36s.— Wiegmann. Archif fur …
  • … The Emigrant, Head [F. B. Head 1846] St. John’s Highlands [C. W. G. Saint John 1846] …
  • … 1839–40] Jussieus introduct to Bot. price 6 s  [Jussieu 1842] …
  • … B.M. 6. 6. Black Edin. Longman [Ramsay 1848] St. John’s Nat. Hist. of Sutherlanshire, Murray …
  • … Liebigs Lectures on Chemistry [Liebig 1851]. Sir John Davies. China during the War and Peace …
  • … d . Series. vol 3. p. 1 to 312 30 th  Colquhoun (John) The Moor & the Loch [Colquhoun …
  • … Buffon [Milne-Edwards 1834–40]. March 5 th  St. John’s Highlands [Saint John 1846] 8 …
  • … Tone Autobiography [Tone 1826] very amusing March 10 John Galt Autobiography [Galt 1833] poor …
  • … 1848] Madam Malguet [Torrens] 1848] —— Lives of John & Alex. Belthune [?Bethune 1840 and …
  • … Ireland [Thompson 1849–56]. Vol. I. II & 3 May. St. John’s Tour in Sutherlandshire [Saint …
  • … Empire [Huc 1855] Feb 16 th  Pagets Hungary [John Paget 1839] —— Bechsteins …
  • … 23] 1858 Life of Montaigne by B. St. John [B. Saint John 1858].— Miss …
  • … in the  Botanist , 5 vols. (1837–41), edited by John Stevens Henslow and B. Maund. 37 …
  • … may have reissued both parts in 1844. 39  John Lindley served as assistant secretary …
  • …  The letter was addressed to Nicholas Aylward Vigors about John Fleming, and the review was by …
  • …  Possibly a mistake for “Mowbray”, the pseudonym of John Lawrence, whose  Treatise on domestic …
  • … this list at the back of the notebook. 84  John Lindley described plant breeding …
  • … with ‘O’ in pencil. 103  Hugh Cuming. John Gould Anthony published  Description of …
  • …   colonies.  London.  119: 23b Abercrombie, John. 1838.  Inquiries concerning the   …
  • … *119: 16v. ——. 1848.  The military life of John Duke of   Marlborough . Edinburgh and …
  • … by Harriet Martineau. London.  128: 3 Audubon, John James Laforest. 1831–9.  …
  • … Emperor of Hindustan, written by himself . Translated by John Leyden and William Erskine. 2 vols. …
  • … scientiarum; or, new method of studying the sciences . [By John Hoppus.] (Library of Useful …

Origin

Summary

Darwin’s most famous work, Origin, had an inauspicious beginning. It grew out of his wish to establish priority for the species theory he had spent over twenty years researching. Darwin never intended to write Origin, and had resisted suggestions in 1856…

Matches: 3 hits

  • While still on the Isle of Wight, Darwin also heard from John Stevens Henslow, his old mentor and
  • In late March, Lyell had a word with his own publisher, John Murray, who had already published
  • of my child ’, and agreed to Murrays proposed priceAccording to Darwins wish, presentation