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List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 7 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Octavian (3) Blomefield, Leonard (42) …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …
  • … Darwin, Horace (30) Darwin, Leonard (37) …
  • … Horner, K. M. (5) Horner, Leonard (13) …
  • … Jenyns, G. L. (1) Jenyns, Leonard (42) …
  • … Ruck, M. A. (2) Rudd, Leonard (2) …

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 22 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography
  • a holiday in the Lake District in August did little to raise Darwins spirits. ‘I wish that my
  • W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • contained a warmer note and the promise of future happiness: Darwin learned he was to be visited by
  • Hacon, 31 December 1879 ). Seventy years old Darwins seventieth birthday on 12
  • the veteran of Modern Zoology’, but it was in Germany that Darwin was most fêted. A German
  • … ). The masters of Greiz College in Thuringia venerated Darwin asthe deep thinker’, while
  • with the when & the where, & the who—’ ( letter from V. H. Darwin, 28 May [1879] ). On the
  • itvery dull,—almost too dull to publish’, while Leonard Darwin considered that insufficient
  • tastefully and well, and with little fatigue’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 , and
  • to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 5 June 1879 , and letter to G. H. Darwin, 12 July 1879 ). Darwins
  • Darwin found the innvery comfortable’, but told Leonard Darwin on 12 August that there
  • wait for three months. ‘Nothing can be more useless than T.Hs conduct’, Emma Darwin pointed out, …
  • to get home ‘& began drumming at once’ (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR
  • … & I may not be equal to the exertion’ ( letter to H. A. Pitman, [13 May 1879] ). In the end, …
  • because it dominated the picture (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [17 July 1879] (DAR
  • and his family to the Riviera for the summer ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 23 July 1879 ). Allen, who

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 27 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too
  • the month, another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those
  • Williams wasa cheat and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). Darwin
  • he was thus free to perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874] ). This did
  • alloweda spirit séanceat his home ( letter from T. G. Appleton, 2 April 1874 ). Back
  • sweetly all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The
  • I have pounded the enemy into a jelly’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 14 April 1874 ). The technical
  • and never mind where it goes’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 16 April 1874 ). The second
  • conciseness & clearness of your thought’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 20 April 1874 ). …
  • the spread of various mental and physical disorders (G. H. Darwin 1873b). In July 1874, an anonymous
  • over thescurrilous libelon his son ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [27 July 1874] ).  George, …
  • scurrilous accusation of [a] lying scoundrel’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 1 August [1874] ). He
  • with Murray on the outcome ( enclosure to letter from G. H. Darwin, 6 [August] 1874 ): …
  • in sympathy: ‘If anybody tries that on with my boy Leonard the old wolf will shew all the fangs he
  • … [1874] ). At the end of June, Darwins fourth son, Leonard, who had joined the Royal
  • son of the Astronomer Royal, George Biddell Airy, to help Leonard gain the commission ( …
  • took twelve weeks aboard the immigrant ship  Merope . Leonard joined a colourful collection of
  • son Francis married Amy Ruck, the sister of a friend of Leonard Darwins in the Royal Engineers, on

Darwin in letters, 1837–1843: The London years to 'natural selection'

Summary

The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle voyage was one of extraordinary activity and productivity in which he became recognised as a naturalist of outstanding ability, as an author and editor, and as a professional…

Matches: 25 hits

  • The seven-year period following Darwin's return to England from the Beagle  voyage was one
  • the publication of the  Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle , for which he described the
  • a family Busy as he was with scientific activities, Darwin found time to re-establish family
  • close contact. In November 1838, two years after his return, Darwin became engaged to his cousin, …
  • daughter, Anne Elizabeth, moved to Down House in Kent, where Darwin was to spend the rest of his
  • his greatest theoretical achievement, the most important of Darwins activities during the years
  • identifications of his bird and fossil mammal specimens, Darwin arrived at the daring and momentous
  • in species. With this new theoretical point of departure Darwin continued to make notes and explore
  • present in the version of 1859. Young author Darwins investigation of the species
  • the  Beagle  had returned to England, news of some of Darwins findings had been spread by the
  • great excitement. The fuller account of the voyage and Darwins discoveries was therefore eagerly
  • suitable categories for individual experts to work upon, Darwin applied himself to the revision of
  • third volume of the  Narrative of the surveying voyage of H.M.S. Adventure and Beagle. Darwins
  • and natural history of the various countries visited by H.M.S. BeagleAlso in November 1837, …
  • to the Society of 9 March 1838), had been developed by Darwin from a suggestion made by his uncle, …
  • Sedgwick, [after 15 May 1838] ). The new research Darwin undertook after 1837 was an
  • time, the parallel terraces, orroads’, of Glen Roy. Darwin had seen similar formations on the
  • roads of Glen Roy’,  Collected papers  1: 88137). Darwin later abandoned this view, calling it a
  • contemporaneous unstratified deposits of South America”, Darwin continued to defend his and Lyells
  • the publication of the Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle  from February 1838 to October 1843
  • Fossil Mammalia , by Richard OwenMammalia , by G. R. WaterhouseBirds , by John Gould;  …
  • of publications. The beetles were described by F. W. Hope, G. R. Waterhouse, and C. C. Babington; …
  • classification (see Henslow 1837a and 1838; W. J. Hooker and G. A. W. Arnott 1836, 1841; J. D. …
  • on the practice of systematists. As the correspondence with G. R. Waterhouse during the 1840s shows, …
  • the same, though I know what I am looking for' ( Letter to G. R. Waterhouse, [26 July 1843] ) …

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 21 hits

  • heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • Charles Harrison Tindal, sent a cache of letters from two of Darwins grandfathers clerical friends
  • divines to see a pigs body opened is very amusing’, Darwin replied, ‘& that about my
  • registry offices, and produced a twenty-page history of the Darwin family reaching back to the
  • the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880 ). Darwins sons George and Leonard also
  • and conciliate a few whose ancestors had not featured in Darwins Life . ‘In an endeavour to
  • think I must pay a round of visits.’ One cousin, Reginald Darwin, warmed to George: ‘he had been
  • … , sending one or both to his daughter Henrietta ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 1 February [1880] ). …
  • he will have the last word’, she warned ( letter from H. E. Litchfield, [1 February 1880] ). ‘He
  • Darwinophobia? It is a horrid disease’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 3 February 1880 ). All
  • I was, also, rarely fit to see anybody’ ( letter to S. H. Haliburton, 13 December 1880 ). …
  • thus one looks to prevent its return’ ( letter from J.-H. Fabre, 18 February 1880 ). Darwin shared
  • and letting them out of their respective bags ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [6, 13, or 20] March
  • received more attention than the baby!’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 17 December 1880 , and
  • biologist of our time’ ( letter from W. D. Roebuck to G. H. Darwin, 25 October 1880 ). The
  • 21 years since the Origin appeared”‘ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 11 [April] 1880 ). While praising

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 21 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • games. ‘I have won, hurrah, hurrah, 2795 games’, Darwin boasted; ‘my wifepoor creature, has won
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • once, the labour of checking proofs proved a blessing, as Darwin sought solace for the loss of his
  • and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • When Smith, Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwins three volumes of the geology of
  • single-volume edition titled Geological observations , Darwin resisted making any revisions at
  • results in this years experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica the previous year ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [after 4 September 1876] ). …
  • theawful jobof informing the author ( letter to G. G. Stokes, 21 April [1876] ). Darwin could
  • … ‘all I can say is do not commit suicide’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, [4 June 1876] ). By midsummer, …
  • a set of sons I have, all doing wonders.’ ( Letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 July [1876]. ) A
  • and eczema, was able to rest his mind ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 2 May [1876] ). Darwin even
  • letter to Andrew Clark, [late June 1876] ; letter to G. H. Darwin, 13 July [1876] ). The irony
  • Just four days later, Darwin had the hard task of telling Leonard that Amy, after seeming to recover
  • not by hiding the pain of the situation, but by reminding Leonard of how much his friendship had
  • she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • … & a Prof. Romer came to lunch’, Emma Darwin reported to Leonard Darwin on 29 September (DAR 239
  • been the subject of mere observation’ ( letter from T. H. Farrer, 31 December 1876 ). The Swiss

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

Matches: 23 hits

  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • memories.[8Yet, though the dissociation was essential for Darwins scientific goal, the notes here
  • the record breaks off until January 1852, by which time the Darwin family had increased by five: …
  • the onset of frowning, smiling, etc., as was the focus of Darwins attention on William and Anne, …
  • of logical thought and language. On 20 May 1854, Darwin again took over the notebook and, …
  • all the notes until July 1856, when the observations ceased. Darwins later entries, like Emmas, …
  • Transcription: 1 [9W. Erasmus. Darwin born. Dec. 27 th . 1839.—[10During first week. …
  • 6 lying on the rug. I said, my boys are not fond of reading. G. I  hate  readingI like drawing
  • 46  Horace[712½. G. When shall you wean baby. H. I am weaned for theres no more milk. …
  • written in pencil by CD and subsequently overwritten by Emma Darwin. The transcription throughout
  • … [15] ‘Annie . . . fortnightwas written by Emma Darwin on the verso of page 3 and opposite the
  • The name and address of a Mrs Locke are noted in Emma Darwins 1843 diary. [16The following
  • first books that she could recall encountering as a child (H. E. Litchfield papers, CUL). [60
  • and family memoirs and reminiscences. [61Leonard Darwin, born 1850. [62Francis
  • of her childhood, Henrietta Litchfield remembered Leonard Darwin saying this to their maid Jane and
  • CUL). [71Horace Darwin, born 1851. [72Leonard Darwins nickname. [73Miss

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 25 hits

  • Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwins theorising about species, and
  • his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend
  • way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving
  • bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript
  • coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of
  • zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated
  • chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwins son George, in an anonymous
  • on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair
  • Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwins friends had to find ways of
  • pp. 1617). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also
  • in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up
  • … , ‘I feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwins ire was not fully spent, however, …
  • in the same Quarterly article that attacked George. Darwin raised the matter at the end of the
  • to rest, another controversy was brewing. In December 1874, Darwin had been asked to sign a memorial
  • Hensleigh and Frances Wedgwood. She had corresponded with Darwin about the evolution of the moral
  • could not sign the paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbes memorial inflammatory
  • memorial had been read in the House of Lords (see ' Darwin and vivisection ').   …
  • medical educators, and other interested parties. Darwin was summoned to testify on 3 November. It
  • … ( Report of the Royal Commission on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Kleins testimony
  • agree to any law, which should send him to the treadmill.’ Darwin had become acquainted with Klein
  • am astounded & disgusted at what you say about Klein,’ Darwin replied to Huxley on 1 November
  • red half has become wholly white’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [before 4 November 1874] ).   …
  • of a review of William Dwight Whitneys work on language (G. H. Darwin 1874c). George had taken the
  • was great’, Henrietta Emma Litchfield wrote to her brother Leonard on 14 September, ‘& special

Darwin in letters, 1862: A multiplicity of experiments

Summary

1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his published output (two botanical papers and a book on the pollination mechanisms of orchids), but more particularly in the extent and breadth of the botanical experiments…

Matches: 24 hits

  • indicates, 1862 was a particularly productive year for Darwin. This was not only the case in his
  • promotion of his theory of natural selection also continued: Darwins own works expanded on it, …
  • a keen interest in the progress of his views through Europe, Darwin negotiated, in addition to a
  • the family over the summer. But towards the end of the year, Darwin was able once more to turn his
  • of the Scottish press hissed). Huxley, while advocating Darwins theory, had again espoused the view
  • experimental production of newphysiologicalspecies. Darwin attempted to dissuade him from this
  • together. He failed. Huxley replied ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 January 1862 ): 'I
  • delivered a series of lectures to working men that reviewed Darwins theory, and sent copies to
  • about the vars. of Tobacco.' At the end of the year, Darwin seemed resigned to their
  • common man This correspondence with Huxley made Darwin keener than ever to repeat the
  • began writing long, intelligent, and informative letters, Darwin, impressed, gave him the commission
  • … ). Two sexual forms: Primula and Linum Darwins views on the phenomenon of
  • when crossed with another plant of the reciprocal form. Darwin concluded that the two forms existed
  • in  Primula ’, p. 92 ( Collected papers  2: 59)). Darwin later recalled: ‘no little discovery of
  • … , p. 134). On completion of his  Primula  paper, Darwin repeated his crosses through a
  • George Bentham at Kew were also tapped for their knowledge. Darwin, initially hopeful, became
  • withgood dashes of original reflexions’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 13 January [1862] ). He warmly
  • … & admirable papers I ever read in my life’ ( letter to H. W. Bates, 20 November [1862] ). He
  • telling him of the need for a second edition ( letter from H. G. Bronn, [before 11 March 1862] ), …
  • midst of a crisis much closer to home and heart. Their son Leonard was seriously ill. He had been
  • holiday in Bournemouth, setting off in mid-August. However, Leonard had a relapse and Emma caught
  • byparticularly active young wolves’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 9 October 1862 ). Darwin
  • 24 February [1862] ) and with some cause. Not only was Leonard seriously ill in 1862, but Horace
  • insects with Darwins hypothesis ( see letter from H. W. Bates, 30 April 1862 ), Darwin was

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 27 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • to Fritz Müller, 4 January 1882 ). These were topics that Darwin had been investigating for years, …
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root response and the
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 28 December 1881 ). Darwin had a long-running interest in such
  • experiments had been conducted to lend support to Darwins theory of pangenesis (see
  • He was eager to write up the results on Brazilian cane, with Darwin providing a detailed outline: ‘I
  • at the Linnean Society on 4 May, but not published. Darwin carried on with botanical work in
  • which are asymmetric, thus facilitating cross-fertilisation. Darwins aim, he said, was just to
  • 3 April 1882 ). Earthworms and evolution Darwins last book, Earthworms , had been
  • Appendix V). The conservative Quarterly Review , owned by Darwins publisher John Murray, carried
  • to have rather the best of the fight’ ( letter from G. F. Crawte, 11 March 1882 ). The battle
  • Anthony Rich, he shared several of his sonsachievements. Leonard had been appointed to observe the
  • depressed about himself’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March 1882 (DAR 245: 319) …
  • plagued with dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 March 1882] (DAR 210
  • pain entirely yesterday’ (letter from Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, 6 April 1882 (DAR 210.3: 46)). …
  • she has cried a little’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, [19 April 1882] (DAR 245: 320
  • is always easier to write than to speak,’ she wrote to Leonard, ‘& so though I shall see you so
  • … & have been able to be to him’ (letter from Emma Darwin to Leonard Darwin, [21? April 1882] (DAR
  • Natural History, that I went as Naturalist on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World & …
  • I cannot tell how or where to begin’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 21 [January 1860] ). Darwins
  • of Darwinian theory to flowers and flower-visiting insects; H. Müller 1869)). Darwin was full of
  • point from its graduated nature: some time ago my son, Mr G. Darwin, advocated that lunacy should at

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 19 hits

  • In 1865, the chief