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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • to artificially fertilise plants in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to
  • be made on seeds of Pulmonaria officinalis . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to
  • Expression from her home in South Africa. Letter 6736 - Gray, A. & J. L
  • Expression during a trip to Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., …
  • expression of emotion in her pet dog and birds. Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. …
  • Darwin's daughter, Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5
  • her observations on the expression of emotion in dogs with Emma Darwin. Letter 8676
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9 November 1868] Darwin
  • lakes in Pennsylvania. Letter 3681  - Wedgwood, M. S. to Darwin, [before 4 August
  • on holiday in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • any way he can. Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] …
  • Wedgwood, S. E. & J. to Darwin, [10 November 1837] Emmas sister, Sarah, passes on
  • E. to Darwin, W. E., [January 23rd 1887]: Emma Darwin tells her eldest son, William, …
  • E. to Darwin, W. E. , (March, 1862 - DAR 219.1:49) Emma Darwin updates her son, William, …
  • is a great critic”, thought the article worth reprinting, Emma was less convinced. Letter

2.3 Wedgwood medallions

Summary

< Back to Introduction Despite Darwin’s closeness to the Wedgwood family, he was studiously uninterested in the productions of his maternal grandfather Josiah Wedgwood I, the immensely successful ceramic manufacturer. In a letter to Hooker of January…

Matches: 11 hits

  • … &lt; Back to Introduction Despite Darwins closeness to the Wedgwood family, he was
  • at Kew, and in the spring of 1863 he borrowed from the Darwin family a Wedgwood medallion of Charles
  • It is therefore extremely unlikely that it was Darwin himself who commissioned the sculptor Thomas
  • of his father, and probably paid for it himself. In a letter from his Southampton home, dateable to
  • production of the medallion: the first wax model portraying Darwin; the plaster mould created from
  • her Life in Letters of her father, dated his model for Wedgwoods Darwin medallion to 1869. …
  • one Woolner design, still exist in the collections of the Wedgwood Museum at Barlaston. Two of them
  • blue jasper with an integral frame like a wreath. Although Darwin wears modern dress, the rather
  • with the allantica concept of Woolners bust of Darwin. At the same time, it harks back to the
  • such as John Locke and Adam Smith, who had been portrayed on Wedgwood medallions at an earlier
  • WE.6132-2016 
 copyright holder V&amp;A Wedgwood collection 
 originator

Dining at Down House

Summary

Sources|Discussion Questions|Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life While Darwin is best remembered for his scientific accomplishments, he greatly valued and was strongly influenced by his domestic life. Darwin's…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Questions | Experiment Dining, Digestion, and Darwin's Domestic Life …
  • … and they partook in his scientific endeavours. One of Darwin's defining characteristics …
  • … and Conclusion”). Letters Letter Packet: Dining at Down House …
  • … ill health began on his Beagle voyage. In this letter (written amidst the excitement of South …
  • … difficulties of traveling on horseback while ill. Letter 465 —Emma Wedgwood (Emma Darwin …
  • … making himself agreeable” for her sake. Letter 3626 —Emma Darwin to T. G. Appleton, 28 …
  • … to thank Appleton for gifts sent from America. Letter 3597 —Darwin to Joseph Dalton …
  • … on the difficulties of finding a suitable cook. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [4 …
  • … among other things, for Darwin’s complaints. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [14 April …
  • … who was travelling in the south of France at the time, Emma describes typical nineteenth-century …
  • … Scottish medium, Daniel Dunglass Home, with Galton. Emma Darwin to Henrietta Darwin, [4 …
  • … taste of Darwin's life at Down House, recreate recipes from Emma Darwin's cookbook and …

Henrietta Darwin's diary

Summary

Darwin's daughter Henrietta kept a diary for a few momentous weeks in 1871. This was the year in which Descent of Man, the most controversial of her father's books after Origin itself, appeared, a book which she had helped him write. The small…

Matches: 8 hits

  • Charles Darwins daughter Henrietta wrote the following journal entries in March and
  • 1871 in a small lockable, leather-bound notebook now in the Darwin Archive of Cambridge University
  • excised within it, presumably by Henrietta herself. Darwins letters in 1870 and 1871 ( …
  • scepticism; many of her arguments are reminiscent of Darwins own discussion of religious belief in
  • on a discussion with her cousin, Frances Julia (Snow) Wedgwood, about religion and free will in
  • period of their courtship. We are grateful to William Darwin for permission to publish the
  • when I feel my day made bright &amp; happy by one short letter. I want him to take me in his arms
  • 6 Laura May Forster . 7 Frances Julia Wedgwood (Snow) and George Eliot. The

Earthworms

Summary

As with many of Darwin’s research topics, his interest in worms spanned nearly his entire working life. Some of his earliest correspondence about earthworms was written and received in the 1830s, shortly after his return from his Beagle voyage, and his…

Matches: 12 hits

  • … Questions | Experiment Earthworms and Wedgwood cousins As with many of …
  • … months before he died in March 1882. In the same way that Darwin cast a wide net when seeking …
  • … of his own family, in particular his nieces, Lucy and Sophy Wedgwood, the daughters of Emma Darwin& …
  • … selection. His book Fertilisation of Orchids (1862) was Darwin's "flank movement …
  • … was a study of incredible empirical detail that demonstrates Darwin's creative experimental …
  • … (be it geology or evolutionary theory) was a subject that Darwin had contemplated from his earliest …
  • … John Murray. Chapters 1 and 3. Letters Letter 385 - Sarah Elizabeth …
  • … In his reply of two days later, Darwin wrote, “Your letter & facts are quite splendid.—I cannot …
  • … request, and his gratitude for her observations. Letter 12745 - Darwin to Sophy …
  • … such a case as grass roots, weeds, in a gravel path.” [ Letter 12760 , 15 October 1880] …
  • … her interest in earthworms and its significance. Letter 13632 - Darwin to John …
  • … QUESTIONS 1. What do you think of Darwin's letter to John Murray? What does Darwin …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 24 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, &amp; my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root response and the
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • quite untirable &amp; I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January
  • probably intending to test its effects on chlorophyll ( letter to Joseph Fayrer, 30 March 1882 ). …
  • we know about the life of any one plant or animal!’ ( letter to Henry Groves, 3 April 1882 ). He
  • and was no longer able to take his daily strolls (Henrietta Emma Litchfield, ‘Charles Darwins death
  • E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March 1882 (DAR 245: 319)) Emma wrote ten days later: ‘You will
  • been a good deal plagued with dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28
  • benefit &amp; he escaped pain entirely yesterday’ (letter from Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, 6 April
  • wrote to George, who had visited Down on 11 April (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242)). ‘Father was taken
  • H. Darwin, [19 April 1882] (DAR 245: 320)). It was left to Emma to convey the sorrowful news to his
  • which I hope were never very violent’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. D. Hooker, [20 April 1882
  • were not wanting to tell me how you felt for meHope [Wedgwood] expresses a feeling that I should
  • they were the most overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882
  • was eagerly awaited by his family, including his cousin Emma Wedgwood. In long letters to her sister
  • plied him with questions without any mercy’ ( letter from Emma Wedgwood to F. E. E. Wedgwood, [28

Darwin in letters, 1880: Sensitivity and worms

Summary

‘My heart & soul care for worms & nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old Shrewsbury friend Henry Johnson on 14 November 1880. Darwin became fully devoted to earthworms in the spring of the year, just after finishing the manuscript of…

Matches: 17 hits

  • heart &amp; soul care for worms &amp; nothing else in this world,’ Darwin wrote to his old
  • to adapt to varying conditions. The implications of Darwins work for the boundary between animals
  • studies of animal instincts by George John Romanes drew upon Darwins early observations of infants, …
  • of evolution and creation. Many letters flowed between Darwin and his children, as he took delight
  • Financial support for science was a recurring issue, as Darwin tried to secure a Civil List pension
  • with Samuel Butler, prompted by the publication of Erasmus Darwin the previous year. …
  • my grandfathers character is of much value to me’ ( letter to C. H. Tindal, 5 January 1880 ). …
  • have influenced the whole Kingdom, &amp; even the world’ ( letter from J. L. Chester, 3 March 1880
  • delighted to find an ordinary mortal who could laugh’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin to Charles and
  • much powder &amp; shot’ ( Correspondence vol. 27, letter from Ernst Krause, 7 June 1879 , and
  • modified; but now I much regret that I did not do so’ ( letter to Samuel Butler, 3 January 1880 ). …
  • my excitement’ ( letter from Horace Darwin to Emma Darwin, [18 September 1880] ). Darwins
  • We find that the light frightens them’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 8 October [1880] ). The
  • October 1880 ). The president of the society explained to Emma that the members of the union wished
  • … …“Come of Age”‘ ( letter from W. C. Williamson to Emma Darwin, 2 September 1880 ). In April, …
  • year was marked by the loss of several close family members. Emmas brother Josiah Wedgwood III died
  • Surrey, which became a regular destination for Charles and Emma, and also a site of scientific

The "wicked book": Origin at 157

Summary

Origin is 157 years old.  (Probably) the most famous book in science was published on 24 November 1859.  To celebrate we have uploaded hundreds of new images of letters, bringing the total number you can look at here to over 9000 representing more than…

Matches: 10 hits

  • book appeared.   You can now see examples of letters to Darwin from nearly 250 different people, and
  • Lyell , and Joseph Hooker , the two men who arranged for Darwins and Wallaces ideas to be made
  • Asa Gray who was an important sounding board for Darwins emerging ideas, and Thomas Huxley
  • scrap from 1857 comparing his views on species to DarwinsOthers, like Hugh Falconer , …
  • the less well-known scientific collaborators who became Darwin's correspondents, Mary Treat
  • and friends, including letters between Charles and his wife Emma, and several of their children: …
  • Amy  Ruck, was co-opted as an observer in WalesLucy Wedgwood , Darwins neice, was one of
  • of Down in Kent, and a lifelong friend of both Charles and Emma, sent information on pigeons
  • of water thrown over me on rising William Darwin Fox , Charless cousin and another
  • C. Watson J. J. Weir H. W. Bates Hensleigh Wedgwood J. S. Henslow C. S

What did Darwin believe?

Summary

What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of his theory of evolution for religious faith? These questions were asked again and again in the years following the publication of Origin of species (1859). They are…

Matches: 19 hits

  • What did Darwin really believe about God? the Christian revelation? the implications of
  • rhetoric of crusading secularists, many of whom take Darwin as an icon. But Darwin was very
  • Letters became an important medium through which Darwins readers sought to draw him out on matters
  • the religious implications of his work. Letters written to Darwin by persons unknown to him became
  • often seeking direction for their own. Mary Booles letter In December 1866 Darwin
  • of Science &amp; the promises of religion. See the letter Boole, like a number
  • meeting point should still be far off. See the letter In his response to Boole
  • feeling. But he does not venture into such territory in this letter to a stranger. Emma
  • matters many years earlier with his cousin and fiancée, Emma Wedgewood. In their correspondence, …
  • but we gain a sense of what the couple discussed from Emmas words to him: My reason
  • It is clear from other correspondence that one of Emmas most cherished beliefs was in an afterlife. …
  • she means so in eternity. There is a marked tension in Emmas letter between reason and feeling, and
  • to himself, and allowed his differences of belief with Emma to remain for the most part submerged. …
  • members of the Darwin family, offer a fuller perspective on Emmas religious beliefs. The documents
  • over Scriptural or doctrinal authority, as a foundation for Emmas views. They also show that Emmas
  • was another important religious tradition in the Darwin and Wedgwood families. Josiah Wedgwood, who
  • Unitarian school in Shrewsbury. The circle with whom he and Emma socialised when in London included
  • were regular guests of Darwins brother Erasmus, and of Emmas brother, Hensleigh Wedgwood and his
  • writer. Wallace, Alfred Russel. Naturalist. Wedgwood, Josiah. Master potter and

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 23 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a reflection on his debt
  • be done by observation during prolonged intervals’ ( letter to D. T. Gardner, [ c . 27 August
  • pleasures of shooting and collecting beetles ( letter from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such
  • Andone looks backwards much more than forwards’ ( letter to W. D. Fox, 11 May [1874] ). …
  • Andrew Clark, whom he had been consulting since August 1873. Darwin had originally thought that
  • was an illusory hope.— I feel very old &amp; helpless’  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] …
  • inferred that he was well from his silence on the matter ( letter from Ernst Haeckel, 26 October
  • by George Henry Lewes and Marian Evans (George Eliot), but Darwin excused himself, finding it too
  • in such rubbish’, he confided to Joseph Dalton Hooker ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 18 January [1874] …
  • séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those present included George
  • that Mr Williams wasa cheat and an imposter’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 27 January 1874 ). …
  • his, ‘&amp; that he was thus free to perform his antics’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 29 January [1874
  • Darwin had alloweda spirit séanceat his home ( letter from T. G. Appleton, 2 April 1874 ). …
  • edition, published in 1842 ( Correspondence  vol. 21, letter to Smith, Elder &amp; Co., 17
  • Hooker, and finally borrowed one from Charles Lyell ( letter to Smith, Elder &amp; Co., 8 January
  • satisfaction. Assisted in the wording by his wife, Emma, and daughter Henrietta, he finally wrote a
  • a comfortable cabin ( see letter from Leonard Darwin to Emma Darwin, [after 26 June -- 28 September
  • to become Darwins secretary. They rented Down Lodge and Emma Darwin wrote, ‘They have . . . made
  • the average in prettiness &amp; snugness’ ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October
  • letter to Down School Board, [after 29 November 1873] ). Emma saw agreat blessingin the rumour
  • dead uncles position of vicar of Deptford ( letter from Emma Darwin to J. B. Innes, 12 October

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 16 hits

  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Britain? Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, …
  • pursuit of real, professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., …
  • and taking in the aesthetic beauty of the world around him. Darwin describes thestrikingcolour
  • made up of meals, family time and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to
  • … ‘ A Biographical Sketch of an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May
  • them in the north-facing borders of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • andnever saw anything so beautiful”. Letter 4230 - Darwin to GardenersChronicle, [2
  • microscopical spherical bodies found on flowers which Emma had gathered and brought into the house
  • linked with his domestic family life. Letter 4377 - Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, [2
  • at least provide Darwin with aesthetic pleasure. Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., …
  • he has moved one or two of them into his bedroom. Letter 4469 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin
  • before expecting to dedicate his life to science. Letter 4472 - Hooker, J. D. to Darwin
  • duty to the public to contribute more than this. Letter 6044 - Darwin to Darwin, G. H., …
  • in his home. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 28 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was
  • during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously
  • do to talk about it, which no doubt promotes the sale’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ) …
  • to her liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). …
  • and had forsaken his lunch and dinner in order to read it ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 19
  • they believe to be the truth, whether pleasant or not’ (letter from W. W. Reade, 21 February 1871). …
  • and OldhamThey club together to buy them’ ( letter from W. B. Dawkins, 23 February 1871 ). …
  • ones n th . ancestor lived between tide-marks!’ ( letter from T. H. Huxley, 20 February 1871 ). …
  • habits, furnished with a tail and pointed ears”  (letter from Asa Gray, 14 April 1871) …
  • … ‘will-powerand the heavy use of their arms and legs ( letter from C. L. Bernays, 25 February 1871
  • in order to make it darker than the hair on his head ( letter from W. B. Tegetmeier, [before 25
  • together with an image of an orang-utan foetus ( letter from Hinrich Nitsche, 18 April 1871 ). …
  • his own family circle, especially his cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood, whom Darwin had cited on the origin
  • passing temptation of hunting it’ ( Descent  2: 392). Wedgwood, however, denied that a simple
  • or remorse. The true essence of conscience, according to Wedgwood, was shame, and he went so far as
  • by the presence of its master. ( Letter from Hensleigh Wedgwood, [39 March 1871] .) Some
  • Morley. George and Henrietta remarked upon his dispute with Wedgwood. Darwins theory of the moral
  • and morally bound. In one particularly long letter to Wedgwood, Darwin alluded to the pain of
  • agreement is a satisfaction to me’ ( letter to Hensleigh Wedgwood, 9 March 1871 ). A
  • home, Leith Hill Place in Surrey, and CDs niece Lucy Wedgwood collected and weighed the dried
  • … &amp; sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin, [5 November 1871] ). Her

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … everything is the result of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 …
  • … nature, as he is in a “muddle” on this issue. Letter 3256 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, …
  • … shares a witty thought experiment about an angel. Letter 3342 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, …
  • … He asks Gray some questions about design. Letter 6167 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 8 …
  • … of my precipice”. Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 — Wallace, A. R. to Darwin, …
  • … of variations. Darwin and Graham Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, …
  • … of people, including members of his own family. Letter 441 — Wedgwood, Emma to Darwin, …
  • … about his “honest & conscientious doubts”. Letter 471 — Darwin, Emma to Darwin, C. …

Casting about: Darwin on worms

Summary

Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

Matches: 13 hits

  • for plants to flourish can be traced back to the last book Darwin wrote, snappily-titled The
  • on their habits, which was published in 1881. Despite Darwins fears that a book on earthworms might
  • out in his Natural History of Selborne of 1789 (a book Darwin claimed hadmuch influence on my
  • a new field in natural history, and almost a century later Darwin argued that all fields had passed
  • had been inspired by observations made by his uncle, Josiah Wedgwood of the uniform structure of the
  • variety of strange things he persuaded people to do. Darwin concluded that worms had no sense
  • a metal whistle and to being shouted at, but also to Francis Darwin playing the bassoon, and to Emma
  • realising that this negative evidence was also valuable to Darwin. Thomas Henry Farrer , …
  • existence of worms at that altitude. By the 1870s, Darwin was also drawing on the work of
  • him. Soon worm excrement was trusted to postal services, and Darwin acquired casts from India and
  • observations he had gathered to write a book on the subject. Darwin brought to the topic the
  • whole soul is absorbed with worms just at present!’ ( letter to W. T. Thiselton Dyer, 23 November
  • … ‘worms have much bigger souls than anyone wd suppose’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E …
  • … he seeks her help with tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 …
  • … in order to minimise impeding general perusal. Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, …
  • … he uses to avoid ownership of indelicate content. Letter 8335 - Reade, W. W. to …
  • … so as not to lose the interest of women. Letter 8341 - Reade, W. W. to Darwin, …
  • … which will make it more appealing to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to …
  • … Darwin’s female readership Letter 5391 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, [6 February …
  • … of the Manchester Ladies Literary Society . Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to …
  • … the chapter on pangenesis, which is a revelation. Letter 6976 - Darwin to Blackwell, A. …
  • Darwin assumes that 'A. B. Blackwell' is a man. Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to …
  • … him to the psychology of Herbert Spencer. Letter 7624 - Bathoe, M . B. to Darwin …
  • … to an asylum with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., …

1.2 George Richmond, marriage portrait

Summary

< Back to Introduction Few likenesses of Darwin in his youth survive, although more may once have existed. In a letter of 1873 an old Shrewsbury friend, Arthur Mostyn Owen, offered to send Darwin a watercolour sketch of him, painted many years…

Matches: 18 hits

  • … &lt; Back to Introduction Few likenesses of Darwin in his youth survive, although more
  • is unknown.   Thus the surviving portraits of Darwin as a young manother than cartoon
  • House, celebrated his marriage in January 1839 to his cousin Emma Wedgwood; the one of Darwin is
  • estimate of Richmonds work can be gauged from a letter which Hooker wrote to Darwin some years
  • But despite this tendency to prettify, Richmond registered Darwins receding hairline, and the
  • theories.   As early as February 1839, Elizabeth Wedgwood had written to her sister Emma: ‘My
  • Italyor would a portrait by Holmes be preferable?’ Emma in response promised, ‘I will go and get
  • not return from Italy until August or September 1839. Josiah Wedgwood himself wrote to his daughter
  • portraits dating from 1840 which is now at Down House had a Darwin family provenance. After Susan
  • arrangingto send you Richmonds pictures of self and Emma’: ‘selfpresumably means Charles, and
  • and from this he established the dates of various Darwin family commissions. In 1840 there were
  • was being assembled, so that both the Darwin and the Wedgwood families would have one. It is
  • lent Richmonds watercolour drawings of Charles and Emma, with a note that the one of Charles had an
  • … – the only one she knew aboutto 1840. However, in Emma Darwin: A Century of Family Letters
  • account books, entry for Dec. 1839. Joseph Hooker, letter to Darwin, 17 March 1862 (DCP-LETT-3474). …
  • Murray, 1887), vol. 3, p. 371. Henrietta Litchfield (ed.), Emma Darwin: A Century of Family
  • University Press, 1933), frontispiece. Barbara and Hensleigh Wedgwood, The Wedgwood Circle 1730
  • this seemingly conflicts with the indications in Erasmuss letter of 1866, quoted above.   
 …

Darwin’s observations on his children

Summary

Charles Darwin’s observations on the development of his children, began the research that culminated in his book The Expression of the emotions in man and animals, published in 1872, and his article ‘A biographical sketch of an infant’, published in Mind…

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  • Charles Darwins observations on the development of his children,[1began the
  • is available below . As with much of his other work, Darwin gathered additional information on the
  • lunatics, the blind, and animals. And as early as 1839 Darwin had begun to collect information on
  • the expression of emotions. As the following transcript of Darwins notes reveals, he closely
  • William Erasmus, the stages of his development suggesting to Darwin those expressions which are
  • The tone of the manuscript reflects an aspect of Darwins character clearly perceived by Emma during
  • … “What does that prove”.’[6For in these notes, Darwins deep scientific curiosity transcends his
  • that on occasion he refers to William asit’. Darwin possessed the ability to dissociate
  • period but in far less detail. By September 1844, Henrietta Emma was one year old, and there are a
  • 1850; and Horace, born 18 May 1851. It appears to have been Emma who resumed the observations on the
  • the notebook and, with the exception of two brief entries by Emma, made all the notes until July
  • certainly during first fortnight at sudden sounds. &amp; at Emmas moving 3 [11]  When
  • … &amp; inwards as in sleep.[14] Six weeks old &amp; 3 days, Emma saw him smilenot only with
  • his eyes becoming fixed &amp; the movements of his arms ceasing. Emma argues that his smiles were
  • made in the little noises he was uttering that he recognized Emma by sight when she came close to
  • been caused by the novelty of the situation producing fear. Emma thinks that when he was vaccinated
  • whole expression appearing pleased.— Recognizes Emma Anne &amp; myself perfectlydoes not find
  • was called.— 29 th . Cried at the sight of Allen Wedgwood[32Is able to catch hold of a
  • Ladywere repeated.— 26 th . Cried, when Emma left off playing the pianoforte.— Did this
  • Anny says Papa pretty clearly—[40A few days ago Emma gave her doll, but she sensibly shuddered, …
  • to play with in farther part of room, she immediately led Emma by the hand towards the tea-chest. I
  • on quite suddenly.—[43] On the 13 th . of March Emma positively ascertained that what the
  • our door N o  12