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Race, Civilization, and Progress

Summary

Darwin's first reflections on human progress were prompted by his experiences in the slave-owning colony of Brazil, and by his encounters with the Yahgan peoples of Tierra del Fuego. Harsh conditions, privation, poor climate, bondage and servitude,…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … Letters | Selected Readings Darwin's first reflections on human progress were …
  • … human progress or cause degeneration. In the "Fuegians", Darwin thought he had witnessed …
  • … several years earlier as part of a missionary enterprise. Darwin was struck by the progress that had …
  • … been returned to their native land. After the voyage, Darwin began to question the …
  • … the publication of Origin of Species , many of Darwin's supporters continued to believe that …
  • … beyond. Letters Darwin’s first observations of the peoples of …
  • … 1833 which took effect in the following year. Letter 206 : Darwin to Darwin, E. C., 22 …
  • … of the polygenist theory of human descent. Letter 4933 : Farrar, F. W. to Darwin, …
  • … native, Christian Gaika. Darwin was impressed by Gaika's knowledge of English and used some of …
  • … of the natives. Letter 5617 , Darwin to Weale, J. P. M., 27 August [1867] …
  • … progress of civilization" Letter 5722 , Weale, J. P. M. to Darwin, [10 December …
  • … This remained a point of dispute between many of Darwin’s scientific supporters, including Lyell, …
  • … , 6 th ed, p. 98). Letter 2503 : Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, C., 11 October [1859] …
  • … explained by Natural Selection I rather hail Wallace’s suggestion that there may be a Supreme Will …
  • … William Graham. Letter 2503 : Darwin, C. R. to Lyell, C., 11 October [1859] I …
  • … in rank." Letter 4510 : Darwin to Wallace, A. R., 28 [May 1864] "Now …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 10 hits

  • and colonial authorities. In the nineteenth-century, letter writing was one of the most important
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • in times of uncertainty, controversy, or personal loss. Letter writing was not only a means of
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844] …
  • flora of the USA. He sends a list of plants from Grays Manual of botany [1848] and asks him to
  • Mentors Darwin's close relationship with John Stevens Henslow, the professor of botany
  • Mentors This collection of letters documents Henslows mentoring while Darwin was on the
  • mail to Montevideo. He talks of being a sort of Protégé of Henslows and it is Henslowsbounden
  • Letter 3800Scott, John to Darwin, C. R., [11 Nov 1862] Scottish gardener John Scott notes

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 20 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Observers Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August
  • silkworm breeds, or peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to
  • observations of catsinstinctive behaviour. Letter 4258 - Becker, L. E. to Darwin, …
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • February 1867] Mary Barber responds to Darwins queries about Expression from
  • him. Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • of wormholes. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] …
  • Letter 4436 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [26-27 March 1864] Darwin thanks Hooker for
  • and orangs. Letter 5705 - Haast, J. F. J. von to Darwin, [4 December 1867] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • in a marble tablet”. Letter 6815 - Scott, J. to Darwin, [2 July 1869] John
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • to look for more samples. Letter 4928  - Henslow, G. to Darwin, [11 November 1865] …
  • Letter 2461  - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] Darwin expresses anxiety over
  • Men: Letter 378  - Darwin to Henslow, J. S., [20 September 1837] Darwin

Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 17 hits

  • 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwins  Origin of species , printing
  • surprised both the publisher and the author. One week later Darwin was stunned to learn that the
  • the book, thinking that it would be nice easy reading.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 May [1860] ). …
  • his views. ‘One cannot expect fairness in a Reviewer’, Darwin commented to Hooker after reading an
  • he told Hooker, did not at all concern his main argument ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] …
  • his theory would have beenutterly  smashed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). (A
  • from right principles of scientific investigation.—’ ( letter to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). …
  • were inexplicable by the theory of creation. Asa Grays statement in his March review that natural
  • it comes in time to be admitted as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This
  • fellow Henry Fawcett in the December issue of  Macmillans Magazine . Fawcett asserted that Darwin
  • considered it more a failure than a success ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 February [1860] ). …
  • because more accustomed to reasoning.’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 18 May 1860 ). Darwin
  • two physiologists, and five botanists ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 March [1860] ). Others, like
  • … ‘master of the field after 4 hours battle’ (letter from J. D. Hooker, 2 July 1860). Other
  • …  rather than against Darwins book per se . Prodded by Henslows defence of the integrity of
  • were already proved) to his own views.—’ ( letter from J. S. Henslow to J. D. Hooker, 10 May 1860
  • … (letters to Charles Lyell, 1 June [1860] and 11 August [1860] ). As the months passed

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 21 hits

  • … The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the …
  • … Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emma’s backgammon games. ‘I have won, hurrah, …
  • … regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to …
  • … concussion from a riding accident, and George Darwin’s ill-health grew worse, echoing Darwin’s own …
  • … of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amy’s child expected in September. Their joy …
  • … to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11 September just hours after Amy’s …
  • … dimorphic and trimorphic plants in new ways. New Year's resolutions Darwin began …
  • … quantity of work’ left in him for ‘new matter’ (letter to Asa Gray, 28 January 1876). The …
  • … to a reprint of the second edition of Climbing plants ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 23 February …
  • … & I for blundering’, he cheerfully observed to Carus. ( Letter to J. V. Carus, 24 April 1876. …
  • … effected by his forthcoming pamphlet, Darwin confounded (C. O’Shaughnessy 1876), which, he …
  • … and who had succeeded in giving him pain ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 17 June 1876 ). Although …
  • … of blackballing so distinguished a zoologist ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 29 January 1876 ). Both …
  • … results in this year’s experiments’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, [ c . 19 March 1876] ). A less …
  • … by the mutual pressure of very young buds’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 21 June [1876] ). Darwin …
  • … naturalist Thomas Edward ( letter from F. M. Balfour, 11 December 1876 ; letter to Samuel Smiles …
  • … paper was ‘not worthy of being read ever’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 28 January 1876 ). Darwin …
  • … because of a ‘long and terrible illness’ ( letter to C. S. Wedgwood, 20 April 1876 ). By the time …
  • … who died at the age of 10 in 1851, but William, who was 11 years old at the time of her death, would …
  • … Hildebrand, 6 December 1876 , and letter from F. J. Cohn, 31 December 1876 ). To Darwin’s …
  • … in harmony with yours’ ( letter from George Henslow, [ c. 7 December 1876] ). A more typical …

Darwin on race and gender

Summary

Darwin’s views on race and gender are intertwined, and mingled also with those of class. In Descent of man, he tried to explain the origin of human races, and many of the differences between the sexes, with a single theory: sexual selection. Sexual…

Matches: 15 hits

  • Darwins views on race and gender are intertwined, and mingled also with those of
  • coloured wings of male butterflies, the male peacocks elaborate tail, the large horns or antlers on
  • in beetles. The unity of human species Darwin believed that the same process of sexual
  • gradually increase those features over long periods of time. Darwins theory was based partly on the
  • seemed to prevail across the globe. In Descent , Darwin also addressed widely held beliefs
  • ofspecies’, ‘varieties’, andraces’. Darwin argued forcefully for the unity of the human species, …
  • Gender and civilisation In his early notebooks, Darwin remarked that survival value or
  • conquests and expansion abroad. Thus, while Darwins views on race differed widely from those
  • … ( Beagle diary , p. 143). He was delighted to receive a letter from an African correspondent
  • them with equal respect. He actively supported womens higher education in science and medicine, …
  • were often crossed in practice ( see correspondence with C. Kennard, below ). The implications of
  • and Progress Key letters: Letter to J. S. Henslow, 11 April 1833
  • Desmond, Adrian and James Moore. 2009. Darwin's sacred cause . London: Allen Lane. …
  • York: The Free Press. Voss, Julia. 2007, Darwins pictures: views of evolutionary theory, …
  • Darwin, Descent of man (1871), 2: 3269. Evans, S. ed. 2017. Darwin and women: a

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 19 hits

  • Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those
  • a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of
  • Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • Tollet for proofreading and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. …
  • her to read to check that she can understand it. Letter 7312 - Darwin to Darwin, F. …
  • from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E
  • tone and style. Letter 7329 - Murray , J. to Darwin, [28 September 1870] …
  • Letter 7331 - Darwin to Murray, J., [29 September 1870] Darwin asks Murray to
  • to women. Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] …
  • got hold of it first. Darwins female readership Letter
  • … - Barnard, A. to Darwin, [30 March 1871] J. S. Henslows daughter, Anne, responds to
  • with her father. Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] …
  • be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • work. Letter 5861 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [11 February 1868] Zoologist
  • Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …
  • of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …
  • Letter 9633 - Nevill, D. F. to Darwin, [11 September 1874] Dorothy Nevill tells

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 24 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … spent an extended period in Würzburg at Julius Sachs’s botanical institute, one of most advanced …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … Hooker, ‘or as far as I know any scientific man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1878] ). …
  • … Sophy to observe the arching shoots of Neottia (bird’s nest orchid) near her home in Surrey: ‘If …
  • … or arched.… Almost all seedlings come up arched’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). …
  • … when he finds out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] …
  • … 22 December [1878] ). Son abroad Darwin’s experiments on plant movement were …
  • … apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in Germany, not returning …
  • … be obtained at Down House, but Francis thought Horace’s abilities were a match for German instrument …
  • … here is far from well made.’ (Jemmy or Jim was Horace’s nickname.) Francis was occasionally …
  • … on the object, but he will always do so’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 20 August [1878] ). Darwin …
  • … a monkey & a baby in your house!’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 2 September [1878] ). More …
  • … to play the part of a thieving wasp’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 21 June 1878 ). An …
  • … where his work had been more controversial ( letter from J.-B. Dumas and Joseph Bertrand, 5 August …
  • … to expertise. ‘It is funny’, he wrote to Huxley on 11 August , ‘the Academy having elected a man …
  • … Record”’ ( letter from Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvár, 28 April 1878 ). ‘What a wonderful change …
  • … and leaves Moses to take care of himself ’ ( letter from J. B. Innes, 1 December 1878 ). Darwin …
  • … whatever he earnestly desires’ ( letter to James Grant, 11 March 1878 ). The question of …
  • … opponent’ ( Correspondence vol. 24, letter to T. C. Eyton, 22 April 1876 ). ‘When I first read …
  • … European crop (see Correspondence vol. 3, letter to J. S. Henslow, 28 October [1845] ). He …
  • … the matter be presented to the duke of Richmond ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 28 [February 1878] ). …
  • … secretary, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil ( letter to R. A. T. Gascoyne-Cecil, 18 May 1878 ). …

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 26 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was married in
  • human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals at
  • Hooker suggested one of the reasons behind the books popularity: ‘I hear that Ladies think it
  • do to talk about it, which no doubt promotes the sale’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 26 March 1871 ) …
  • Correspondence vol. 19Appendix IV). Four of Darwins five sons received a copy, and his daughter
  • inlucid vigorous style’, as well as for the booksarrangment, not to mention still more
  • to her liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). …
  • and had forsaken his lunch and dinner in order to read it ( letter from James Crichton-Browne, 19
  • they believe to be the truth, whether pleasant or not’ (letter from W. W. Reade, 21 February 1871). …
  • and the heavy use of their arms and legs ( letter from C. L. Bernays, 25 February 1871 ). Samples
  • letter from Arthur Nicols, 7 March 1871 ; letter from B. J. Sulivan, 11 March 1871 ; letter
  • a high aesthetic appreciation of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). …
  • is a thing which I sh d  feel very proud of, if anyone c d . say of me.’ After the publication
  • a good way ahead of you, as far as this goes’ ( letter to J. B. Innes, 29 May [1871] ). On
  • August 1871 ). The Anglican clergyman and naturalist George Henslow reported that he had been
  • was achieved throughthe medium of opinion, positive law &c’, and transmitted by culture, not
  • only themost guarded expressions’ ( letter to St G. J. Mivart, 23 January [1871] ). …
  • in the world except. laughing. crying grinning pouting &c. &c’, he wrote to Hooker on 21
  • so giddy I can hardly sit up, so no more’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 4 August [1871] ). On 23
  • … ( letter to Asa Gray, 16 July [1871] , letter to S. R. S. Norton, 23 November [1871] ). …
  • avenerable old Ape’ ( letter from D. Thomas, [after 11 March 1871] ).  Descent  and

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • came on 19 April. Plans were made for a burial in St Marys churchyard in Down, where his brother
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • François Marie Glaziou (see Correspondence vol. 28, letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 20
  • vegetables such as potatoes, carrots, and beets. Romaness experiments had been conducted to lend
  • … & I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January 1882 ). The
  • asymmetric, thus facilitating cross-fertilisation. Darwins aim, he said, was just tohave the
  • their burrows ( Correspondence vol. 29, letter from J. F. Simpson, 8 November 1881 ). He
  • the summit, whence it rolls down the sides’ ( letter from J. F. Simpson, 7 January 1882 ). The
  • on it, which would have pleased me greatly’ ( letter from J. H. Gilbert, 9 January 1882, and
  • rather the best of the fight’ ( letter from G. F. Crawte, 11 March 1882 ). The battle apparently
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • aGlycerin Pepsin mixture’ (letters to W. W. Baxter, 11 March 1882 and 18 March [1882 ]). …
  • dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 March 1882] (DAR 210.3: 45)). …
  • desires, grant us this our modest request!’ ( letter from J. L. Ambrose, 3 April 1882 ). Darwin
  • immediately wrote to George, who had visited Down on 11 April (Emma Darwins diary (DAR 242)). …
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • former mentor at University of Cambridge, John Stevens Henslow, was not a transmutationist, but the
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 24 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwins neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In
  • Pound foolish, Penurious, Pragmatical Prigs’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, [29 December 1866] ). But
  • by Darwin to his publisher in December. Much of Darwins correspondence in 1866 was focussed on
  • of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwins theory of transmutation continued in
  • of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwins American publisher for a revised edition of  …
  • able to write easy work for about 1½ hours every day’ ( letter to H. B. Jones, 3 January [1866] ). …
  • once daily to make the chemistry go on better’ ( letter from H. B. Jones, 10 February [1866] ). …
  • Animals & Cult. Plantsto Printers’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 24 December [1866] ). When
  • more than the belief of a dozen physicists’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [28 February 1866] ). Darwin
  • … ‘Your fatherentered at the same time with Dr B. J. who received him with triumph. All his friends
  • you go on, after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèewhich I dreamed of 2 nights
  • me to worship Bence Jones in future—’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 13 May 1866 ). Darwin himself
  • then went for ¾ to Zoolog. Garden!!!!!!!!!’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [28 April 1866] ). …
  • he had known previously only through correspondence. George Henslow, the son of his Cambridge mentor
  • so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). Henriettas
  • Haeckel. The German zoologist had written to Darwin on 11 January 1866 , ‘Every time I succeed in
  • teleological development ( see for example, letter to C. W. Nägeli, 12 June [1866] ). Also in
  • common broom ( Cytisus scoparius ) and the white broom ( C. multiflorus ) in his botanical
  • and June on the subject of  Rhamnus catharticus  (now  R. cathartica ). Darwin had become
  • … (Correspondence vol. 9, letter from Asa Gray, 11 October 1861 ). Darwin wished to establish
  • of separate sexes. William gathered numerous specimens of  R. catharticus , the only species of  …
  • diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 May11 June 1866] ). On examining more specimens later
  • replied with a modified list, adding Fritz Müllers  Für Darwin , and a recent fossil discovery in

Scientific Practice

Summary

Specialism|Experiment|Microscopes|Collecting|Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of scientific communication, rather than as integral to knowledge making. This section shows how correspondence could help to shape the practice of science, from…

Matches: 16 hits

  • … | Microscopes | Collecting | Theory Letter writing is often seen as a part of …
  • … the work of collecting, and the construction of theory. Darwin was not simply a gentleman naturalist …
  • … of the most advanced laboratory methods and equipment. Darwin used letters as a speculative space, …
  • … Specialism and Detail Darwin is usually thought of as a gentleman naturalist and a …
  • … across and drew together different fields of knowledge. But Darwin also made substantial …
  • … discussion was often the starting point for some of Darwin's most valuable and enduring …
  • … with detailed correspondence about barnacles. Letter 1514 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. …
  • … of one idea. – cirripedes morning & night.” Letter 1480 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, …
  • … than Huxley thinks. Letter 1592 — Darwin, C. R. to Huxley, T. H., 13 Sept [1854] …
  • … or the climbing habits of plants. One of Darwin's most important correspondents was the German …
  • Letter 4895 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 20 Sept [1865] Darwin thanks Müller for …
  • … details of experiments and observations, including Müller’s view on Anelasma which he thinks …
  • … to be dichogamous. Letter 5429 — Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 4 Mar 1867 …
  • … of other species. Letter 5480 — Müller, J. F. T. to Darwin, C. R., 1 Apr 1867 …
  • Letter 5551 — Darwin, C. R. to Müller, J. F. T., 26 May [1867] Darwin thanks Müller for …
  • Letter 1018 — Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., [6 Nov 1846] Darwin tells Hooker, if he pays …

Darwin in letters, 1868: Studying sex

Summary

The quantity of Darwin’s correspondence increased dramatically in 1868 due largely to his ever-widening research on human evolution and sexual selection.Darwin’s theory of sexual selection as applied to human descent led him to investigate aspects of the…

Matches: 19 hits

  • …   On 6 March 1868, Darwin wrote to the entomologist and accountant John Jenner Weir, ‘If any …
  • … he ought to do what I am doing pester them with letters.’ Darwin was certainly true to his word. The …
  • … and sexual selection. In  Origin , pp. 87–90, Darwin had briefly introduced the concept of …
  • … in satisfying female preference in the mating process. In a letter to Alfred Russel Wallace in 1864, …
  • … book would take the form of a ‘short essay’ on man ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 3 July 1868 ). But …
  • … had expected to complete it in a fortnight. But at Darwin’s request, he modified his original plan, …
  • … though it would be a great loss to the Book’. But Darwin’s angry letter to Murray crossed one from …
  • … remuneration I shall look rather blank’ ( letter from W. S. Dallas, 8 January 1868 ). Darwin …
  • … your note’. Darwin enclosed a cheque to Dallas for £55  s ., and recommended to Murray that Dallas …
  • … to read a few pages feel fairly nauseated’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 February [1868] ). But such …
  • … Generally favourable accounts appeared in some of London’s leading weeklies such as the  Saturday …
  • … it was by Gray himself, but Darwin corrected him: ‘D r  Gray would strike me in the face, but not …
  • … . It is a disgrace to the paper’ ( letter from A. R. Wallace, 24 February [1868] ). The review was …
  • … a scamp & I begin to think a veritable ass’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 1 September [1868] ). …
  • … April 1868 . The letter was addressed to ‘the Rev d  C. Darwin M.d’; Binstead evidently assumed …
  • … the enthusiastic breeder, who apologised in a letter of 11–13 May 1868 for his ‘voluminuous zeal …
  • … added, ‘for it is clear that I have none’ ( letter to J. J. Weir, 30 May [1868] ). Sexual …
  • … views differed. Of deer-hounds, Cupples wrote between 11 and 13 May , ‘much depends on the …
  • … of her two-month old daughter Katherine ( letter from C. M. Hawkshaw to Emma Darwin, 9 February …

Darwin in letters, 1844–1846: Building a scientific network

Summary

The scientific results of the Beagle voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but he broadened his continuing investigations into the nature and origin of species. Far from being a recluse, Darwin was at the heart of British scientific society,…

Matches: 18 hits

  • results of the  Beagle  voyage still dominated Darwin's working life, but throughout these
  • species and varieties. In contrast to the received image of Darwin as a recluse in Down, the letters
  • Down House was altered and extended to accommodate Darwins growing family and the many relatives
  • The geological publications In these years, Darwin published two books on geologyVolcanic
  • papers for all these organisations. Between 1844 and 1846 Darwin himself wrote ten papers, six of
  • for publication in  The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle  (183843) but were deferred when
  • is like confessing a murder) immutable Darwins earlier scientific friendships were not
  • with Charles Lyell, George Robert Waterhouse, John Stevens Henslow, Leonard Horner, Leonard Jenyns, …
  • are not (it is like confessing a murder) immutable’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [11 January 1844] ). …
  • that his close friends were not outraged by Darwins heterodox opinions and later in the year both
  • the essay of 1844 to read (see  Correspondence  vol. 4, letter to J. D. Hooker, 8 [February 1847]) …
  • himself: as he told his cousin William Darwin Fox in a letter of [24 April 1845] , he felt he
  • Perhaps the most interesting letter relating to Darwins species theory, which also bears on his
  • possible editors: at first he proposed any one of Lyell, Henslow, Edward Forbes, William Lonsdale, …
  • work. But the list was subsequently altered after Darwins second, and possibly third, thoughts on
  • by Darwin, even though he had collected plants extensively. Henslow, who had undertaken to describe
  • laws of creation, Geographical Distribution’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, [10 February 1845] ) and
  • with drawings of his first dissection. The barnacle—‘M r  Arthrobalanusin Hookers and Darwins

Books on the Beagle

Summary

The Beagle was a sort of floating library.  Find out what Darwin and his shipmates read here.

Matches: 21 hits

  • Captain FitzRoy in the  Narrative  (2: 18). CD, in his letter to Henslow, 9 [September 1831] , …
  • would need, even if it meant duplicating some of FitzRoys own: ‘You are of course welcome to take
  • … . . . There will be  plenty  of room for Books.’ (Letter from Robert FitzRoy, 23 September 1831
  • … . . . were collected in one cabin, under Mr. Stebbings charge, and lent to the officers, without
  • to Keith Thompson (1975), the cabin measured 10 feet by 11 feet. The books in the Poop Cabin
  • However, from the  Beagle  correspondence, CDs diary, field notebooks, and the extensive
  • theimmense stockwhich CD mentions may be had from a letter FitzRoy wrote to his sister during an
  • from the unpublished zoological and geological notes in the Darwin Archive (DAR 2938), a brief
  • are almost always in ink, usually written with CDs favourite Brahma pens. References to books in
  • is of four kinds: There are volumes now in the Darwin Library in Cambridge that contain
  • notes made by CD during the voyage. They are in the Darwin Archive in the Cambridge University
  • … . 2 vols. Strasbourg, 1819. (Inscription in vol. 1: ‘C. Darwin HMS Beagle’; DAR 32.1: 61). Darwin
  • Naturelle  3 (1834): 84115. (DAR 37.1: 677v.; letter to J. S. Henslow, 12 July 1835). * …
  • naturelle . 17 vols. Paris, 182231. (Letter from J. S. Henslow, 1521 January [1833]). Darwin
  • 2d meeting . . . Oxford, 1832 . London, 1833.  (Letter to J. S. Henslow, March 1834 and letter
  • 1831. (DAR 32.1: 53). Desaulses de Freycinet, L. Csee  Freycinet, L. C. Desaulses de
  • dhistoire naturelle.  See Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. G. M., ed. Dictionnaire des
  • la corvette . . .La Coquille 18225. Zoologie  par MM. [R. P.] Lesson et [P.] Garnot. 2 vols., …
  • vols. London, 1829. (DAR 37.2: 798; Stoddart 1962, pp. 6, 8, 11). Encyclopædia Britannica. …
  • … § EuclidElements of geometry.  (Letter to J. S. Henslow, 30 October 1831). ‡ Falkner, …
  • … (Inscriptions: vol. 1 (1830), ‘Given me by Capt. F.R C. Darwin’; vol.2 (1832), ‘Charles Darwin M: …

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 26 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • … [A. von Humboldt 1811] Richardsons Fauna Borealis [J. Richardson 182937] …
  • 3v.] Hunter has written Quarto work on Physiology 11  besides the paper collected by Owen
  • Paper on consciousness in brutes Blackwood June 1838 [J. F. Ferrie 1838]. H. C. Watson on
  • worth studying in a metaphys. point of view Henslow has list of plants of Mauritius with
  • to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie] ed. 1833] read 19  : …
  • what have they written.? “Hunt” [J. Hunt 1806] p. 290
  • … [Reimarius 1760] The Highlands & Western Isl ds  letter to Sir W Scott [MacCulloch 1824
  • chiefly on distribution of forms said to be Poor Sir. J. Edwards Botanical Tour [?J. E. Smith
  • 1831]. Book I. ch. 7 & Book II. Ch. 8. Book. VII. ch 8, 11. read 1 st . vol of Lamarck. …
  • 183440]: In Portfolio ofabstracts34  —letter from Skuckard of books on Silk Worm
  • … [Gaertner 178891] (Plates on all seeds) R. Soc Henslow says there is a grand book with
  • Von. J. Metzger. Heidelberg 1841 [Metzger 1841] Read Henslow in Botanist 36  has written on
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • 1834]— d[itt]o d[itt]o d[itt]o. d[itt]o. 15 th  Henslows Botany [Henslow 1837].— d[itt]o d
  • … ] 4. Vol. references at End Feb. 23 rd . Henslow Pamph. on Wheat [Henslow 1841]— fact about
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • years 18381842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. New York. [Abstract in DAR 71: 512.]  …
  • years 18381842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Philadelphia. [Abstract in DAR 205.3: …
  • ou, iconographie de toutes les espèces et   variétés darbres, fruitiers cultivés dans cet   …
  • sur la distribution géographique des animaux vertébrés, moins les oiseauxJournal de Physique 94
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …

Darwin in letters, 1865: Delays and disappointments

Summary

The year was marked by three deaths of personal significance to Darwin: Hugh Falconer, a friend and supporter; Robert FitzRoy, captain of the Beagle; and William Jackson Hooker, director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and father of Darwin’s friend…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In 1865, the chief work on Charles Darwins mind was the writing of  The variation of animals and
  • from this, the editing of excerpts from Fritz Müllers letters on climbing plants to make another
  • to comment on a paper on  Verbascum (mullein) by CDs protégé, John Scott, who was now working in
  • Argyll, appeared in the religious weeklyGood Words . Darwin received news