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Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] Darwins
  • wife of American naturalist Asa Gray, responds to Darwins queries about Expression
  • him. Letter 6535 - Vaughan Williams , M. S. to Darwin, H. E., [after 14 October
  • Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November1872] Anne Jane Cupples, …
  • and offers to observe birds, insects or plants on Darwins behalf. Letter 8683 - …
  • her nieces ears. Letter 8701 - Lubbock, E. F . to Darwin, [1873] Ellen
  • insects. Men: Letter 2221 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [22 February 1858] …
  • New Zealand. Letter 6453 - Langton, E. to Wedgwood, S. E., [9 November 1868] …
  • on the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9

Darwin in letters, 1879: Tracing roots

Summary

Darwin spent a considerable part of 1879 in the eighteenth century. His journey back in time started when he decided to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an essay on Erasmus’s evolutionary ideas…

Matches: 19 hits

  • There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1879 on this website.  The full texts
  • 27 of the print edition of The correspondence of Charles Darwin , published by Cambridge
  • to publish a biographical account of his grandfather Erasmus Darwin to accompany a translation of an
  • the sensitivity of the tips. Despite this breakthrough, when Darwin first mentioned the book to his
  • 1879 ). He was also unsatisfied with his account of Erasmus Darwin, declaring, ‘My little biography
  • a holiday in the Lake District in August did little to raise Darwins spirits. ‘I wish that my
  • W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, [after 26] July [1879] ). From July, Darwin had an additional worry: the
  • that his grandfather had felt the same way. In 1792, Erasmus Darwin had written: ‘The worst thing I
  • he was to be visited by a person from his solicitors office to complete Horaces marriage
  • Haeckel, who had rebutted the physician Rudolf Virchows attempt to discredit evolutionary theory in
  • pride and with the greatest satisfaction, on your lifes work, which is crowned with glory’ ( …
  • Francis Darwin, [after 2 June 1879 ]). As one of Darwins most ardent admirers, Krause not only
  • … & would please Francis’, he pointed out ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 13 March [1879 ]). …
  • thoughtperfect in every way’ ( letter from E. A. Wheler, 25 March 1879 ). She suggested that
  • … … neither cross nor ennuied’ (Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: 125)). Darwin
  • say that he has opposed it’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [4 August 1879] (DAR 219.1: …
  • get home ‘& began drumming at once’ (Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [27 August 1879] (DAR 219
  • it dominated the picture (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [17 July 1879] (DAR 219.9: …
  • men of science quarrelled (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [6 September 1879] (DAR 219.1: …

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 15 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin …
  • … Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] Ann Cupples asks …
  • … got hold of it first. Darwin’s female readership Letter …
  • … with which to work. She has transcribed parts of Darwin’s papers, including diagrams, to share with …
  • … Society . Letter 6551 - Becker, L. E . to Darwin, [13 January 1869] …
  • … "epistolary acquaintance" of his, Sara Hennell . Hennell's writings show a " …
  • … Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] Frances Wedgwood …
  • … might be suitable. Letter 7411 - Pfeiffer, E. J. to Darwin, [before 26 April 1871] …
  • … Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February 1873] Henrietta’s …
  • … contained in the work. Letter 5861 - Blyth, E. to Darwin, [11 February 1868] …

Scientific Networks

Summary

Friendship|Mentors|Class|Gender In its broadest sense, a scientific network is a set of connections between people, places, and things that channel the communication of knowledge, and that substantially determine both its intellectual form and content,…

Matches: 17 hits

  • activities for building and maintaining such connections. Darwin's networks extended from his
  • when strong institutional structures were largely absent. Darwin had a small circle of scientific
  • section contains two sets of letters. The first is between Darwin and his friend Kew botanist J. D. …
  • is like confessing a murder”. Letter 736Darwin, C. R. to Hooker, J. D., 23 Feb [1844
  • of wide-ranging species to wide-ranging genera. Darwin and Gray Letter 1674
  • flora of the USA. He sends a list of plants from Grays Manual of botany [1848] and asks him to
  • recalled meeting Darwin three years earlier at Hookers. Gray has filled up Darwins paper [see
  • reform, Darwin opposes appending first describers name to specific name. Letter 1220 — …
  • relates personal matters. Hooker has received Darwins earlier letter [ 1202 ]. He thanks
  • to Darwin and Lyell for Athenæum . He mentioned Darwins work on complemental males in barnacles
  • Darwin took up a difficult group like barnacles. Darwins theories have progressed but Hooker is not
  • He writes on Himalayan stratigraphy. He believes Hookers observations of glacial action are the
  • … . Letter 4260aDarwin, C. R. to Becker, L. E., 2 Aug [1863] Darwin thanks Lydia
  • Letter 115Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, S. E., [4 Sept 1831] Darwin writes to his sister Susan. …
  • Letter 7124Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] Darwin writes to his
  • Letter 5585Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, H. E., 26 July [1867] Darwin writes to his daughter
  • and corrections. Letter 5745Barber, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., [after Feb 1867] In

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 19 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and natural selection. …
  • … constant watching of an intelligent ‘chooser’ like man's selection to which you so often …
  • … to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 Darwin praises Graham’s Creed of science , but disagrees …
  • … chance” but has horrid doubt whether convictions of man’s mind, which has been developed from lower …
  • … Belief This collection of letters explores Darwin’s reluctance to take a definitive position …
  • … to Darwin, C. R., [c. Feb 1839] Emma discusses Darwin’s religious doubts. She fears his work …
  • … 18 Nov 1859 Clergyman Charles Kingsley judges Darwin’s book [ Origin ] free from two …
  • … He can give me.” Letter 5303 — Boole, M. E. to Darwin, C. R., 13 Dec 1866 In this …
  • … Letter 5307 — Darwin, C. R. to Boole, M. E., 14 Dec 1866 Darwin believes he is unable to …
  • … Letter 8070 — Darwin, C. R. to Abbot, F. E., 16 Nov [1871] Darwin explains why he must …
  • … Letter 12757 — Darwin, C. R. to Aveling, E. B., 13 Oct 1880 In this letter marked “private”, …
  • … Future Plans Letter 182 — Darwin, E. A. to Darwin, C. R., 18 Aug [1832] Darwin’s …
  • … regarding the Church. Letter 297 — Darwin, S. E. to Darwin, C. R., 12 Feb 1836 …
  • … Darwin, Sir John Lubbock, Ellen Frances Lubbock, and S. E. Wedgwood, petition the Board to grant …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 21 hits

  • Disagreement & Respect | Conduct of Debate | Darwin & Wallace The best-known
  • the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely variable. Many of
  • was itself an important arena of debate, one that Darwin greatly preferred to the public sphere. …
  • and support sustained in spite of enduring differences. Darwin's correspondence can thus help
  • Disagreement and Respect Darwin rarely engaged with critics publically. Letters exchanged
  • Richard Owen, the eminent comparative anatomist, show how Darwin tried to manage strong disagreement
  • were less severe, the relationship quickly deteriorated and Darwin came to regard him as a bitter
  • of respect. Letter 2548Sedgwick, Adam to Darwin, C. R., 24 Nov 1859 Adam
  • neither be proved nor disproved”. He says that Darwinsgrand principle natural selectionis
  • of living speciesand so could not regard Darwins attempt to demonstrate the nature of such
  • Charles, [10 Dec 1859] Darwin discusses with King's College, London Professor of geology, …
  • he goes immense way with us”, but emphasises Owens unfriendly manner. Darwin remarks that Owen
  • Owen, Richard, 13 Dec [1859] Darwin responds to Owens remarks that his book [ Origin ] is
  • Harvard botanist Asa Gray. Darwin is annoyed at Owens malignity [ Edinburgh Rev. 111 (1860): 487
  • Letter 5500Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 12 Apr [1867] Darwin is sympathetic to
  • the attacked person. Letter 5533Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, C. R., 12 May 1867
  • of Origin [4th ed. (1866)]. He comments on Darwins criticism of the harsh tone of Generelle
  • Letter 5544Darwin, C. R. to Haeckel, E. P. A., 21 May [1867] Darwin discusses his previous
  • while at the same time wanting to acknowledge Wallace's contribution fully. The initial
  • of Victorian science. Wallace would become one of Darwin's most valued correspondents and their
  • Darwin writes to Lyell saying that everything in Wallaces sketch also appears in his sketch of 1844

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 25 hits

  • … There are summaries of all Darwin's letters from the year 1878 on this website.  The full texts …
  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … spent an extended period in Würzburg at Julius Sachs’s botanical institute, one of most advanced …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … 22 December [1878] ). Son abroad Darwin’s experiments on plant movement were …
  • … apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in Germany, not returning …
  • … be obtained at Down House, but Francis thought Horace’s abilities were a match for German instrument …
  • … here is far from well made.’ (Jemmy or Jim was Horace’s nickname.) Francis was occasionally …
  • … letter from Francis Darwin, [after 7 July 1878] ). Sachs’s confidence was apparently matched by his …
  • … Anne Westwood, and the proud grandparents. Many of Darwin’s letters conveyed news of the boy. ‘All …
  • … faculties. He seemed to take special note of the child’s use of language and power of judgment. …
  • … own research on animal instinct and intelligence. ‘Frank’s son, nearly 2 years old (& we think …
  • … a young monkey, so as to observe its mind’? Darwin’s suggestion was seconded: ‘Frank says you ought …
  • … cases of animal intelligence were observed by Darwin’s correspondents. The German stamp-collector …
  • … him of the soundness of London property ( letter from W. E. Darwin, 13 December [1878] ). ‘This is …

Darwin in letters, 1876: In the midst of life

Summary

1876 was the year in which the Darwins became grandparents for the first time.  And tragically lost their daughter-in-law, Amy, who died just days after her son's birth.  All the letters from 1876 are now published in volume 24 of The Correspondence…

Matches: 17 hits

  • The year 1876 started out sedately enough with Darwin working on the first draft of his book on the
  • Down House measured by the ongoing tally of his and Emmas backgammon games. ‘I have won, hurrah, …
  • regarding the ailments that were so much a feature of Darwin family life. But the calm was not to
  • of the next generation of the family, with Francis and Amys child expected in September. Their joy
  • four days later. ‘I cannot bear to think of the future’, Darwin confessed to William on 11
  • and his baby son Bernard now part of the household, and Darwin recasting his work on dimorphic and
  • had involved much time and effort the previous year, and Darwin clearly wanted to focus his
  • Elder and Company proposed reissuing two of Darwins three volumes of the geology of the
  • not even to look at a single proof ’. Perhaps Caruss meticulous correction of errors in the German
  • in an anonymous article, which impugned not only Georges but also Darwins respectability (see
  • that Mivart still had the capacity to damage Georges reputation. ‘I care little about myself but Mr
  • the still raw memory of this incident that underlay Darwins heartfelt thanks to Wallace for his
  • we have & you are one of the best of all’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 11 September [1876] ). …
  • she confided to Henrietta (letter from Emma Darwin to H. E. Litchfield, [31 August 1876] (DAR 219.9: …
  • herself & is so tender’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6
  • completed autobiography (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, [13 September 1876] (DAR 210.6: …
  • horticulturists and agriculturists in France ( letter from E. M. Heckel, 27 December 1876 ). In

Darwin in letters, 1874: A turbulent year

Summary

The year 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working on second editions of Coral reefs and Descent of man; the rest of the year was mostly devoted to further research on insectivorous plants. A…

Matches: 17 hits

  • 1874 was one of consolidation, reflection, and turmoil for Darwin. He spent the early months working
  • dispute over an anonymous review that attacked the work of Darwins son George dominated the second
  • been the naturalist and traveller Alexander von Humboldts 105th birthday, Darwin obliged with a
  • … ). The death of a Cambridge friend, Albert Way, caused Darwins cousin, William Darwin Fox, to
  • from W. D. Fox, 8 May [1874] ).  Such reminiscences led Darwin to the self-assessment, ‘as for one
  • I feel very old & helpless The year started for Darwin with a weeks visit to
  • …  ( letter to B. J. Sulivan, 6 January [1874] ). Darwin mentioned his poor health so frequently in
  • 1874 ). Séances, psychics, and sceptics Darwin excused himself for reasons of
  • another Williams séance was held at the home of Darwins cousin Hensleigh Wedgwood. Those present
  • to get the two men on each side of him to hold each others hands, instead of his, ‘& that he
  • first three months of the year and, like many of Darwins enterprises in the 1870s, were family
  • all the horrid bother of correction’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 21 [March 1874] ). The book
  • artificial gastric juice  for about a week ( letter from E. E. Klein, 14 May 1874 ). John Burdon
  • try to get it exhibited at a Royal Society of London soirée  (see letter from Anton Dohrn, 6 April
  • nephew, the fine-art specialist Henry Parker ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 17 [March 1874] ). He
  • Julius Victor Carus, and his publisher, Eduard Koch of E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, …
  • could not weary the German public ( letter to H. E. Litchfield,  21 [March 1874] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1875: Pulling strings

Summary

‘I am getting sick of insectivorous plants’, Darwin confessed in January 1875. He had worked on the subject intermittently since 1859, and had been steadily engaged on a book manuscript for nine months; January also saw the conclusion of a bitter dispute…

Matches: 22 hits

  • Editions Plants always held an important place in Darwins theorising about species, and
  • his periods of severe illness. Yet on 15 January 1875 , Darwin confessed to his close friend
  • way to continuous writing and revision, activities that Darwin found less gratifying: ‘I am slaving
  • bad.’ The process was compounded by the fact that Darwin was also revising another manuscript
  • coloured stamens.’ At intervals during the year, Darwin was diverted from the onerous task of
  • zoologist St George Jackson Mivart. In April and early May, Darwin was occupied with a heated
  • chapter of the controversy involved a slanderous attack upon Darwins son George, in an anonymous
  • on 12 January , breaking off all future communication. Darwin had been supported during the affair
  • Society of London, and a secretary of the Linnean Society, Darwins friends had to find ways of
  • pp. 1617). ‘How grandly you have defended me’, Darwin wrote on 6 January , ‘You have also
  • in public. ‘Without cutting him direct’, he advised Darwin on 7 January , ‘I should avoid him, …
  • the publisher of the Quarterly Review , in which Mivarts anonymous essay had appeared. ‘I told
  • … & again’ ( letter from J. D. Hooker, 16 January 1875 ). Darwin had also considered taking up
  • feel now like a pure forgiving Christian!’ Darwins ire was not fully spent, however, for he
  • The vivisection issue was a delicate one within Darwins family, and he tried to balance his concern
  • paper sent me by Miss Cobbe.’ Darwin found Cobbes memorial inflammatory and unfair in its
  • on 12 May, one week after a rival bill based on Cobbes memorial had been read in the House of Lords
  • on vivisection , p. 183). Darwin learned of Kleins testimony from Huxley on 30 October 1875 : …
  • medicine in London. Klein had assisted in some of Darwins botanical research and had visited Down
  • …   Poisons, plants, and print-runs Darwins keen interest in the progress of physiology
  • day That ever you were born (letter from E. F. Lubbock, [after 2 July] 1875).   …
  • plants (Carus trans. 1876a). The German publisher E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagshandlung began to

Darwin in letters,1866: Survival of the fittest

Summary

The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now considerably improved. In February, Darwin received a request from his publisher, John Murray, for a new edition of  Origin. Darwin got the fourth…

Matches: 16 hits

  • The year 1866 began well for Charles Darwin, as his health, after several years of illness, was now
  • and also a meeting with Herbert Spencer, who was visiting Darwins neighbour, Sir John Lubbock. In
  • all but the concluding chapter of the work was submitted by Darwin to his publisher in December. …
  • hypothesis of hereditary transmission. Debate about Darwins theory of transmutation
  • alleged evidence of a global ice age, while Asa Gray pressed Darwins American publisher for a
  • for the Advancement of Science. Fuller consideration of Darwins work was given by Hooker in an
  • illness. Diet and exercise Among Darwins first letters in the new year was a report
  • after the startling apparition of your face at R.S. Soirèewhich I dreamed of 2 nights running. …
  • on those terms so you are in for it’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [  c . 10 May 1866] ). …
  • Georg Bronn, had been published in 1860 and 1863 by the firm E. Schweizerbartsche
  • wasmerely ordinaryly diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, [7 May11 June 1866] ). On
  • a case of dimorphic becoming diœcious’ ( letter from W. E. Darwin, 20 June [1866] ). Darwin
  • I am well accustomed to such explosions’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 22 June [1866] ). He urged
  • indeed at poor Susans loneliness’ ( letter from E. C. Langton to Emma and Charles Darwin, [6 and 7
  • apersonal and Infinitely good Being’ (letter from M. E. Boole, 13 December 1866 ). Darwin
  • than from the direct intervention of God’ ( letter to M. E. Boole, 14 December 1866 ). But

Darwin in letters, 1871: An emptying nest

Summary

The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, with the publication in February of his long-awaited book on human evolution, Descent of man. The other main preoccupation of the year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression.…

Matches: 24 hits

  • The year 1871 was an extremely busy and productive one for Darwin, seeing the publication of his
  • book out of my head’. But  a large proportion of Darwins time for the rest of the year was devoted
  • way, and the initial reception of the book in the press. Darwin fielded numerous letters from
  • offered sharp criticism or even condemnation. Darwin had expected controversy. ‘I shall be
  • a bare-faced manner.”‘ The most lively debate centred on Darwins evolutionary account of the
  • taste. Correspondence with his readers and critics helped Darwin to clarify, and in some cases
  • year was the preparation of his manuscript on expression. Darwin continued to investigate the
  • also brought a significant milestone for the family, as Darwins eldest daughter Henrietta was
  • during several past years, has been a great amusement’. Darwin had been working fairly continuously
  • work on species theory in the late 1830s. In recent years, Darwin had collected a wealth of material
  • to human evolution was comparatively small, reflecting Darwins aim of  showing kinship with animals
  • Hooker suggested one of the reasons behind the books popularity: ‘I hear that Ladies think it
  • Correspondence vol. 19Appendix IV). Four of Darwins five sons received a copy, and his daughter
  • inlucid vigorous style’, as well as for the booksarrangment, not to mention still more
  • liking, ‘to keep in memory of the book’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, 20 March 1871 ). Reaction
  • The geologist William Boyd Dawkins remarked on Darwins booksreception amongstartisans and mill
  • … & menstruation coming out of the primary fact that ones n th . ancestor lived between tide
  • A number of correspondents took issue with Darwins evolutionary explanation of thehigher’ …
  • a high aesthetic appreciation of beauty ( letter from E. J. Pfeiffer, [before 26 April 1871] ). …
  • and beetles to  Descent , could not extend Darwins evolutionary theory beyond mansbodily frame
  • regarding human ancestry was expressed by Darwins old friend, the former vicar of Down John Brodie
  • most deep and tender religious feeling’ ( letter from F. E. Abbot, 20 August 1871 ). The Anglican
  • who wasas good as twice refined gold’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 September [1871] ). …
  • up to the last with quinine & sherry’ ( letter from H. E. Litchfield to Charles and Emma Darwin

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 15 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May 1865] Darwin
  • Lyell for advice on how to reference Arabella Buckleys observations of pigeons, which he planned to
  • Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, [1867 - 72] Darwins niece, Frances, sends her uncle reading
  • Letter 8321 - Darwin to Litchfield, H. E., [13 May 1872] Darwin consults his
  • Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwins niece, Lucy, reports back on her worm
  • Letter 8427 - Darwin to Litchfield H. E., [25 July 1872] Darwin thanks Henrietta for
  • Drosera and Dionaea on his behalf . “Mrs. Treatscontributions to Darwins work are
  • … . Letter 12745 - Darwin to Wedgwood, K. E. S., [8 October 1880] Darwin
  • Mould . Letter 12760 - Wedgwood, K. E. S. to Darwin, [15 October 1880] …
  • Letter 13037 - Darwin to Darwin, W. E., [5 February 1881] Darwin discusses

List of correspondents

Summary

Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. Click on a name to see the letters Darwin exchanged with that correspondent.    "A child of God" (1) Abberley,…

Matches: 13 hits

  • … Below is a list of Darwin's correspondents with the number of letters for each one. …
  • … Abberley, John (1) Abbot, F. E. (17) …
  • … Alice (2) Alison, R. E. (2) Allen, …
  • … Vienna (1) Appleton, C. E. C. B. (2) …
  • … Austin, C. F. (1) Aveling, E. B. (7) …
  • … Bacon, Booth (1) Badger, E. W. (3) …
  • … Baranoff, W. (2) Barber, M. E. (1) …
  • … Frédéric (1) Baumhauer, E. H. von (2) …
  • … Beck, John (2) Becker, L. E. (16) …
  • … Joseph (2) Bessey, C. E. (1) …
  • … Jacques (1) Boulger, G. E. S. (1) …
  • E. J. A. (1) Bristowe, J. S. (2) …
  • … Dareste, Camille (9) Darwin family (1) …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was increasingly a
  • his wife, Amy, the previous year. He assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and
  • The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of
  • and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term
  • as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton
  • measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual
  • primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other
  • dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March
  • warned Thiselton-Dyer, who seems to have shared Hookers suspicion of ambitious gardeners ( letter
  • enjoyed working with Francis, and encouraged his sons independent research. Using the facilities at
  • diet of meat. His findings answered a number of Darwins critics who had questioned whether plants
  • glandular hairs in the cups formed by the leaves of fullers teasel ( Dipsacus sylvestris , a
  • heard & understood’. An abstract appeared in the societys Proceedings , but the council
  • on 23 May , ‘the Council have refused to print Franks paper on the Teazle glands.… I have not been
  • suspected that the referees were sceptical of the papers conclusions regarding protoplasm, and
  • botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn, who confirmed Franciss observations: ‘the most curious appearance
  • … ( letter from F. J. Cohn, 5 August 1877 ). Franciss paper eventually appeared in the Quarterly
  • of Kosmos covering the German debate (letters to W. E. Gladstone, 2 October 1877 and 25
  • form and of motion was exact and lively’ ( letter from W. E. Gladstone, 23 October 1877 ). …
  • found him as soft & smooth as butter’ ( letter to C. E. Norton, 16 March 1877 ). Hooker was
  • the gospel of dirt the order of the day’ ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 27 January [1877] ).  Carlyle
  • study of medical monstrosity ( letter from C. T. E. Siebold, 10 October 1877 ). An American banker

Darwin as mentor

Summary

Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific 'labourers' of both sexes. Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin advises that Professor C. P. Smyth’s observations are not…

Matches: 8 hits

  • Darwin provided advice, encouragement and praise to his fellow scientific …
  • … Selected letters Letter 2234 - Darwin to Unidentified, [5 March 1858] Darwin …
  • … on insufficient grounds. Letter 3934 - Darwin to Scott, J., [21 January 1863] …
  • … material worthy of publication. Letter 4185 - Darwin to Scott, J., [25 & 28 May …
  • … scientific journal”. Letter 8171 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L., [21 January 1872] …
  • … gives feedback on work produced by his son, George. George's article is weak and confused and …
  • … to Treat, M., [1 June 1876] Darwin praises Treat’s work and congratulates her on the …
  • … L., [18 October 1881] Darwin advises his niece’s friend, Mrs Forsyth, on how best to …

Darwin in letters,1870: Human evolution

Summary

The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the year at work on the Descent of Man & Selection in relation to Sex’.  Descent was the culmination of over three decades of observations and reflections on…

Matches: 20 hits

  • The year 1870 is aptly summarised by the brief entry Darwin made in his journal: ‘The whole of the
  • in relation to Sex’. Always precise in his accounting, Darwin reckoned that he had started writing
  • gathered on each of these topics was far more extensive than Darwin had anticipated. As a result,  …
  • and St George Jackson Mivart, and heated debates sparked by Darwins proposed election to the French
  • Finishing Descent; postponing Expression Darwin began receiving proofs of some of the
  • … ( letter to Albert Günther, 13 January [1870] ). Darwin was still working hard on parts of the
  • of style, the more grateful I shall be’  ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). She had
  • … , the latter when she was just eighteen years of age. Darwin clearly expected her to make a
  • have thought that I shd. turn parson?’ ( letter to H. E. Darwin, [8 February 1870] ). Henrietta
  • so unimportant as the mind of man!’ ( letter from H. E. Darwin, [after 8 February 1870] ). …
  • writer and philanthropist Frances Power Cobbe. At Cobbes suggestion, Darwin read some of Immanuel
  • … ). Humans as animals: ears Despite Cobbes plea, most of Darwins scientific attention
  • his statue of Puck, the mischievous fairy in Shakespeares  A midsummer nights dreamDarwin
  • he described aspurgatorymade lighter by Woolnerswonderfully pleasantmanner, named the
  • Woolner, 10 March [1870] ). Darwin included Woolners sketch in  Descent , and discussed thetip
  • his face exhibiting extreme horror. Darwin lent Duchennes album to the asylum director James
  • in his asylum patients, but it did not confirm Duchennes findings ( letter from James Crichton
  • expression: questions and questionnaires Darwins research on emotions continued to draw on
  • attending college lectures for the time being ( letter to [E.W. Blore], [October 1870 or later] ). …
  • horse that had thrown him (letter from G. H. Darwin to H. E. Darwin, [212 February 1870] (DAR 251

Darwin and Gender Projects by Harvard Students

Summary

Working in collaboration with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff developed a customised set of 'Darwin and Gender' themed resources for a course on Gender, Sex and Evolution first taught at Harvard…

Matches: 11 hits

  • with Professor Sarah Richardson and Dr Myrna Perez, Darwin Correspondence Project staff
  • can be found to the right. Containing extracts from Darwin's published works as well as
  • to encourage students to explore disparities between Darwin's public ideas and those he
  • by the resources include: To what extent were Darwin's ideas about the sexes
  • non-profit Alliance Health Project. Sarahs project captures one of the key insights
  • He argued, for instance, that information of [women's] skull, is said to be intermediate
  • superior to men. Sarah argues that understanding Darwins belief in the higher morality of
  • in Government. She was drawn to Professor Richardsons class after growing up in Carlisle, …
  • her house. Miranda focuses on