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Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small


In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

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  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ). His condition worsened in March. …
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882 , and letter to Fritz Müller, 4 January
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root response and the
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 28 December 1881 ). Darwin had a long-running interest in such
  • experiments had been conducted to lend support to Darwins theory of pangenesis (see
  • He was eager to write up the results on Brazilian cane, with Darwin providing a detailed outline: ‘I
  • any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January 1882 ). The finished paper, ‘On new
  • effects on chlorophyll ( letter to Joseph Fayrer, 30 March 1882 ). He received a specimen of
  • one plant or animal!’ ( letter to Henry Groves, 3 April 1882 ). He wrote to an American in Kansas
  • experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). While enthusiasm drove him, …
  • affects my heart’ ( letter to Henry Groves, 3 April 1882 ). Earthworms and evolution
  • Murray, carried an anonymous article on the book in January 1882. The reviewers assessment was
  • researches themselves’ ( Quarterly Review , January 1882, p. 179). Darwin commented at length on
  • at an early age was encouraged by Darwin. He wrote to Francis: ‘I say nothing about the loss to
  • a small tribute of respect’ (letter from John Lubbock to Francis Darwin, 20 April 1882 (DAR 215: 10n
  • of ice dams causing glacial lakes was presented by Thomas Francis Jamieson in a paper to the
  • Darwins views on eugenics, a term coined by his cousin Francis Galton, were mixed, partly owing to
  • years of Darwins life show his increasing attachment to Francis, as father and son worked together
  • no one to talk to, I scribble this to you’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [1 August 1878] ). …
  • from Charlotte Papé, 16 July 1875 ). She now addressed Francis, who could best appreciate the
  • and nothing too small’ (letter from Charlotte Papé to Francis Darwin, 21 April 1882, DAR 215: 7k). …

The full edition is now online!


For nearly fifty years successive teams of researchers on both sides of the Atlantic have been working to track down all surviving letters written by or to Charles Darwin, research their content, and publish the complete texts. The thirtieth and final…

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  • to track down all surviving letters written by or to Charles Darwin, research their content, and
  • picture than we have ever had before of the course of Darwins life and development of his thought. …
  • the last 6 yearsThose 400 letters flesh out the whole of Darwins life from his time on board HMS  …
  • volumeDiscover more about the final months of Darwin's life in our Life and Letters
  • run. ’ Letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 In early 1882, Darwin, who
  • as I am. ’ Letter to John Murray, 21 January 1882 Darwin was by now confident
  • no pain. ’ Letter to THHuxley, 27 March 1882 Darwin wrote this to Thomas
  • children it is worth having .’ Letter from Emma Darwin to JDHooker, [20 April 1882] …
  • on 20 April: this letter concludes the correspondence for 1882. The family had expected Darwin to be

Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers


In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

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  • In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began
  • a very old man, who probably will not last much longer.’ Darwins biggest fear was not death, but
  • sweetest place on this earth’. From the start of the year, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He
  • provision for the dividing of his wealth after his death. Darwins gloominess was compounded by the
  • and new admirers got in touch, and, for all his fears, Darwin found several scientific topics to
  • Evolution old and new when revising his essay on Erasmus Darwins scientific work, and that Darwin
  • memory in November 1880 and in an abusive letter about Darwin in the St Jamess Gazette on 8
  • in a review of Unconscious memory in Kosmos and sent Darwin a separate letter for
  • of the false accusation’. Other friends rallied round. Francis Balfour translated Krauses account
  • had been a major undertaking for both Darwin and his son Francis, who assisted in the many
  • of their behaviour were trustworthy ( letter to Francis Galton, 8 March [1881] ). Although results
  • July, sending the pages to Germany for further checks by Francis Darwin, who was spending the summer
  • Ruskin, who lived there. Sending the last two chapters to Francis on 27 May , Darwin wrote, …
  • to begin any new subject requiring much work’, he told Francis Darwin on 30 May . ‘I have been
  • case.’ An additional motivation may have been to support Francis Darwins published research on
  • Darwin tried a variety of plants and reagents, telling Francis on 17 October , ‘I have wasted
  • up the job; but I cannot endure to do this’, Darwin told Francis on 9 Novemberand writing
  • vol. 30, letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). ‘I sometimes receive so many
  • Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company led Darwin to chide Francis for giving a klinostat designed
  • supporters, and rejoiced in his election. Promoting Franciss own botanical research was as
  • on 27 January for not commending papers presented by Francis at the Linnean Society the previous
  • realised wasincumbentupon him), Darwin, certain that Francis had not been offended, stated, ‘I
  • letter to Asa Gray, 29 January 1881 ). While Francis was working in de Barys
  • Nature published the day after Darwins death in April 1882. Deaths, gifts and legacies

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep


In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

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  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments …
  • … of most advanced plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … birthday ( letter to Ernst Haeckel, 12 February [1878] ), Darwin reflected that it was ‘more …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). While Darwin was studying the function of …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … (see Movement in plants , pp. 112–13). He explained to Francis on 2 July : ‘I go on maundering …
  • … after growth has ceased or nearly ceased.’ Finally, Darwin turned to plant motion below the …
  • … precision the lines of least resistance in the ground.’ Darwin would devote a whole chapter to the …
  • … out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] ). …
  • … the bassoon & apparently more by a high than a low note.’ Francis apparently played the musical …
  • … on plant movement were intensely collaborative, with Francis playing a more active role than ever. …
  • … exchanged when they were apart. At the start of June, Francis left to work at Sach’s laboratory in …
  • … ( letter to W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 18 June [1878] ). While Francis was away, Darwin sent regular …
  • … to talk to, about my work, I scribble to you ( letter to Francis Darwin, 7 [July 1878] ). Two …
  • … is horrid not having you to discuss it with’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, 20 [July 1878] ). …
  • … topics and dictating experimental method and design. Francis seems to have been allowed to work more …
  • … cells of oats to determine whether they had chlorophyll, Francis reported ( letter from Francis
  • … who was delighted, and eventually published them in his 1882 book Animal intelligence . ‘Like the …

Francis Darwin


Known to his family as ‘Frank’, Charles Darwin’s seventh child himself became a distinguished scientist. He was an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, initially studying mathematics, but then transferring to natural sciences.  Francis completed…

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  • Known to his family asFrank’, Charles Darwins seventh child himself became a distinguished
  • but then transferring to natural sciencesFrancis completed his studies at Cambridge, …
  • into debt and had kept the matter secret for some months. Darwin was very stern in his advice: ‘I
  • an old fellow as I daresay I appear to you’ (letter to Francis Darwin18 October [1870] ). …
  • engaged to Amy Ruck in 1872; the couple married in 1874. Francis was already living in Down. and
  • a laboratory run by Julius von Sachs in WurzburgFrancis Darwin was elected to the Royal
  • his father had not been knighted, although in 1877 Charles Darwin was awarded an honorary degree
  • … ( The Power of Movement in Plants, 1880). Perhaps Francis Darwin, whom the family regarded as a

Movement in Plants


The power of movement in plants, published on 7 November 1880, was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which the assistance of one of his children, Francis Darwin, is mentioned on the title page. The research for this…

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  • 7 November 1880was the final large botanical work that Darwin wrote. It was the only work in which
  • about their research while he was away from home. Although Darwin lacked a state of the art research
  • research being pursued by other naturalists who, like Francis, had come to this centre for the study
  • methods and use the most advanced laboratory equipment. Darwin also benefitted from the instrument
  • copied but also improved on some of the apparatuses that Francis had been introduced to at Würzburg. …
  • plant physiology, but it was at its core informed by Darwins theory of evolution, particularly by
  • early 1860s, at a time when his health was especially bad, Darwin had taken up the study of climbing
  • reproduced as a small book, giving it a much wider audience. Darwin was not the first naturalist to
  • which eventually appeared in 1875. In the same year, Darwin published a much longer work,  …
  • about the nature of movement, so much so, that at one point Darwin had considered combining the
  • digestive processes. With his final great botanical work, Darwin would attemptto bring all the
  • emotions had their origins in non-human animal expression. Darwin had not done experimental work in
  • viewed the division between animals and plants as absolute, Darwin was interested in similarities. …
  • from all over Europe and beyond. When Darwins son Francis worked in this laboratory in the summers
  • had also asked Horace to discuss the point with his friend Francis Balfour(258). Darwin promised to
  • of any success. '. Just two months later, Darwin put Francis in charge of this aspect of the
  • more familiar with the research in Sachss laboratory as Franciss departure for Würzburg was
  • to Wurzburg, & work by myself will be dull work’ . Francis was in Würzburg until early August. …
  • good instruments were never far from Darwins thinking. Francis viewed the new instruments he was
  • design an improved version of the instrument, a klinostat; Francis later described and illustrated
  • was the relationship between bending movement and growth. Francis described the disagreements about
  • increased turgescence which precedes itwas reported by Francis, who added that Sachsdoesnt
  • Nature  the day after his fathers death (F. Darwin 1882). Darwins study of plant movement went

4.52 'Wasp' caricature


< Back to Introduction Less than a fortnight after Darwin’s death, an irreverent portrayal of him appeared on the cover of a Californian satirical magazine. The Wasp, based in San Francisco, resembled the better-known New York magazine Puck in its…

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  • Back to Introduction Less than a fortnight after Darwins death, an irreverent portrayal
  • the modern Germanic idiom. However, while Puck treated Darwin as a hero, The Wasp was
  • or owls flying over the jungle add a touch of the sinister. Darwins supposedly intimate connections
  • the cartoon, The Wasps editor noted laconically, ‘Darwin and the link are both missing’, and in
  • element ofridiculein our portrait of the illustrious Darwin. We are surprised that your three
  • the others were lunatics.’  The Wasp even mocked Darwins burial in Westminster Abbey, and
  • War –  views which would have made it antagonistic to Darwins belief in human monogenesis from a
  • The Illustrated Wasp was a Czech political refugee, Francis Korbel. With his brothers, he had
  • … (signed bottom right) 
 date of creation April 1882 
 computer-readable date c

3.16 Oscar Rejlander, photos


< Back to Introduction Darwin’s plans for the illustration of his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872) led him to the Swedish-born painter and photographer, Oscar Gustaf Rejlander. Rejlander gave Darwin the notes that he had…

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  • … &lt; Back to Introduction Darwins plans for the illustration of his book The
  • and photographer, Oscar Gustaf Rejlander. Rejlander gave Darwin the notes that he had himself made
  • in the early 1870s (he died in January 1875), and Darwin assisted him financially on at least one
  • The Expression of the Emotions. In April of that year, Darwin wrote to the London firm of Elliott
  • to any purchasers’. Phillip Prodger has suggested that Darwin agreed to be photographed by Rejlander
  • Expression of the Emotions. Open sale of any portraits of Darwin was likely to be highly
  • Library contains photographs by him of Richard Litchfield (Darwins son in law), and another man, …
  • this was the wedding day of Litchfield and Henrietta Darwin, which Rejlander thus commemorated. …
  • plans for purveying a fanciful or dramatised portrayal of Darwin, he was evidently thwarted, as
  • transition from pathognomy to portraiture in his work for Darwin must have raised interesting
  • and on one side. Of the five or so known photographs of Darwin, evidently taken at more than one
  • photographs. In this way they communicate a sense of Darwins commanding intellect and physical
  • However, they may have seemed too dramatic to please the Darwin family, and were evidently not
  • 1871, and reproduced in the London Journal in June 1872. Darwin also sent it to various contacts
  • Dresser. However, it was a fourth photograph, showing just Darwins head and shoulders in profile, …
  • was published in Nature in 1874, and was included in Francis Darwins list of canonical
  • illustrate an obituary article in the same journal in April 1882. A coarser wood engraved version
  • … (1 October 1876); LUnivers Illustré (29 April 1882); and (reversed) in La Revue Illustrée
  • March 1875), p. 301, reprinted in the same journal (29 April 1882), p. 428. Wood engraving in a
  • accompanying a laudatory article by Revd R.A. Armstrong. Francis Darwins catalogue of portraits of

3.18 Elliott and Fry photos, c.1869-1871


< Back to Introduction The leading photographic firm of Elliott and Fry seems to have portrayed Darwin at Down House on several occasions. In November 1869 Darwin told A. B. Meyer, who wanted photographs of both him and Wallace for a German…

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  • photographic firm of Elliott and Fry seems to have portrayed Darwin at Down House on several
  • Payments to the firm on 25 July 1869 and 5 April 1870 in Darwins banking account must relate to
  • to Wallace.   Elliott and Fry evidently approached Darwin again in the spring of 1871, with a
  • to Down again for a simpler portrayal. On 2 August 1871, Darwin wrote,  ‘Many thanks for the
  • which of Elliott and Frys widely disseminated images of Darwin were taken in summer 1869, and which
  • view, is not much help. However, two of the group now in the Darwin archive were dated by Darwins
  • the later 1870s are clearly wide of the mark. As regards Darwins appearance, he does not look older
  • this group of photographs, of which there is a print in the Darwin archive (DAR 225.117), shows a
  • and must therefore have been reissued commemoratively. Darwins daughter Henrietta owned this, and
  • to it. In another of Elliott and Frys photographs, Darwin sits sternly erect; in yet another he
  • to a profile or nearer to a frontal view. In all of them Darwin is wearing a distinctive waistcoat, …
  • the complexities, John van Wyhe, in hisIconographyof Darwin portraits, identifies some of the
  • the day, which were widely marketed. Thus the photographs of Darwin were frequently reissued in
  • in the National Portrait Gallery. An idealised version of Darwins head from one of the Elliott and
  • the same block was re-used as the frontispiece to the June 1882 issue, which had two obituary
  • engraving which seems almost to exaggerate the shagginess of Darwins hair, eyebrows and beard, …
  • lurid Illustrated Police News, accompanying a notice of Darwins death in 1882. A vignette
  • signed by A. Gusman in Le Magasin Pittoresque, c. 1882 (Bridgeman Images), and a painting by
  • 186971 Elliott and Fry photographs were mentioned by Francis Darwin in his catalogue of portraits
  • of the Emotions , pp. 434-49, and in vol. 21 (June 1882), as frontispiece, accompanying two
  • article in a supplement to the same journal (22 April 1882) (DAR 215.22c). It was copied in a
  • Photographic Studios of Europe (London: Piper and Carter, 1882), pp. 42-5, ‘Messrs Elliott &amp; …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours


Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

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  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was increasingly a
  • assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his sons own
  • The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of
  • and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term
  • as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains &amp; stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton
  • measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual
  • primrose and purple loosestrife. In the course of his work, Darwin found a number of other
  • dreadful work making out anything about dried flowers’, Darwin complained to Asa Gray on 8 March
  • which include heterstyled species. This pleases me.’. Darwin dedicated the book to Gray, ‘as a small
  • separate publications together into a larger whole enabled Darwin to advance more speculative views
  • In the end, Darwin did not publish on the subject, but Francis later reported some of the results of
  • 25 August 1877 ). At Down House, Darwin and Francis devised a method of recording leaf
  • with thread, card, and bits of glass. Encouraging Francis Darwin greatly enjoyed
  • eminent German botanist Ferdinand Julius Cohn, who confirmed Franciss observations: ‘the most
  • Infusoria’ ( letter from F. J. Cohn, 5 August 1877 ). Franciss paper eventually appeared in the
  • Die Seele des Kindes (The mind of the child; Preyer 1882), based partly on observations of his son
  • had visited Down House and become friendly with George and Francis. He wrote to Francis on 24
  • … ‘As fornatural selection”’, he wrote to Francis on 25 November , ‘frankly to me it now seems a
  • for he began to receive petitions from strangers. The writer Francis Lloyd, who was in poor health
  • for his further work. Lloyd had written a critique of Francis Galtons theory of heredity in 1876, …
  • will allow me to send you a cheque for £10’ ( letter to [Francis Lloyd], 1 May [1877] ). Another
  • In the end, Darwin made the journey along with Emma. George, Francis, and Horace also attended. The

Animals, ethics, and the progress of science


Darwin’s view on the kinship between humans and animals had important ethical implications. In Descent, he argued that some animals exhibited moral behaviour and had evolved mental powers analogous to conscience. He gave examples of cooperation, even…

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  • Darwins view on the kinship between humans and animals had important ethical
  • a live worm on a hook (‘Recollections’, pp. 358, 388). Darwins concern for animals aligned with
  • and an integral part of medical and veterinary training. Darwin was clearly disturbed by the
  • to E. R. Lankester, 22 March [1871] ). In Descent , Darwin described an animal enduring a
  • to the last hour of his life’ ( Descent 1: 40). Darwins closest encounter with
  • of different breeds together. Galton reported regularly to Darwin on the results (all negative). He
  • Society, calling into question the theory of pangenesis. Darwin was taken aback, and swiftly replied
  • no longer look after the rabbits (many died from the cold), Darwin offered to give the poor
  • further cross-circulation andSiamesing’ ( letter from Francis Galton, 13 September 1871 ). …
  • more influenced by experiments on animals than on plants’, Darwin conceded. ‘I think a large number
  • … ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 18 July 1875 ). Darwin was concerned that the method be painless, …
  • 1874 ). In the previous sections, we have traced Darwins growing interest in physiology and
  • were analogous to those performed on dogs and other animals. Darwins work on insectivorous plants
  • an acquaintance of the Darwins, and had corresponded with Darwin cordially about his moral theory, …
  • … ( letter to F. B. Cobbe, [14 January 1875] ). Darwins involvement in the vivisection
  • in regard to health &amp;c, I look at as puerile. Darwin saw a need for regulation (licensing
  • with costly equipment, a supply of animals, etc.. Darwin was concerned thatprivate menwould be
  • … ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ) Darwin worked closely with Burdon
  • the total abolition of the practice. ‘It seems to me’, Darwin remarked to George Romanes, ‘that
  • organised defence. To bring more solidarity to the field, Darwins son Francis, and a number of his
  • in general’ ( letter from T. L. Brunton, 12 February 1882 ). Darwin declined the offer to be
  • 1881 ). The organization had its first meeting on 20 April 1882, the day after Darwins death. …

Casting about: Darwin on worms


Earthworms were the subject of a citizen science project to map the distribution of earthworms across Britain (BBC Today programme, 26 May 2014). The general understanding of the role earthworms play in improving soils and providing nutrients for plants to…

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  • for plants to flourish can be traced back to the last book Darwin wrote, snappily-titled The
  • on their habits, which was published in 1881. Despite Darwins fears that a book on earthworms might
  • out in his Natural History of Selborne of 1789 (a book Darwin claimed hadmuch influence on my
  • a new field in natural history, and almost a century later Darwin argued that all fields had passed
  • variety of strange things he persuaded people to do. Darwin concluded that worms had no sense
  • of a metal whistle and to being shouted at, but also to Francis Darwin playing the bassoon, and to
  • made calculations about larger castings on poorer soils, and Francis helped with calculations
  • … . After a while, looking for earthworm casts became a habit; Francis noticed worm casts in fir woods
  • existence of worms at that altitude. By the 1870s, Darwin was also drawing on the work of
  • him. Soon worm excrement was trusted to postal services, and Darwin acquired casts from India and
  • observations he had gathered to write a book on the subject. Darwin brought to the topic the
  • bigger souls than anyone wd suppose’ ( letter to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] (CUL DAR 210.6: …

Women as a scientific audience


Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

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  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … and criticisms of style. Letter 2461 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [11 May 1859] …
  • … typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E., [8 February 1870] …
  • … Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] Caroline Kennard responds …

1.18 John Collier, oil in Linnean


< Back to Introduction By 1881 it was clear to Darwin’s intimates that he was increasingly frail, and that, as he approached death, he had finally escaped from religious controversy to become a heroic figure, loved and venerated for his achievements…

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  • … &lt; Back to Introduction By 1881 it was clear to Darwins intimates that he was
  • worthy likeness. While there were numerous photographs of Darwin in these last years, they lacked
  • to a commemorative function. Oulesss characterisation of Darwin as an introspective and melancholy
  • as a thinker.   George Romanes and other members of Darwins circle therefore gained his
  • by subscription, and donated to the Linnean Society. Darwins evolutionary theory had first been
  • Sir John Lubbock; Romanes was its Zoological Secretary; and Darwins son Francis was a member of the
  • as his recent portrait of Joseph Hooker testified. Moreover, Darwin wouldmost particularly
  • made him a member of the Darwinian set, with sympathy for Darwins ideas, and an informed interest
  • of an Artist (1926), shows him entirely attuned to Darwins theories on the origins of the human
  • with his intellectual sitters. Like the photographs taken by Darwins son Leonard, Colliers
  • later to a Singaporean newspaper, the sittings took place in Darwins study at Down Housethe
  • and any other subject that cropped up.’ On 7 August 1881 Darwin was able to report to Romanes that
  • far as I can judge, this seems true’ – Romanes agreed. Darwin added that Collierwas the most
  • As a further sign of their rapport, Collier later gave Darwin a copy of his newly published Primer
  • about to be hung in the rooms of the societyin April 1882, when his death was announced, and
  • reviewerand he turned out to be the perfect choice. Darwin is seen in frontal view, with light
  • to