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Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 24 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • … ‘I feel a very old man, & my course is nearly run’ ( letter to Lawson Tait, 13 February 1882 ) …
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • fertility of crosses between differently styled plants ( letter from Fritz Müller, 1 January 1882
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 28 December 1881 ). Darwin had a long-running interest in such
  • … & I am glad to shirk any extra labour’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 6 January 1882 ). The
  • the flowers & experimentising on them’ ( letter to J. E. Todd, 10 April 1882 ). While
  • to have rather the best of the fight’ ( letter from G. F. Crawte, 11 March 1882 ). The battle
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • he is a good deal depressed about himself’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, 17 March
  • is very calm but she has cried a little’ (letter from H. E. Litchfield to G. H. Darwin, [19 April
  • overflowing in tenderness’ (letter from Emma Darwin to W. E. Darwin, 10 May 1882 (DAR 219.1: 150)). …
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • Natural History, that I went as Naturalist on the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle round the World & …
  • I cannot tell how or where to begin’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 21 [January 1860] ). Darwins
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To
  • of Darwinian theory to flowers and flower-visiting insects; H. Müller 1869)). Darwin was full of
  • at least be a valid ground for divorce’ ( letter to H. K. Rusden, [before 27 March 1875] ). In

Women as a scientific audience

Summary

Target audience? | Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those exchanged with his editors and publisher, reveal a lot about his intended audience. Regardless of whether or not women were deliberately targeted as a…

Matches: 14 hits

  • … Female readership | Reading Variation Darwin's letters, in particular those …
  • … a broad variety of women had access to, and engaged with, Darwin's published works. A set of …
  • … Were women a target audience? Letter 2447 - Darwin to Murray, J., [5 April 1859] …
  • … that his views are original and will appeal to the public. Darwin asks Murray to forward the …
  • … from all but educated, typically-male readers. Letter 7124 - Darwin to Darwin, H. E …
  • Letter 8611 - Cupples, A. J. to Darwin, E., [8 November 1872] Ann Cupples asks …
  • … B. Blackwell' is a man. Letter 7177 - Cupples, G. to Darwin, [29 April 1870] …
  • Letter 7651 - Wedgwood, F. J. to Darwin, H. E., [1 April 1871] Frances Wedgwood …
  • Letter 8778 - Forster, L. M . to Darwin, H. E., [20 February 1873] Henrietta’s …
  • … in Expression . Letter 10072 - Pape, C. to Darwin, [16 July 1875] …
  • … lay it down. Letter 13547 - Tanner, M. H. to Darwin, [12 December 1881] …
  • … in her garden. Letter 13650 Kennard, C. A. to Darwin, [28 January 1882] …
  • … Variation . Letter 6126 - Binstead, C. H. to Darwin, [17 April 1868] …
  • … of Variation . Letter 6237 - Bullar, R. to Darwin, [9 June 1868] …

Darwin in letters, 1881: Old friends and new admirers

Summary

In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began writing about all the eminent men he had met. He embarked on this task, which formed an addition to his autobiography, because he had nothing else to do. He had…

Matches: 22 hits

  • In May 1881, Darwin, one of the best-known celebrities in England if not the world, began
  • a very old man, who probably will not last much longer.’ Darwins biggest fear was not death, but
  • sweetest place on this earth’. From the start of the year, Darwin had his demise on his mind. He
  • provision for the dividing of his wealth after his death. Darwins gloominess was compounded by the
  • and new admirers got in touch, and, for all his fears, Darwin found several scientific topics to
  • Evolution old and new when revising his essay on Erasmus Darwins scientific work, and that Darwin
  • in Unconscious memory in November 1880 and in an abusive letter about Darwin in the St Jamess
  • memory in Kosmos and sent Darwin a separate letter for publication in the Journal of Popular
  • publishers decided to print500 more, making 2000’ ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January 1881 ) …
  • very surprising the whole case is to me’ (letters to W. E. Darwin, 31 January [1881] and 19
  • learnt from its own individual experience ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 7 March 1881 ). The
  • the sale of books beinga game of chance’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 12 April 1881 ). On 18 May
  • he would feelless sulky in a day or two’ ( letter to R. F. Cooke, 29 July 1881 ). The degree of
  • falls at this late period of the season’ ( letter from R. F. Cooke, 30 July 1881 ). Darwin gave in
  • with you’, a Swedish teacher told him ( letter from C. E. Södling, 14 October 1881 ), while H. M. …
  • little, to the general stock of knowledge’ ( letter to E. W. Bok, 10 May 1881 ). Josef Popper, an
  • to possibilities for women, judging from her organization &c’. When Darwin replied the following
  • … ‘bread-winners’ ( Correspondence vol. 30, letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). …
  • … & to acknowledge any criticism’ ( letter to C. G. Semper, 19 July 1881 ). He continued his
  • … , which he thoughtan excellent Journal’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 4 July [1881] ). In these
  • in heavenwhen the portrait was finished ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 23 July 1881 ). ‘All my family
  • Nature published the day after Darwins death in April 1882. Deaths, gifts and legacies

Animals, ethics, and the progress of science

Summary

Darwin’s view on the kinship between humans and animals had important ethical implications. In Descent, he argued that some animals exhibited moral behaviour and had evolved mental powers analogous to conscience. He gave examples of cooperation, even…

Matches: 22 hits

  • Darwins view on the kinship between humans and animals had important ethical
  • a live worm on a hook (‘Recollections’, pp. 358, 388). Darwins concern for animals aligned with
  • and an integral part of medical and veterinary training. Darwin was clearly disturbed by the
  • another word about it, else I shall not sleep to-night’ ( letter to E. R. Lankester, 22 March [1871
  • to the last hour of his life’ ( Descent 1: 40). Darwins closest encounter with
  • on rabbits. The investigation was partly aimed at testing Darwinshypothesis of pangenesis’, which
  • of different breeds together. Galton reported regularly to Darwin on the results (all negative). He
  • Society, calling into question the theory of pangenesis. Darwin was taken aback, and swiftly replied
  • deserved credit for hisingenuity and perseverance’ ( letter to Nature , [before 27 April 1871] …
  • for further cross-circulation andSiamesing’ ( letter from Francis Galton, 13 September 1871 ). …
  • results were promising, but inconclusive (see letter from G. J. Romanes, 14 July 1875 ). …
  • more influenced by experiments on animals than on plants’, Darwin conceded. ‘I think a large number
  • work; & I suppose birds can be chloroformed (letter to G. J. Romanes, 27 December 1874 ). …
  • were analogous to those performed on dogs and other animals. Darwins work on insectivorous plants
  • an acquaintance of the Darwins, and had corresponded with Darwin cordially about his moral theory, …
  • of which we can now see the bearings in regard to health &c, I look at as puerile. Darwin
  • view I have rejoiced at the present agitation. ( letter to H. E. Litchfield, 4 January [1875] ) …
  • as doomed to death in this country. ( letter To T. H. Huxley, 14 January 1875 ) Legislation
  • the position of a persecuted religious sect’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 4 June [1876] ). …
  • in general’ ( letter from T. L. Brunton, 12 February 1882 ). Darwin declined the offer to be
  • 1881 ). The organization had its first meeting on 20 April 1882, the day after Darwins death. …
  • freely and repeatedly on plants andloweranimals (e.g., worms), Darwin was now confronted with

Darwin in letters, 1878: Movement and sleep

Summary

In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to the movements of plants. He investigated the growth pattern of roots and shoots, studying the function of specific organs in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of…

Matches: 27 hits

  • … lessen injury to leaves from radiation In 1878, Darwin devoted most of his attention to …
  • … in this process. Working closely with his son Francis, Darwin devised a series of experiments to …
  • … plant laboratories in Europe. While Francis was away, Darwin delighted in his role as …
  • … from botanical research was provided by potatoes, as Darwin took up the cause of an Irish …
  • … would rid Ireland of famine. Several correspondents pressed Darwin for his views on religion, …
  • … closed with remarkable news of a large legacy bequeathed to Darwin by a stranger as a reward for his …
  • … Hooker, ‘or as far as I know any scientific man’ ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 December [1878] ). …
  • … Expression ), and the final revision of Origin (1872), Darwin had turned almost exclusively to …
  • … Movement in plants In the spring of 1878, Darwin started to focus on the first shoots and …
  • … were enrolled as researchers, as were family members. Darwin asked his niece Sophy to observe …
  • … or arched.… Almost all seedlings come up arched’ ( letter to Sophy Wedgwood, 24 March [1878–80] ). …
  • … on one side, then another, to produce movement in the stalk. Darwin compared adult and young leaves …
  • … when he finds out that he missed sensitiveness of apex’ ( letter to Francis Darwin, [11 May 1878] …
  • … down on the object, but he will always do so’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 20 August [1878] ). …
  • … deaf-mute, a monkey & a baby in your house!’ ( letter to G. J. Romanes, 2 September [1878] ). …
  • … who was delighted, and eventually published them in his 1882 book Animal intelligence . ‘Like the …
  • … I want to play the part of a thieving wasp’ ( letter from G. J. Romanes, 21 June 1878 ). An …
  • … Record”’ ( letter from Edmund Mojsisovics von Mojsvár, 28 April 1878 ). ‘What a wonderful change …
  • … god with the ‘eternity of matter’ ( letter from H. N. Ridley, [before 28 November 1878] ). Darwin …
  • … myself about such insoluble questions’ ( letter to H. N. Ridley, 28 November 1878 ). Darwin …
  • … of adding a new member to society’ ( letter from G. A. Gaskell, 13 November 1878 ). Darwin hoped …
  • … without utterly demolishing it’ ( letter from G. H. Darwin, 28 January 1878 ). The matter was …
  • … opponent’ ( Correspondence vol. 24, letter to T. C. Eyton, 22 April 1876 ). ‘When I first read …
  • … seminal generations’ ( enclosure to letter to T. H. Farrer, 7 March 1878 ). In the end, the …
  • … secretary, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil ( letter to R. A. T. Gascoyne-Cecil, 18 May 1878 ). …
  • … vanish like the chaos before the wind’ ( letter from T. H. Noyes, 19 November 1878 ). A …
  • … him of the soundness of London property ( letter from W. E. Darwin, 13 December [1878] ). ‘This is …

Darwin in letters, 1877: Flowers and honours

Summary

Ever since the publication of Expression, Darwin’s research had centred firmly on botany. The year 1877 was no exception. The spring and early summer were spent completing Forms of flowers, his fifth book on a botanical topic. He then turned to the…

Matches: 27 hits

  • Ever since the publication of Expression , Darwins research had centred firmly on botany. The
  • of these projects would culminate in a major publication. Darwins botany was increasingly a
  • assisted his fathers research on movement and bloom, and Darwin in turn encouraged his sons own
  • The year 1877 was more than usually full of honours. Darwin received two elaborate photograph albums
  • from Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Closer to home, Darwin received an honorary Doctorate of
  • sites for possible earthworm activity. Now in his 69th year, Darwin remained remarkably productive, …
  • no controversy. In his autobiographical reflections, Darwin remarked: ‘no little discovery of
  • … (‘Recollections’, p. 419). During the winter and spring, Darwin was busy preparing the manuscript of
  • and presented to the Linnean Society of London. In the book, Darwin adopted the more recent term
  • as dimorphic without comparing pollen-grains & stigmas’, Darwin remarked to Joseph Dalton
  • measurements of the size and number of pollen-grains, Darwin compared the fertility of individual
  • of respect and affection’. He hinted as much in his letter of 4 June : ‘you will see I have done
  • have shared Hookers suspicion of ambitious gardeners ( letter from W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, 25 August
  • method of recording leaf motion for extended periods. In a letter to Thiselton-Dyer of 11 October
  • … … tap one of the young leaves with a delicate twig’ ( letter to R. I. Lynch, 14 September 1877 ). …
  • but I think the great honour of its being printed in the R. Soc. Transactions, (sh d . the
  • Die Seele des Kindes (The mind of the child; Preyer 1882), based partly on observations of his son
  • of Kosmos covering the German debate (letters to W. E. Gladstone, 2 October 1877 and 25
  • form and of motion was exact and lively’ ( letter from W. E. Gladstone, 23 October 1877 ). …
  • larger aim was announced in the subtitle: Zeitschrift für einheitliche Weltanschauung auf Grund
  • … ‘but found him as soft & smooth as butter’ ( letter to C. E. Norton, 16 March 1877 ). Hooker
  • I hope it may remain for centuries to come’ ( letter from C. C. Graham, 30 January 1877 ). Graham
  • the gospel of dirt the order of the day’ ( letter from E. A. Darwin, 27 January [1877] ).  Carlyle
  • with wicked imprecations’ (Trollope 1867; letter to G. J. Romanes, [1 and 2 December 1877] ). …
  • up to the mark hereafter is another question’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 30 May [1877] ). In the
  • by, or could contain, any earth worms’ ( letter from J. G. Joyce, 15 November 1877 ). Even at
  • between sagging of pavemts & castings’ ( letter to G. H. Darwin, 21 November [1877] ). It is

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 28 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the second reading notebook. Readers primarily interested in Darwins scientific reading, therefore, …
  • to be Read [DAR *119: Inside Front Cover] C. Darwin June 1 st . 1838
  • 1820] in Geolog. Soc. F. Cuvier on Instinct [F. G. Cuvier 1822] read Flourens Edit [Flourens
  • 1819]. see p. 17 Note Book C. for reference to authors about E. Indian Islands 8 consult D r
  • 1830]— account of wild cattle Montagu on birds [G. Montagu 180213]— facts about close
  • of variation in animals in the different isl ds  of E Indian Archipelago— [DAR *119: 6v.] …
  • … & Rev. W. Herbert.— notes to White Nat. Hist of Selbourne [E. T. Bennett ed. 1837 and [J. Rennie
  • … [Reimarius 1760] The Highlands & Western Isl ds  letter to Sir W Scott [MacCulloch 1824
  • Davy 1828] 31 An analysis of British Ferns. G. W. Francis 4 s  [Francis 1837]— …
  • 183440]: In Portfolio ofabstracts34  —letter from Skuckard of books on Silk Worm
  • … [Fellows 1839] Catherine 48 Life of Collins R.A. [Collins 1848] Phases of Faith
  • 8] 1854 Jan 15. Seemans Narrative of H.M.S. Herald [Seeman 1853]. Feb 6. …
  • never read his works ( Calendar  no. 11875). In February 1882, however, after reading the
  • Belcher, Edward. 1848Narrative of the voyage of H.M.S.   Samarang during the years 184346; …
  • 1848Memoirs of the life of William   Collins, Esq., R.A.  2 vols. London.  *119: 23; 119: …
  • Narrative of a voyage round the world, performed in H.M.S.   Sulphur,   183642 . 2 vols. …
  • … . Pt 1 of  The botany of the   Antarctic voyage of H.M. Discovery Ships   Erebus and Terror in
  • by Richard Owen.  Vol. 4 of  The works of John Hunter, F.R.S. with notes . Edited by James F. …
  • Beete. 1847Narrative of the surveying voyage   of H.M.S. Flyin the Torres Strait, New
  • Keppel, Henry. 1846The expedition to Borneo of H.M.S.   Dido for the suppression of piracy; …