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Darwin in letters, 1860: Answering critics

Summary

On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwin’s Origin of species, printing off another 3000 copies to satisfy the demands of an audience that surprised both the publisher and the author. It wasn't long, however, before ‘the…

Matches: 21 hits

  • On 7 January 1860, John Murray published the second edition of Darwins  Origin of species , …
  • surprised both the publisher and the author. One week later Darwin was stunned to learn that the
  • be nice easy reading.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 22 May [1860] ). Origin : reactions and
  • his views. ‘One cannot expect fairness in a Reviewer’, Darwin commented to Hooker after reading an
  • his main argument ( letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 January [1860] ). Darwins magnanimous
  • butunfairreviews that misrepresented his ideas, Darwin began to feel that without the early
  • utterly  smashed’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 3 July [1860] ). (A chronological list of all the
  • it was his methodological criticism in the accusation that Darwin haddeserted the inductive track, …
  • investigation.—’ ( letter to J. S. Henslow, 8 May [1860] ). Above all else Darwin prided
  • was a hypothesis, not a theory, therefore also displeased Darwin. Comparing natural selection to the
  • ample lot of facts.’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 18 February [1860] ). To those who objected that his
  • it comes in time to be admitted as real.’ ( letter to C. J. F. Bunbury, 9 February [1860] ). This
  • issue of  Macmillans Magazine . Fawcett asserted that Darwins theory accorded well with John
  • induction, ratiocination, and then verification. Darwin and his critics Specific
  • the origin of life itself, which the theory did not address. Darwin chose to treat this as an
  • things, about the multitude of still living simple forms. Darwin readily admitted that his failure
  • progression ( letter to Charles Lyell, 18 [and 19 February 1860] ). To this and Lyells many other
  • than a success ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 14 February [1860] ). I think geologists
  • because more accustomed to reasoning.’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 18 May 1860 ). Darwin
  • and five botanists ( see letter to J. D. Hooker, 3 March [1860] ). Others, like François Jules
  • at it, makes me sick!’ ( letter to Asa Gray, 3 April [1860] ). By the end of 1860, Darwin

Dramatisation script

Summary

Re: Design – Adaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and others… by Craig Baxter – as performed 25 March 2007

Matches: 15 hits

  • Re: DesignAdaptation of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Asa Gray and othersby Craig
  • as the creator of this dramatisation, and that of the Darwin Correspondence Project to be identified
  • correspondence or published writings of Asa Gray, Charles Darwin, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jane Loring
  • Actor 1Asa Gray Actor 2Charles Darwin Actor 3In the dress of a modern day
  • Agassiz, Adam Sedgwick, A Friend of John Stuart Mill, Emma Darwin, Horace Darwinand acts as a sort
  • the play unfolds and acting as a go-between between Gray and Darwin, and between the audience and
  • this, he sends out copies of his Review of the Life of Darwin. At this time in his life, Asa
  • friends in England, copies of hisReview of the Life of Darwin’… pencilling the address so that it
  • Joseph D Hooker GRAY:   3   Charles Darwinmade his home on the border of the little
  • are kept in check by a constitutional weakness. DARWIN: A plain but comfortable brick
  • should not be in conflict. A TREMENDOUS FURORE: 1859-1860 In which Darwin distributes
  • in the long run prevail. CERTAIN BENEFICIAL LINES: 1860 Asa Gray presents his argument
  • paragraph, in which I quote and differ from you[r178   doctrine that each variation has been
  • ARTS AND SCIENCES, PROCEEDINGS XVII, 1882 4  C DARWIN TO JD HOOKER 10 MAY 1848
  • 1859 70  A GRAY TO JD HOOKER, 5 JANUARY 1860 71L AGASSIZ, JULY 1860

Religion

Summary

Design|Personal Belief|Beauty|The Church Perhaps the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same can be said of the evolution controversy today; however the nature of the disputes and the manner in…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … the most notorious realm of controversy over evolution in Darwin's day was religion. The same …
  • … nineteenth century were different in important ways. Many of Darwin's leading supporters were …
  • … their religious beliefs with evolutionary theory. Darwin's own writing, both in print and …
  • … much as possible. A number of correspondents tried to draw Darwin out on his own religious views, …
  • … political contexts. Design Darwin was not the first to challenge …
  • … on the controversial topic of design. The first is between Darwin and Harvard botanist Asa Gray, …
  • … Origin . The second is a single letter from naturalist A. R. Wallace to Darwin on design and …
  • … of “brute force”. Letter 2855 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 3 July [1860] Darwin …
  • Darwin and Wallace Letter 5140 — Wallace, A. R. to Darwin, C. R., 2 July 1866 …
  • Darwin and Graham Letter 13230 — Darwin, C. R. to Graham, William, 3 July 1881 …

Darwin in letters, 1863: Quarrels at home, honours abroad

Summary

At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of The variation of animals and plants under domestication, anticipating with excitement the construction of a hothouse to accommodate his increasingly varied botanical experiments…

Matches: 28 hits

  • At the start of 1863, Charles Darwin was actively working on the manuscript of  The variation of
  • markedly, reflecting a decline in his already weak health. Darwin then began punctuating letters
  • am languid & bedeviled … & hate everybody’. Although Darwin did continue his botanical
  • letter-writing dwindled considerably. The correspondence and Darwins scientific work diminished
  • of the water-cure. The treatment was not effective and Darwin remained ill for the rest of the year. …
  • the correspondence from the year. These letters illustrate Darwins preoccupation with the
  • to mans place in nature  both had a direct bearing on Darwins species theory and on the problem
  • detailed anatomical similarities between humans and apes, Darwin was full of praise. He especially
  • in expressing any judgment on Species or origin of man’. Darwins concern about the popular
  • Lyells and Huxleys books. Three years earlier Darwin had predicted that Lyells forthcoming
  • …  vol. 8, letter to Charles Lyell, 10 January [1860] ). In the same letter he reminded Lyell of
  • first half of 1863 focused attention even more closely on Darwins arguments for species change. …
  • … ‘groan’ ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Darwin reiterated in a later letter that it
  • of creation, and the origin of species particularly, worried Darwin; he told Hooker that he had once
  • letter to J. D. Hooker, 24[–5] February [1863] ). Darwin did not relish telling Lyell of his
  • … ( letter to Charles Lyell, 6 March [1863] ). Nevertheless, Darwins regret was profound that the
  • thebrutes’, but added that he would bring many towards Darwin who would have rebelled against
  • from Charles Lyell, 11 March 1863 ). The botanist Asa Gray, Darwins friend in the United States, …
  • off ( see letter from Asa Gray, 20 April 1863 ). In May, Darwin responded to Gray that Lyells and
  • or   Modification, ’. Faction fighting Darwin was not alone in feeling disaffected
  • in the subject. ‘The worst of it is’, Hooker wrote to Darwin, ‘I suppose it is virtually Huxleys
  • that he had contributed to the proofs of human antiquity. Darwin and Hooker repeatedly exchanged
  • who was already ill-disposed towards Owen following his 1860 review of  Origin , wrote to Falconer
  • sentence from the second edition of  Antiquity of man  (C. Lyell 1863b, p. 469), published in
  • exercise Darwin was Huxleys assertion, first made in his 1860 review of  Origin , that in order
  • …  and  Viola species, had interested Darwin since 1860; it continued to capture his attention ( …
  • very slowly recovering, but am very weak’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [29 September? 1863] ). …
  • Thomass Hospital, London ( letter from George Busk, [ c. 27 August 1863] ). Brinton, who

Women’s scientific participation

Summary

Observers | Fieldwork | Experimentation | Editors and critics | Assistants Darwin’s correspondence helps bring to light a community of women who participated, often actively and routinely, in the nineteenth-century scientific community. Here is a…

Matches: 22 hits

  • … |  Editors and critics  |  Assistants Darwins correspondence helps bring to light a
  • community. Here is a selection of letters exchanged between Darwin and his workforce of women
  • Women: Letter 1194 - Darwin to Whitby, M. A. T., [12 August 1849] Darwin
  • peculiarities in inheritance. Letter 3787 - Darwin, H. E. to Darwin, [29 October
  • in her garden. Letter 4523 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [6 June 1864] …
  • … . Letter 5745 - Barber, M. E. to Darwin, [after February 1867] Mary Barber
  • Egypt. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [8 June 1867 - 72] Darwin
  • Henrietta. Letter 7179 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [5 May 1870] …
  • the wallpaper. Letter 5756 - Langton, E. & C. to Wedgwood S. E., [after 9
  • Letter 1701 - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • in Llandudno. Letter 4823  - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, H. E., [May 1865] …
  • Letter 8144 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [5 January 1872] Darwin asks his niece, …
  • Lychnis diurna. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R . to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • lawn. Letter 8224 - Darwin to Ruck, A. R., [24 February 1872] Darwin
  • Letter 9606 - Harrison, L. C. to Darwin, [22 August 1874] Darwins niece, Lucy, …
  • Letter 1701  - Morris, M. H. to Prior, R. C. A., [17 June 1855] Margaretta Hare Morris
  • Letter 2781  - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May 1860] Doubleday describes his
  • garden ”. Letter 6083  - Casparay, J. X. R. to Darwin, [2 April 1868] …
  • the future. Letter 4038 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [12-13 March 1863] Darwin
  • … . Several reviewers speak of thelucid, vigorous style, &c.” for which he owes her a great debt
  • Letter 7858 - Darwin to Wa llace, A. R., [12 July 1871] Darwin tells Wallace that
  • Letter 3001  - Darwin to Lubbock, J., [28 November 1860] Darwin offers editorial

Natural Science and Femininity

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters A conflation of masculine intellect and feminine thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity. Working from the private domestic comfort of their homes and exercising…

Matches: 11 hits

  • thoughts, habits and feelings, male naturalists like Darwin inhabited an uncertain gendered identity
  • feminine powers of feeling and aesthetic appreciation, Darwin and his male colleagues struggled to
  • Letters Letter 109 - Wedgwood, J. to Darwin, R. W., [31 August 1831] Darwin
  • professional work on his return. Letter 158 - Darwin to Darwin, R. W., [8 & 26
  • and taking in the aesthetic beauty of the world around him. Darwin describes thestrikingcolour
  • and walks into town with Emma. Letter 555 - Darwin to FitzRoy, R., [20 February 1840] …
  • an Infant ’. Letter 2781 - Doubleday, H. to Darwin, [3 May 1860] Doubleday
  • borders of his garden. Letter 2864 - Darwin to Hooker, J. D., [12 July 1860] …
  • saw anything so beautiful”. Letter 4230 - Darwin to GardenersChronicle, [2 July 1863] …
  • brought into the house immediately after a rain storm. Here, Darwins scientific investigation is
  • on the bedroom wallpaper. Letter 10821 - Graham C. C. to Darwin, [30 January 1877] …

Darwin’s study of the Cirripedia

Summary

Darwin’s work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed problems for historians. Coming between his transmutation notebooks and the Origin of species, it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwin’s species work. Yet…

Matches: 25 hits

  • Darwins work on barnacles, conducted between 1846 and 1854, has long posed
  • … , it has frequently been interpreted as a digression from Darwins species work. Yet when this study
  • anomalous. Moreover, as the letters in this volume suggest, Darwins study of cirripedes, far from
  • classification using the most recent methods available, Darwin was able to provide a thorough
  • his views on the species question (Crisp 1983).    Darwins interest in invertebrate zoology
  • Robert Edmond Grant. In his Autobiography (pp. 4950), Darwin recalled: ‘Drs. Grant and
  • numerous references to the ova of various invertebrates, and Darwins first scientific paper, …
  • marine organisms was exercised during the Beagle voyage. Darwin expressed his current enthusiasm
  • earlier researches in Edinburgh on the ova of invertebrates, Darwin was particularly well prepared
  • In 1835, in the Chonos Archipelago off the coast of Chile, Darwin foundmost curiousminute
  • In the zoological notes made during the Beagle voyage, Darwin recorded: ‘The thick shell of some
  • the absence of a shell and its unusual parasitic nature, Darwin recognised that it differed greatly
  • Such a revaluation had not been undertaken when, in 1846, Darwin began to examine several
  • of as many genera as I could procure.’ For fourteen months Darwin pursued an anatomical study of
  • British Museum and himself a cirripede expert, suggested to Darwin that he prepare a monograph of
  • and advised him on procuring other collections. At the time Darwin committed himself to this study, …
  • his attention for the next seven years. To appreciate why Darwin would have undertaken such a study, …
  • such questions as yours,—whether number of species &c &c should enter as an element in
  • from common stocksIn this view all relations of analogy &c &c &, consist of those
  • metamorphoses, as we shall see presently in Hippoboscus &c  states that in Crust, antennæ & …
  • 1852) or elevating it to a separate class altogether (R. Owen 1855). Milne-Edwards and Owen also
  • as a distinct class between the Crustacea and the Annelida (R. Owen 1855).^7^ Darwin, however, with
  • As he admitted in a letter to Charles Lyell, 28 September 1860 ( Life and Letters , 2: 3456), …
  • spirits  Every cirriped that I dissect I preserve the jaws &c. &c. in this manner, which
  • CDs specimen has remained unique. (The editors thank Drs R. W. Ingle and G. Boxshall of the British

Darwin’s queries on expression

Summary

When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect observations more widely and composed a list of queries on human expression. A number of handwritten copies were sent out in 1867 (see, for example, letter to Fritz Muller…

Matches: 22 hits

  • When Darwin resumed systematic research on emotions around 1866, he began to collect
  • ease of distribution sometime in late 1867 or early 1868. Darwin went over his questions, refining
  • was the collection of observations on a global scale. Darwin was especially interested in peoples
  • cultural and conventional, or instinctive and universal. Darwin used his existing correspondence
  • and with the mouth a little drawn back at the corners?” Darwins questionnaire was an extension of
  • was also carefully devised so as to prevent the feelings of Darwins remote observers from colouring
  • and not the susceptibilities of a moral nature.” Darwin did not typically countenance such
  • the collection of information to its display in print. After Darwin received all of the replies to
  • exceptyesorno.” “The same state of mindDarwin would later assert in Expression of the
  • uniformity.” Table of Correspondence about Darwins Questionnaire (click on the letter
  • could available online ahead of schedule as part of theDarwin and Human Natureproject, funded by
  • nodding vertically Blair, R.H. 11 July
  • Bridges, Thomas (b) [Oct 1860 or after] [Keppel
  • Dyaks Brooke, C.A.J. 30 April 1871
  • Southampton, England letter to W.E. Darwin shrugging/pouting of
  • blushing Darwin, Francis 20 June 1867
  • Bartlett and S. Sutton Darwin, Francis
  • pouting Darwin, W.E. [after 29 March 1868] …
  • blushing in blind students Darwin, W.E. [7
  • blushing Darwin, W.E. [22? April 1868] …
  • Reade, Winwood W. [c.8 or 9 Apr 1870] Accra, West
  • in Hottentots Smyth, R. Brough 13 Aug 1868

Referencing women’s work

Summary

Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, but whether and how they were acknowledged in print involved complex considerations of social standing, professional standing, and personal preference.…

Matches: 13 hits

  • Darwin's correspondence shows that women made significant contributions to Darwin's work, …
  • set of selected letters is followed by letters relating to Darwin's 1881 publication
  • throughout Variation . Letter 2395 - Darwin to Holland, Miss, [April 1860] …
  • anonymised and masculinised. Letter 3316 - Darwin to Nevill, D. F., [12 November
  • Nevill is referenced by name for herkindnessin Darwins Fertilisation of Orchids . …
  • science critic. Letter 4370 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [April - May 1865] …
  • asfriends in Surrey”. Letter 4794 - Darwin to Lyell, C., [25 March 1865] …
  • to state that the information wasreceived through Sir C. Lyellor received fromMiss. B”. …
  • in the final publication. Letter 7223 - Darwin to Wedgwood, L. C., [9 June 1867 - …
  • in Expression . Letter 5817 - Darwin to Huxley, T. H., [30 January 1868
  • at him. Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] Darwins
  • near his house. Letter 8168 - Ruck, A. R. to Darwin, H., [20 January 1872] …
  • worm castings . Letter 7345 - Wedgwood, L. C. to Darwin, [15 June 1872] …

Controversy

Summary

The best-known controversies over Darwinian theory took place in public or in printed reviews. Many of these were highly polemical, presenting an over-simplified picture of the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely…

Matches: 10 hits

  • … the disputes. Letters, however, show that the responses to Darwin were extremely variable. Many of …
  • … was itself an important arena of debate, one that Darwin greatly preferred to the public sphere. …
  • … and support sustained in spite of enduring differences. Darwin's correspondence can thus help …
  • … Disagreement and Respect Darwin rarely engaged with critics publically. Letters exchanged …
  • … Richard Owen, the eminent comparative anatomist, show how Darwin tried to manage strong disagreement …
  • … were less severe, the relationship quickly deteriorated and Darwin came to regard him as a bitter …
  • … Letter 2548 — Sedgwick, Adam to Darwin, C. R., 24 Nov 1859 Adam Sedgwick thanks Darwin for …
  • … men eminent in science. Letter 2767 — Darwin, C. R. to Gray, Asa, 25 Apr [1860] …
  • … is annoyed at Owen’s malignity [ Edinburgh Rev. 111 (1860): 487–532]. …
  • … Letter 5533 — Haeckel, E. P. A. to Darwin, C. R., 12 May 1867 Haeckel thanks Darwin for the …

Darwin in letters, 1858-1859: Origin

Summary

The years 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwin’s life. From a quiet rural existence filled with steady work on his ‘big book’ on species, he was jolted into action by the arrival of an unexpected letter from Alfred Russel Wallace…

Matches: 25 hits

  • 1858 and 1859 were, without doubt, the most momentous of Darwins life. From a quiet rural existence
  • Russel Wallace. This letter led to the first announcement of Darwins and Wallaces respective
  • the composition and publication, in November 1859, of Darwins major treatise  On the origin of
  • …  exceeded my wildest hopes By the end of 1859, Darwins work was being discussed in
  • Charles Lyell, 25 [November 1859] ). This transformation in Darwins personal world and the
  • The 'big book' The year 1858 opened with Darwin hard at work preparing hisbig
  • his ninth chapter, on hybridism, on 29 December 1857, Darwin began in January 1858 to prepare the
  • appropriate. The correspondence shows that at any one time Darwin was engaged in a number of
  • The chapter on instinct posed a number of problems for Darwin. ‘I find my chapter on Instinct very
  • … ). In addition to behaviour such as nest-building in birds, Darwin intended to discuss many other
  • celebrated as a classic example of divine design in nature. Darwin hypothesised that the instinct of
  • of construction as it took place in the hive. As with Darwins study of poultry and pigeons, …
  • founder and president of the Apiarian Society, provided Darwin with information and specimens. His
  • For assistance with mathematical measurements and geometry, Darwin called upon William Hallowes
  • from the  Beagle voyage; on his brother, Erasmus Alvey Darwin; and his son William. Even his
  • bees and bee-hives. Variation and reversion Darwin also continued the botanical work
  • of smaller genera? The inquiry was of great importance to Darwin, for such evidence would support
  • of the statistics was still problematic. Hooker thought that Darwin was wrong to assume that
  • were not certain. This was a question new to the experts. Darwin was delighted to hear from Asa Gray
  • completed and his results written up. With some trepidation, Darwin sent his manuscript off to
  • work—& that I confess made me a little lowbut I c d . have borne it, for I have the
  • in the letters of 1858 also relate to questions that Darwin had begun to explore earlier. Letters to
  • rush to publish With much of his research completed, Darwin began in mid-June 1858 to write
  • it is impossible that men like Lyell, Hooker, Huxley, H. C. Watson, Ramsay &c would change their
  • Correspondence  vol. 8, letters to Asa Gray, 28 January [1860] and [8 or 9 February 1860] ). …

Darwin in letters, 1882: Nothing too great or too small

Summary

In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous October, and for the first time in decades he was not working on another book. He remained active in botanical research, however. Building on his recent studies in plant…

Matches: 26 hits

  • In 1882, Darwin reached his 74th year Earthworms had been published the previous
  • for scientific colleagues or their widows facing hardship. Darwin had suffered from poor health
  • of his scientific friends quickly organised a campaign for Darwin to have greater public recognition
  • Botanical observation and experiment had long been Darwins greatest scientific pleasure. The year
  • to Fritz Müller, 4 January 1882 ). These were topics that Darwin had been investigating for years, …
  • working at the effects of Carbonate of Ammonia on roots,’ Darwin wrote, ‘the chief result being that
  • contents, if immersed for some hours in a weak solution of C. of Ammonia’. Darwins interest in root
  • London on 6 and 16 March, respectively. In January, Darwin corresponded with George John
  • letter from Arthur de Souza Corrêa, 28 December 1881 ). Darwin had a long-running interest in such
  • experiments had been conducted to lend support to Darwins theory of pangenesis (see
  • He was eager to write up the results on Brazilian cane, with Darwin providing a detailed outline: ‘I
  • at the Linnean Society on 4 May, but not published. Darwin carried on with botanical work in
  • which are asymmetric, thus facilitating cross-fertilisation. Darwins aim, he said, was just to
  • 3 April 1882 ). Earthworms and evolution Darwins last book, Earthworms , had been
  • Appendix V). The conservative Quarterly Review , owned by Darwins publisher John Murray, carried
  • themselves’ ( Quarterly Review , January 1882, p. 179). Darwin commented at length on the review
  • is a young man & a worker in any branch of Biology,’ Darwin continued, ‘he will assuredly sooner
  • our homes, would in this case greatly suffer’ ( letter to C. A. Kennard, 9 January 1882 ). Kennard
  • judged, intellectually his inferior, please ( letter from C. A. Kennard, 28 January 1882 ). …
  • dull aching in the chest’ (Emma Darwin to G. H. Darwin, [ c . 28 March 1882] (DAR 210.3: 45)). …
  • to some Estancia,’ wrote Hughes, ‘as the scenery &c. will amply repay your trouble’ ( letter
  • where he had witnessed an earthquake in 1835 ( letter from R. E. Alison, [MarchJuly 1835 ]). …
  • or where to begin’ ( letter to T. H. Huxley, 21 [January 1860] ). Darwins former mentor at
  • when we meet’ ( letter to J. S. Henslow, 29 January [1860] ). Origin would bring Darwin much
  • to value great minds’ ( letter from Aleksander Jelski, [186082] ). In 1863, the final blow
  • will be months before I am able to work’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, [ c . 10 April 1864] ). To

Science, Work and Manliness

Summary

Discussion Questions|Letters In 1859, popular didactic writer William Landels published the first edition of what proved to be one of his best-selling works, How Men Are Made. "It is by work, work, work" he told his middle class audience, …

Matches: 11 hits

  • … In describing what they did using the language of labour, Darwin and his male colleagues asserted …
  • … 1. Which elements of the scientific process do Darwin and his male correspondents tend to …
  • … another's scientific work? How does this differ from how Darwin praised women's work ? …
  • … Letters Letter 282 - Darwin to Fox, W. D., [9 - 12 August 1835] Darwin …
  • … thinking and hammering”. Letter 1533 - Darwin to Dana, J. D., [27 September 1853] …
  • … the labour bestowed on it are “really surprising” and Darwin hopes that Dana’s health withstood the …
  • … bestowed on the subject. Letter 2669 - Bunbury, C. J. F. to Darwin, [30 January 1860] …
  • … labour and patience”. Letter 4262 - Darwin to Gray, A., [4 August 1863] Darwin …
  • … which was “no slight labour”. Letter 3901 - Darwin to Falconer, H., [5 & 6 January …
  • … worked out paper on which Falconer has worked very hard. Darwin hopes that Falconer’s extreme labour …
  • … investigation as a physical and laborious process, he envies Darwin and other “hard working …

What is an experiment?

Summary

Darwin is not usually regarded as an experimenter, but rather as an astute observer and a grand theorist. His early career seems to confirm this. He began with detailed note-taking, collecting and cataloguing on the Beagle, and edited a descriptive zoology…

Matches: 20 hits

  • Darwin is not usually regarded as an experimenter, but rather as an astute
  • was of course kept secret and worked upon for decades, as Darwin collectedall kinds of facts’ …
  • and acquire specimens for his own use. A portrait of Darwin in 1849 shows him with a specimen
  • rather than experimentation. According to this view, Darwin was aphilosophical naturalistwhose
  • than morphological affinity. The two-fold division of Darwins science between observation
  • authorities who could do the more advanced work of theory. Darwin contributed to this movement, …
  • institutional heads like Joseph Dalton Hooker and Asa Gray. Darwin adopted a perspective of great
  • publications. The final picture that we then have of Darwin is that of a gentleman naturalist, able
  • a tradition on the wane, and it was gradually eclipsed in Darwins own lifetime by the more
  • is the sharp distinction between observation and theory. Darwin would be the first to defend the
  • with a curb on make far the best observers’ ( letter to C. H. L. Woodd , 4 March 1850 ). He made
  • there is no good & original observation’ ( letter to A. R. Wallace, 22 December 1857 ). Much
  • that were made to further substantiate evolutionary theory. Darwin was also greatly heartened by the
  • a highly controlled space with specialized equipment. In Darwins day this was by no means the case. …
  • sometimes to refer to naturally occurring phenomena. Darwin clearly regarded many of his domestic
  • miniature (small plots of land). Experimentation in Darwins day was not the monopoly of
  • and poultry fanciers, landowners, architects, and writers. Darwin sought the advice of an engineer
  • Scott). In his choice of correspondents and collaborators, Darwin valued patience, caution, and
  • and Michael Foster. A final feature to note about Darwins experimental life is the pleasure
  • over time, detailed observation and experimental work became Darwins driving passion, his greatest

Darwin’s reading notebooks

Summary

In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to read in Notebook C (Notebooks, pp. 319–28). In 1839, these lists were copied and continued in separate notebooks. The first of these reading notebooks (DAR 119…

Matches: 25 hits

  • In April 1838, Darwin began recording the titles of books he had read and the books he wished to
  • … (DAR 119) opens with five pages of text copied from Notebook C and carries on through 1851; the
  • used these notebooks extensively in dating and annotating Darwins letters; the full transcript
  • … *128). For clarity, the transcript does not record Darwins alterations. The spelling and
  • book had been consulted. Those cases where it appears that Darwin made a genuine deletion have been
  • a few instances, primarily in theBooks Readsections, Darwin recorded that a work had been
  • of the books listed in the other two notebooks. Sometimes Darwin recorded that an abstract of the
  • own. Soon after beginning his first reading notebook, Darwin began to separate the scientific
  • the second reading